★ Biological organisation
Biological organization is the hierarchy of complex biological structures and systems that define life using a local approach. The traditional hierarchy, as described below, extends from atoms to biospheres. At higher levels this scheme is often called the concept of environmental organizations, or as a field, a hierarchical environment.
Each level in the hierarchy represents an increase in organizational complexity, with each "object" primarily consists of the previous levels of the base. The basic principle of the organization is the concept of emergence - the properties and functions found at a hierarchical level, there is no relationship at lower levels.
Biological organization of life is the basis for many research areas, especially in the field of medicine. Without this necessary degree of organization, it would be much harder and probably impossible - to apply the study of the effects of various physical and chemical phenomena to diseases and physiological functioning of the body. For example, in areas such as cognitive and behavioral neuroscience could not exist if the brain is not composed of specific types of cells, and basic concepts of pharmacology could not exist if it was not known that changes at the cellular level can affect the entire body. These applications apply to environmental levels. For example, DDTs direct insecticidal action takes place at the subcellular level, but affects higher levels up to several ecosystems. Theoretically, a change in one atom could change the entire biosphere.
1. Levels. (Уровни)
A simple standard scheme of biological organization, starting from the lowest level to the highest level, as follows:
More complex schemes include a lot of levels. For example, a molecule can be considered as a group of elements, the atom can be split into subatomic particles, these levels are beyond the scope of biological organization. Each level can also be broken down into a hierarchy, with certain types of these biological objects can have their own hierarchical scheme. For example, genomes can be divided into a hierarchy of genes.
Each level of the hierarchy can be described in lower levels. For example, an organism can be described at any of its levels, components, including at the atomic, molecular, cellular, histological tissues, organs and organ systems levels. In addition, at each level of the hierarchy, new functions necessary for control of life appear. These new functions are not functions that the components of the lower level is capable of and why they are called emergent properties.
Every organism is organized, though not necessarily to the same extent. The body cannot be organized at the level of histological tissue, if it does not consist of tissue in the first place.
2. The basics. (Основы)
Empirically, a large part of the complex biological systems that we observe in nature exhibit hierarchic structure. On theoretical grounds we could expect complex systems hierarchies in a world where complexity had to evolve from simplicity. System analysis hierarchy process, conducted in the 1950-ies, has laid the empirical Foundation for the field to be from 1980-ies, hierarchical environment.
The theoretical foundations are summarized in thermodynamics. When biological systems are modeled as physical system, in its most General abstractions, they are open thermodynamic systems, which organize their own behavior and set a subset of the relations between dissipative structures can be described in a hierarchy.
More simple and more direct way to explain the basics of a "hierarchical organization of life", was introduced in ecology Odum and others as "Simons hierarchical principle", Simon emphasized that hierarchy emerges almost inevitably through a wide variety of evolutionary processes, for the simple reason that hierarchical structures are stable."
To motivate this deep thought, he offered his "parable" about imaginary watchmakers.
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Coleridge's theory of life
Hiding Place (band)
Philosophy of life
Reverence for Life
The Seven Pillars of Life
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