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★ History of rail transport in Great Britain 1923–1947

This article is part of a series on the history of rail transport in great Britain

History of rail transport in Britain 1923-1947 covers the period when the British railway system was launched in the "Big four" group of companies – London, Midland and Scottish railway LMS, Great Western railway GWR, the London and North Eastern railway LNER and the southern railway senior. The period includes the investment after the First world war, the growth of competition from road in the 1920-ies, the development of steam locomotives capable of maintaining 100 mph 160 km / h running, the Great depression of the 1930s, the Second World War and its consequences, and cook until nationalization in 1947.

                                     

1. Background. (Фон)

During the First world war the railway network was taken under the control of the government and the Executive Committee of the railway government. It showed some advantages in running the Railways with fewer companies, and after the war it was widely recognized that the required development of the rail network cannot be achieved in the conditions that existed before the war. The nationalization of Railways, which was put forward by William Yuart Gladstone in 1830-ies, was considered, but was rejected by the government and the owners of railway companies. A compromise was created in 1921 Railways act. According to this law, almost all of the hundreds of existing railway companies were merged into four new companies:

  • Great Western railway GWR.
  • The London and North Eastern railway LNER.
  • London, Midland and Scottish railway LMS.
  • Southern railway SR. (Южная железная дорога СР)

This grouping was first proposed in 1850-e years, and lasted from 1 January 1923 to 31 December 1947. Cm. also list of railway companies involved in the 1923 grouping. Some lines were left out of this group, especially those operating as joint Railways such as the Midland and great Northern joint railway and the Somerset and Dorset joint railway. Four companies were called "Big four".

Although not in direct competition with each other for most of their routes, the big four competed to be the fastest, most modern and most comfortable, driven by the growing competition from road transport. The products of this competition were the LMS and LNER races in Scotland, the famous flying Scotsman service and LNERs Mallard setting a world speed record of 126 km / h, the LMS production of diesel cars, the electrification of the LNER lines in the GWRs brilliant marketing and SRS mass electrification scheme, which led to almost the entire South-East trains-electric. Many have argued that Britain had the best Railways in the world during this period, and it can certainly be justified.

                                     

2. Competition from the road. (Конкурс от дороги)

Road transport grew rapidly during the 1920s, stimulated cheap to buy thousands of military surplus vans and trucks and subsidizing the construction of new roads, which is financed mainly by local authorities. The income of the railway companies suffered due to the loss of road freight transport in particular. This was largely because the government will not release the Railways from their obligations as common carriers, which were introduced in the 19th century. He obliges railway companies to carry any cargo offered in a nationally agreed charge, which, as a rule, much lower rates to make the operation profitable for the Railways. His intention was to stop train companies choose the most profitable Freight, while refusing to carry less profitable freight. It was a necessary measure, when the railroads had an effective monopoly on land transport. But with the competition of the road encroaches, he put the railroads at a disadvantage because they had to subsidise unprofitable freight operations with profitable, which drove charges.

Of road transport operators, who had no such restrictions, may privately negotiate any way they wanted to undermine the railway has published the price lists and to take away their business, offering door to door delivery. The railway company had previously relied on horse-drawn trailers for local delivery of goods from the station to compete, they bought the local motorized vehicles of delivery such as Karrier blow and Scammell mechanical horse. Then I thought that there was a large railway could operate at a profit if more than half of his movement was the organization, and therefore any reduction in business activity also affect the viability of the passenger business.

The Royal Commission on road and rail transport in 1931 was ineffective in producing a decision. However, in a subsequent Salter report of 1933 was adopted as state policy, the Ministry of transport has abolished some restrictions on the Railways with the introduction of the licensing and safety rules on carriers. Against a storm of protest, Finance Minister, Neville Chamberlain, has significantly increased the transport tax so that all vehicles will pay the full cost of annual Road Fund.

However, as soon as the campaign looked like to be successful, the Second World war. General requirements the carrier was cancelled the transport act 1962.

                                     

3. Changes and events. (Изменений и событий)

With the transport policies of the government, and more General changes in lifestyle, preferring to travel by road, and big four Railways never ran a healthy profit. Indeed, the LNER never made a profit at all. However, they are still capable of producing world-leading services on the East coast main line, train traffic, speeds of up to 110 miles per hour, a remarkable achievement. Also the SR invested in the electrification of all its lines, and this electrification was done much faster than at any time under BR.

In the 16 years before the First world war, a new company for the tremendous task of rebuilding Railways which had little or no work after the end of World war I in 1918. The priority has been new rolling stock: locomotives, passenger and freight cars. As an example, needs a rationalization in the LMSR took 10.316 locomotives at the grouping: they are no less than 393 different classes.

In the 1920s, the companies produced some exceptional locomotives:

  • SR King Arthur class 4-6-0 of 1925, "Lord Nelson" class 4-6-0 1926, R. E. L. Maunsell CME.
  • LMSR Royal Scot 4-6-0 class of 1927, sir Henry Fowler was the chief engineer-CME.
  • LNER A4 4-6-2 Pacific 1935 world steam speed record holder, A3 Pacific class 4-6-2 1927, B17 Sandringham class 4-6-0 1928, sir Nigel Gresli CME.
  • GWR castle class 4-6-0 1923, king class 4-6-0 1927, hall class 4-6-0 1928: Charles B. Collett CME.

In addition to those mainly passenger locomotives, many new classes of freight engines were produced: the Pannier tank locomotives of the GWR and the Garratt heavy 2-6-0 0-6-2 locomotive of the LMS although the latter was not a huge success, and only a few were built examples.

The total length of British Railways on 1 January 1923 was 19.585 route miles 31.336 km From the end of 1920-ies, when it was obvious that the car was in the ascendancy, dozens of lesser used branches began to close: one for passenger traffic, many completely.

Although it was built several Railways, there have been some new works. Among them were:

  • Station redevelopment, especially in Manchester and London.
  • The line to facilitate starting, for example, those on the Isle of Thanet.
  • The southern railway began a program of electrification of the main, which was to bring fast access to many South coast resorts, and to extend the London suburban routes.


                                     

4. The second world war and its consequences. (Второй мировой войны и ее последствий)

During the Second world war the railway companies offices joined, effectively becoming one company. The railroad was used to a greater extent than at any time in its history during this period.

The railway system suffered in the earthquake in some areas due to German bombing raids of the Luftwaffe, especially in cities such as London and Coventry. Corrupted 482 locomotives, 13.314 16.132 passenger and freight vehicles. However, the damage was not as extensive as it was in many other European countries, such as France and Germany. It worked for the lack of Railways, because in other European countries, to the detriment of their railway systems had been so bad that he gave them the opportunity to essentially re-build their railway system from scratch, and also significantly upgrade them.

During the war very little was invested in Railways, and they became more and more seedy. Only necessary repairs are performed during the war, the backlog of maintenance increases even more. Rolling stock, too, began to deteriorate. After the war it was clear that the rail network cannot be saved in the private sector. According to estimates of the Central statistical office for the period 1938-1953 Railways suffered a net investment of £440 million to about £11 billion in 2005 prices

                                     

5.1. Big Four. London, Midland and Scottish railway. (Лондон, Мидленд и шотландская железная дорога)

FCS argued that the worlds largest joint stock organisation, the largest transport organization, and the largest commercial enterprise in Europe, although they dont say on what basis, including the largest network of hotels. In 1938, the LMS operated more than 7.100 route miles 11.400 km of Railways in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. However, it was not very profitable, with a rate of return of only 2.7%.

The principal LMS trunk routes were the main line of the West coast and Midland main line, which linked London, the industrial Central and North-West of England, and Scotland. The main business of Railways is to transport freight between these major industrial centres, not passengers.

The early history of the LMS was dominated by infighting between its two largest constituents, the Midland and the North Western, previously two fierce rivals. Generally, the Midland method prevailed, with the adoption of many practices, Midland, such as the livery of Crimson lake for passenger locomotives and rolling stock, as well as the continuation of the Midland Railways in the field of small engine. The arrival of a new chief engineer William Stanier a harbinger of change in LMS, the introduction of new ideas, not a continuation of the internal conflict of the company.

                                     

5.2. Big Four. The London and North Eastern railway. (Лондонская и Северная Восточная железная дорога)

In LNER covered arc between North and East London. This included the East coast main line from London to Edinburgh via York and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the routes from Edinburgh to Aberdeen and Inverness. It also included most of the country East of the mountains, plus East Anglia. The total length of the route 6590 miles 10.605 km LNERs main workshops were in Doncaster.

In LNER hauled more than one-third of British coal, and withdrew two thirds of its revenues from freight traffic. Despite this, the main image that the LNER presented himself as one of glamour, of fast trains and sophisticated destinations. Advertising campaign LNERs was a very difficult and advanced compared to those of its rivals. The best graphic designers and poster artists, such as Tom Purvis has been involved to promote their services and attract the attention of the public to visit places on the East coast during the summer.

The first chief engineer was LNER sir Nigel Gresli, who held the post for most LNERs life. He was noted for his "big engine" policy, and is best remembered for his large Express passenger locomotives, many times the holder of the world speed record for steam locomotives. LNER class A4 4-6-2 Pacific locomotive Mallard still holds the speed record for a steam locomotive. Gresli died in office in 1941.



                                     

5.3. Big Four. Great Western Railway. (Большая Западная Железная Дорога)

In GWR was the only one of the "big four" to take its name from its predecessor. The total length of the route was 3800 miles 6116 km, most of which were built to handle the coal traffic from South Wales. Although it was a big success for the GWR coal traffic declined significantly as the use of coal as a naval fuel declined, and within a decade the GWR was itself the largest user of Welsh coal. The 1920s also saw the introduction of the GWRss most famous locomotives – the castle and king classes developed by C. B. Collett. In 1930-e years have brought hard times, and records set castles and kings were surpassed by other companies, but the company remained in relatively good financial health despite the depression.

In 1933 the Great Western railway introduced the first of what was to become a successful series of railcars, which survived in regular use until they were replaced by British Railways in 1960-ies. The original design of the air-smoothed body, which was very fashionable at the time. The rounded lines of the first examples of the construction will lead to their nickname "flying banana". Later examples were much more angular and practical exterior, but the nickname persisted for these too.

                                     

5.4. Big Four. Southern Railway. (Южная Железная Дорога)

The southern railway was geographically the smallest of the "big four", and 2.186 route miles Limited 3518 km in the South of England, he had no track North of London. Unlike the rest of the "big four" of the southern railway was predominantly a passenger railway. Despite its small size it carried more than a quarter of the UKS total volume of passenger traffic. This is because the area covered by the railway included many of the dense commuter lines around London, and offers some of the most densely populated parts of the country.

The southern railway was particularly successful promoting themselves to the public. "Sunny South Sam" became a character fixed firmly in the public mind as embodying the service of the railway, whilst slogans such as "live in Kent and be content" encouraged commuters to leave London, and so on using the services of the railway.

The southern railway had a strong desire for electrification. The intensively used commuter system in a relatively small geographical area in the southern a natural candidate for electrification. After grouping, LSWRs 660 V DC third rail system was adopted for the entire region. The metro area LSWR was originally electrified, soon followed by LBSCRs convert the 6.6 kV AC overhead electrified lines of the London underground and then SECRs subway line in London in 1920. In the 1930-ies the main electrification of the Brighton main line and a direct line to Portsmouth with associated multiple lines to surround such as the East and West Coastways. Outer suburban electrification was also extensive. There is a proposal for further to the Kent coast, but the war interrupted these plans. Was originally used, but later electric locomotives and diesel-electric railcar train was developed hybrids.

During the Second world war, the southern part was on the front line. Before the outbreak of hostilities, 75% of SR traffic passengers, with 25% transit. During the war, about the same number of passengers was conducted, but only up to 40% of total traffic – freight traffic had increased 4.5 times. The shortage of freight locomotives was remedied by the chief engineer Oliver Bulleid, who designed 0-6-0 locomotive, the SR class K1. It was the largest 0-6-0 to operate in Britain, and forty of them turns the wheel with the Sudanese ability to carry heavy loads.

                                     
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  • In 1923 the Great North of Scotland Railway passed on a total of 122 locomotives, 100 4 - 4 - 0 tender locomotives and 22 tank engines, all capable of being
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  • R508. Butt 1995, pp. 96, 173 Nock, O.S. 1967 History of the Great Western Railway, vol. 3: 1923 - 1947 Shepperton: Ian Allan. p. 248. ISBN 0 - 7110 - 0304 - 1
  • methodology may vary year on year. Nock, O.S. 1967 History of the Great Western Railway, vol. 3: 1923 - 1947 Shepperton: Ian Allan. p. 248. ISBN 0 - 7110 - 0304 - 1
  • Buses play a major role in the public transport of the United Kingdom, as well as seeing extensive private use. While rail transport has increased over the
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  • and Scottish Railway LMS which, following nationalisation in 1947 became part of British Railways. There were major difficulties building the line as
  • Great Railways. Newton Abbot: David Charles. ISBN 0 - 7153 - 7842 - 2. Nock, O.S. 1967 History of the Great Western Railway. Volume Three: 1923 - 1947
  • Following the grouping in 1923 the line became part of London and North Eastern Railway and was nationalised, becoming part of British Railways. The Macduff
  • Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation. Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year. Cambridge Heath London Rail Station Transport for


                                     
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  • sectorisation was introduced by British Rail in the 1980s, the station was served by Scot Rail until the privatisation of British Rail On Mondays to Saturdays, there
  • Rail. The accident happened on one of the busiest commuter lines in Scotland. At the time of the accident, British Rail passenger trains between Glasgow

Encyclopedic dictionary

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Bengal Judicial includes Revenue Judicial Criminal and Civil Judicial and Criminal Patna: Government Printing, 1923 SRR. Community and the Uses of History in Late Nineteenth Century England. ModernIndia, 1885– 1947. Rail and Road Transport in Nineteenth Century Awadh: Competition in a North. Pullman company archives Newberry Library. Working for railway companies in England during the mid 1940s. CharlieDeanArchives. British steam railway posters Pinterest. Organization. The railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series. The railway.


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History of rail transport in Great Britain 1923 – 1947 pedia.

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Timeline Florida Memory.

All documents are from the collections of the State Library and Archives of and pages from the Florida Memory Project in the context of Florida history. Most of the English settlers in Florida left for England and the Bahamas. Start of construction of Henry Flaglers railroad to Key West opens in 1912. 1923, dash. Steamtown NHS: Special History Study NPS IRMA Portal National. Frances Fanny Billing and Catherine Frary were known as The Burnham Poisoners. Railroad technology was first developed in Great Britain, and included Richard From Tuesday, 4 April 2017 the Record Office will be open one long week. from the north to the Frederick Russell Burnham 1861 1947 Burnham was. This Month in Alaska History Alaska Historical Society. The four largest railway companies in the United Kingdom in the period 1923 – 47. nationalised to form British Railways as a result of the Transport Act 1947. Book Reviews Railway & Locomotive Historical Society, Inc. Britain and France carved up Arabia and created Jordan under Emir Abdullah. 1923 Jan 4, The Paris Conference on war reparations hit a deadlock as the French. of Leon Blum nationalized the defense industry, railways and the Bank of France in 1942 Feb 27, The 1st transport of French Jews left to Nazi Germany. History of rail transport in Great Britain Howling Pixel. 5 Mar 2019 Ottley 10086. Vertical boiler locomotives and railmotors built in Great Britain. LNER locomotive development between 1911 and 1947, with a brief history of developments from 1850 to 1911. Volume 2 reviewed in Locomotive Mag., 1923, 29, 27 London: Light Railway Transport League, 4th ed., 1962. Bibliography. 15 Jan 2002 Transport. Key dates in Britains railway history. Sarah Left 1923 Four major railway companies are created from the 123 across the country.


Great Britain and the Ruhr Crisis, 1923 –1924 Review of.

The Probates British and Colonial Recognition Ordinance, 1915 An Ordinance to Provide for the Preservation of Ancient, Historical, and Natural. Ordinance intituled The Sierra Leone Railway Ordinance, 1896 and to make other Provisions in lieu thereof. Bazaar India. The history of the word or name, Alabama, has been discussed by researchers French, and British chroniclers: Alabama, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou. Act 23 444, Acts of Alabama, September 26, 1923. harsh segregation rules on public transportation. Alabama State Teachers College in 1947. Welding Timeline Years 1900 1950 A History of Welding Web Site. The Chesapeake & Ohio Railway traces its origin to the Louisa Railroad of devastated South and attempted to attract British interests, without success. This James River Line remains the principal artery of coal transportation to the present day. The next great change for C&O came in 1923 when the great Cleveland.


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The diseases suffered by British livestock, and the ways in which they were Laws, the development of steamships and railways, and the nutritional demands of a epidemics in 1922– 1923, 1923 –1924, 1951–1952 and 1967–1968. by a more general state led drive, under the 1947 and 1957 Agriculture Acts,. Historic Streetcar Systems in Georgia The GDOT. If Hamiltons Other Railway is accepted as a definitive history of the H&NW, the credit for that goes to Carl. See separately for the Pacific Great Eastern. CPR 1965 list Motive power, passenger and freight cars for locomotives see also under Motive Power above, Stations, modern 1947. Carl Riffs Railway History Diaries Charles Coopers Railway Pages. 31 Dec 2011 A 1923 census of traffic by the UKs Department of Transport showed there were In 1923 there were 383.525 cars on the roads of Great Britain. In 1947, J.S. Dean, the journalist and head of the Pedestrians Association, This belief it is of interest to note has its origin in the vicious and anti social.


Ordinances Sierra Leone Web.

Record Group 28 1773 1971 OVERVIEW OF RECORDS LOCATIONS. 28.2. 12Records of the Bureau of Transportation and International Services 28.4.3 Records of the Division of Railway Mail Service journal of Hugh Finlay, Surveyor of Post Roads and Post Offices for the British Post Office Department, 1773 74. Book 1 google - wiki.info. Vintage railway posters of UK seaside destinations Aberystwyth British Travel, Posters Uk. AdsIllustrations And Posters History Posters Transport Posters Transport Images. Snowdon Mountain Railway, LMS poster, 1923 1947. Origins Pics Art, Yorkshire Dales, West Yorkshire, Yorkshire England, Train Posters,. Railways, Hotels, and Tourism in Great Britain 1839 1914 jstor. There has been a quantum jump in both freight and passenger traffic from the year. 1947, the year during which India became independent of British authority. Advisory Council for Railways in 1923 and after prolonged consideration, the. World War II and its. From the very beginning of the Canadian Pacific Railway passengers were England and proceeded to sell Canada both for travel and emigration. John Murray Gibbon would also write a book, Steel of Empire, the first history of the CPR. the cost of first class transportation for a trip between Montreal and Vancouver. Reading History of rail transport in Great Britain 1830–1922. Victorian stations railway stations in England & Wales, 1830 1923. Newton Abbot Rieger, B. 2000. The History and Practice of Britains Railways a New Research Agenda. Agriculture in England a survey of farming, 1870 1947. Farming and transport in the South West, Exeter papers in economic history. Exeter:.

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