★ History of rail transport in Great Britain 1923–1947
This article is part of a series on the history of rail transport in great Britain
History of rail transport in Britain 1923-1947 covers the period when the British railway system was launched in the "Big four" group of companies – London, Midland and Scottish railway LMS, Great Western railway GWR, the London and North Eastern railway LNER and the southern railway senior. The period includes the investment after the First world war, the growth of competition from road in the 1920-ies, the development of steam locomotives capable of maintaining 100 mph 160 km / h running, the Great depression of the 1930s, the Second World War and its consequences, and cook until nationalization in 1947.
1. Background. (Фон)
During the First world war the railway network was taken under the control of the government and the Executive Committee of the railway government. It showed some advantages in running the Railways with fewer companies, and after the war it was widely recognized that the required development of the rail network cannot be achieved in the conditions that existed before the war. The nationalization of Railways, which was put forward by William Yuart Gladstone in 1830-ies, was considered, but was rejected by the government and the owners of railway companies. A compromise was created in 1921 Railways act. According to this law, almost all of the hundreds of existing railway companies were merged into four new companies:
- Great Western railway GWR.
- The London and North Eastern railway LNER.
- London, Midland and Scottish railway LMS.
- Southern railway SR. (Южная железная дорога СР)
This grouping was first proposed in 1850-e years, and lasted from 1 January 1923 to 31 December 1947. Cm. also list of railway companies involved in the 1923 grouping. Some lines were left out of this group, especially those operating as joint Railways such as the Midland and great Northern joint railway and the Somerset and Dorset joint railway. Four companies were called "Big four".
Although not in direct competition with each other for most of their routes, the big four competed to be the fastest, most modern and most comfortable, driven by the growing competition from road transport. The products of this competition were the LMS and LNER races in Scotland, the famous flying Scotsman service and LNERs Mallard setting a world speed record of 126 km / h, the LMS production of diesel cars, the electrification of the LNER lines in the GWRs brilliant marketing and SRS mass electrification scheme, which led to almost the entire South-East trains-electric. Many have argued that Britain had the best Railways in the world during this period, and it can certainly be justified.
2. Competition from the road. (Конкурс от дороги)
Road transport grew rapidly during the 1920s, stimulated cheap to buy thousands of military surplus vans and trucks and subsidizing the construction of new roads, which is financed mainly by local authorities. The income of the railway companies suffered due to the loss of road freight transport in particular. This was largely because the government will not release the Railways from their obligations as common carriers, which were introduced in the 19th century. He obliges railway companies to carry any cargo offered in a nationally agreed charge, which, as a rule, much lower rates to make the operation profitable for the Railways. His intention was to stop train companies choose the most profitable Freight, while refusing to carry less profitable freight. It was a necessary measure, when the railroads had an effective monopoly on land transport. But with the competition of the road encroaches, he put the railroads at a disadvantage because they had to subsidise unprofitable freight operations with profitable, which drove charges.
Of road transport operators, who had no such restrictions, may privately negotiate any way they wanted to undermine the railway has published the price lists and to take away their business, offering door to door delivery. The railway company had previously relied on horse-drawn trailers for local delivery of goods from the station to compete, they bought the local motorized vehicles of delivery such as Karrier blow and Scammell mechanical horse. Then I thought that there was a large railway could operate at a profit if more than half of his movement was the organization, and therefore any reduction in business activity also affect the viability of the passenger business.
The Royal Commission on road and rail transport in 1931 was ineffective in producing a decision. However, in a subsequent Salter report of 1933 was adopted as state policy, the Ministry of transport has abolished some restrictions on the Railways with the introduction of the licensing and safety rules on carriers. Against a storm of protest, Finance Minister, Neville Chamberlain, has significantly increased the transport tax so that all vehicles will pay the full cost of annual Road Fund.
However, as soon as the campaign looked like to be successful, the Second World war. General requirements the carrier was cancelled the transport act 1962.
3. Changes and events. (Изменений и событий)
With the transport policies of the government, and more General changes in lifestyle, preferring to travel by road, and big four Railways never ran a healthy profit. Indeed, the LNER never made a profit at all. However, they are still capable of producing world-leading services on the East coast main line, train traffic, speeds of up to 110 miles per hour, a remarkable achievement. Also the SR invested in the electrification of all its lines, and this electrification was done much faster than at any time under BR.
In the 16 years before the First world war, a new company for the tremendous task of rebuilding Railways which had little or no work after the end of World war I in 1918. The priority has been new rolling stock: locomotives, passenger and freight cars. As an example, needs a rationalization in the LMSR took 10.316 locomotives at the grouping: they are no less than 393 different classes.
In the 1920s, the companies produced some exceptional locomotives:
- SR King Arthur class 4-6-0 of 1925, "Lord Nelson" class 4-6-0 1926, R. E. L. Maunsell CME.
- LMSR Royal Scot 4-6-0 class of 1927, sir Henry Fowler was the chief engineer-CME.
- LNER A4 4-6-2 Pacific 1935 world steam speed record holder, A3 Pacific class 4-6-2 1927, B17 Sandringham class 4-6-0 1928, sir Nigel Gresli CME.
- GWR castle class 4-6-0 1923, king class 4-6-0 1927, hall class 4-6-0 1928: Charles B. Collett CME.
In addition to those mainly passenger locomotives, many new classes of freight engines were produced: the Pannier tank locomotives of the GWR and the Garratt heavy 2-6-0 0-6-2 locomotive of the LMS although the latter was not a huge success, and only a few were built examples.
The total length of British Railways on 1 January 1923 was 19.585 route miles 31.336 km From the end of 1920-ies, when it was obvious that the car was in the ascendancy, dozens of lesser used branches began to close: one for passenger traffic, many completely.
Although it was built several Railways, there have been some new works. Among them were:
- Station redevelopment, especially in Manchester and London.
- The line to facilitate starting, for example, those on the Isle of Thanet.
- The southern railway began a program of electrification of the main, which was to bring fast access to many South coast resorts, and to extend the London suburban routes.
4. The second world war and its consequences. (Второй мировой войны и ее последствий)
During the Second world war the railway companies offices joined, effectively becoming one company. The railroad was used to a greater extent than at any time in its history during this period.
The railway system suffered in the earthquake in some areas due to German bombing raids of the Luftwaffe, especially in cities such as London and Coventry. Corrupted 482 locomotives, 13.314 16.132 passenger and freight vehicles. However, the damage was not as extensive as it was in many other European countries, such as France and Germany. It worked for the lack of Railways, because in other European countries, to the detriment of their railway systems had been so bad that he gave them the opportunity to essentially re-build their railway system from scratch, and also significantly upgrade them.
During the war very little was invested in Railways, and they became more and more seedy. Only necessary repairs are performed during the war, the backlog of maintenance increases even more. Rolling stock, too, began to deteriorate. After the war it was clear that the rail network cannot be saved in the private sector. According to estimates of the Central statistical office for the period 1938-1953 Railways suffered a net investment of £440 million to about £11 billion in 2005 prices
5.1. Big Four. London, Midland and Scottish railway. (Лондон, Мидленд и шотландская железная дорога)
FCS argued that the worlds largest joint stock organisation, the largest transport organization, and the largest commercial enterprise in Europe, although they dont say on what basis, including the largest network of hotels. In 1938, the LMS operated more than 7.100 route miles 11.400 km of Railways in England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. However, it was not very profitable, with a rate of return of only 2.7%.
The principal LMS trunk routes were the main line of the West coast and Midland main line, which linked London, the industrial Central and North-West of England, and Scotland. The main business of Railways is to transport freight between these major industrial centres, not passengers.
The early history of the LMS was dominated by infighting between its two largest constituents, the Midland and the North Western, previously two fierce rivals. Generally, the Midland method prevailed, with the adoption of many practices, Midland, such as the livery of Crimson lake for passenger locomotives and rolling stock, as well as the continuation of the Midland Railways in the field of small engine. The arrival of a new chief engineer William Stanier a harbinger of change in LMS, the introduction of new ideas, not a continuation of the internal conflict of the company.
5.2. Big Four. The London and North Eastern railway. (Лондонская и Северная Восточная железная дорога)
In LNER covered arc between North and East London. This included the East coast main line from London to Edinburgh via York and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and the routes from Edinburgh to Aberdeen and Inverness. It also included most of the country East of the mountains, plus East Anglia. The total length of the route 6590 miles 10.605 km LNERs main workshops were in Doncaster.
In LNER hauled more than one-third of British coal, and withdrew two thirds of its revenues from freight traffic. Despite this, the main image that the LNER presented himself as one of glamour, of fast trains and sophisticated destinations. Advertising campaign LNERs was a very difficult and advanced compared to those of its rivals. The best graphic designers and poster artists, such as Tom Purvis has been involved to promote their services and attract the attention of the public to visit places on the East coast during the summer.
The first chief engineer was LNER sir Nigel Gresli, who held the post for most LNERs life. He was noted for his "big engine" policy, and is best remembered for his large Express passenger locomotives, many times the holder of the world speed record for steam locomotives. LNER class A4 4-6-2 Pacific locomotive Mallard still holds the speed record for a steam locomotive. Gresli died in office in 1941.
5.3. Big Four. Great Western Railway. (Большая Западная Железная Дорога)
In GWR was the only one of the "big four" to take its name from its predecessor. The total length of the route was 3800 miles 6116 km, most of which were built to handle the coal traffic from South Wales. Although it was a big success for the GWR coal traffic declined significantly as the use of coal as a naval fuel declined, and within a decade the GWR was itself the largest user of Welsh coal. The 1920s also saw the introduction of the GWRss most famous locomotives – the castle and king classes developed by C. B. Collett. In 1930-e years have brought hard times, and records set castles and kings were surpassed by other companies, but the company remained in relatively good financial health despite the depression.
In 1933 the Great Western railway introduced the first of what was to become a successful series of railcars, which survived in regular use until they were replaced by British Railways in 1960-ies. The original design of the air-smoothed body, which was very fashionable at the time. The rounded lines of the first examples of the construction will lead to their nickname "flying banana". Later examples were much more angular and practical exterior, but the nickname persisted for these too.
5.4. Big Four. Southern Railway. (Южная Железная Дорога)
The southern railway was geographically the smallest of the "big four", and 2.186 route miles Limited 3518 km in the South of England, he had no track North of London. Unlike the rest of the "big four" of the southern railway was predominantly a passenger railway. Despite its small size it carried more than a quarter of the UKS total volume of passenger traffic. This is because the area covered by the railway included many of the dense commuter lines around London, and offers some of the most densely populated parts of the country.
The southern railway was particularly successful promoting themselves to the public. "Sunny South Sam" became a character fixed firmly in the public mind as embodying the service of the railway, whilst slogans such as "live in Kent and be content" encouraged commuters to leave London, and so on using the services of the railway.
The southern railway had a strong desire for electrification. The intensively used commuter system in a relatively small geographical area in the southern a natural candidate for electrification. After grouping, LSWRs 660 V DC third rail system was adopted for the entire region. The metro area LSWR was originally electrified, soon followed by LBSCRs convert the 6.6 kV AC overhead electrified lines of the London underground and then SECRs subway line in London in 1920. In the 1930-ies the main electrification of the Brighton main line and a direct line to Portsmouth with associated multiple lines to surround such as the East and West Coastways. Outer suburban electrification was also extensive. There is a proposal for further to the Kent coast, but the war interrupted these plans. Was originally used, but later electric locomotives and diesel-electric railcar train was developed hybrids.
During the Second world war, the southern part was on the front line. Before the outbreak of hostilities, 75% of SR traffic passengers, with 25% transit. During the war, about the same number of passengers was conducted, but only up to 40% of total traffic – freight traffic had increased 4.5 times. The shortage of freight locomotives was remedied by the chief engineer Oliver Bulleid, who designed 0-6-0 locomotive, the SR class K1. It was the largest 0-6-0 to operate in Britain, and forty of them turns the wheel with the Sudanese ability to carry heavy loads.
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