ⓘ Regiment de Dauphine (1776)
The Regiment de Dauphine was a line infantry regiment of the Ancien Regime which served during the late XVIIIth century. Although the ancien connection and title were lost in 1791, the regimental successor the 29th Infantry Regiment saw service throughout the revolution, Napoleonic Wars, and later the World Wars before being disbanded in 1940.
Following financial troubles after the Seven Years War, King Louis XV decided one of the ways to reduce the debt was to split many of the four battalion regiments into new two battalion regiments. The Regiment de Dauphine was a special example as the regiment was already in service, but disbanded on 26 April 1775, and reformed that same day. After formation, the regiment took the colours and traditions of the 1st and 3rd battalions of the former regiment along with the old uniform. The other two battalions, the 2nd and 4th were detached to form the Regiment de Perche.
The regimental headquarters and depot battalion were established in Grenoble, Dauphine, and deemed as the official province regiment. Eventually the first regimental uniform was ordered from the Ordnance of 3 September 1775, almost 5 months after the regiment was formed. The uniform consisted of; pink facings, white lapels, white buttons, white cuffs, and pink cuff flaps.
2. Anglo-French War
The regiment was based in Valenciennes, and in April 1776 moved to Lille, then to Brest in March 1777. In May 1778, the regiment provided a detachment to serve as marines in the fleet of Louis Guillouet, Comte dOrvilliers, and on 27 July 1778 engaged the Royal Navy during the Battle of Ushant. Ironically, this was the only battle the regiment would see until serving in the War of the First Coalition when they became the 38th, meaning the only battle they were apart of was in-fact a naval battle, not land.
After returning from marine duty, the regiment moved to Saarlouis in October 1778, and went to Metz in May 1779, Thionville May 1780, Metz again in July 1780, and then to Rennes and Nantes in May 1783. Under the 21 May 1776 army regulations, the regiment was granted the number 30, being placed after the Regiment de Maine and before the Regiment de Perche. Under these regulations, the regiment uniform also changed, becoming; royal blue facings, pink lapels, gold buttons, royal blue cuffs, and royal blue cuff flaps.
3. Garrison Battalion
From the Ordnance of the King on 8 April 1779, one company of the Regiment dAix was attached to the Garrison Battalion of the Dauphine Regiment Bataillon de Garnison du Regiment de Dauphine. Eventually following the French Revolution and the subsequent army reforms in 1791, the battalion was disbanded.
On 21 February 1779, the regiment uniform again changed, this time the last before the revolution; royal blue facings, white lapels, gold buttons, royal blue cuffs, royal blue cuff flaps, and gold epaulettes. In August 1788, the regiment was directed to Tours, but only just reached the outskirts of the city in July 1789 when it was ordered to Paris due to Storming of the Bastille. After the storming, the regiment returned to Givet and moved to Philippeville in March 1791 and renamed as the 38eme Regiment dInfanterie de Ligne Dauphine and was still there in 1792 when the War of the First Coalition started.
Under the Provisional Regulations of the 1st April 1791, the regiment lost their precedence and was dropped to 38th and grouped into the 4th Series 4e Serie, which gave it the following uniform; white facings, revolutionary blue lapels, white buttons, revolutionary blue cuffs, and white cuff flaps.
5. Commanding Officers
Commanding officers of the regiment during the regime included:
- 1791 - 1791 Philippe-Auguste-Jacques de La Cour, Marquis de Balleroy
- 1775 - 1776 Paul-François de Quelen-Estuer, Duc de Saint-Megrin
- 1776 - 1780 Antoine-Victor-Augustin Aubergeon, Comte de Murinais
- 1780 - 1791 Louis-François Chamillart, Marquis de La Suze
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