Draughts or checkers is a group of strategy Board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponents pieces. Draughts developed from alquerque. The name comes from the verb to draw or to move.
The most popular forms are English draughts, also called American checkers, played on an 8×8 chessboard, Russian draughts, is also played on 8×8, and international checkers is played on a 10×10 Board. There are many other options, played on 8×8 boards. Canadian checkers and Singapore / Malaysia checkers also known as doom is played on a 12×12 Board.
English checkers is weakly solved in 2007 by a team of canadian scientist Jonathan Schaeffer. From the standard starting position, both players can guarantee a draw with perfect play.
1. General rules. (Общие правила)
Checkers is played by two opponents, on opposite sides of the playing field. One player has dark pieces, and other light pieces. The players take turns. The player may not move a piece of the enemy. A step consists of moving a piece diagonally to an adjacent unoccupied square. If the next square contains an enemy piece and the Square immediately beyond it is vacant, the piece may be captured and removed from the game when you jump through it.
Used only the dark squares of the checkered Board. A piece may move only diagonally into an empty square. When introduced, capturing is mandatory in most official rules, although some rules variations make capturing optional. In almost all variants, the player without pieces remaining, or who cannot move because of blocked, loses the game.
1.1. General rules. Men
Uncrowned men, one step diagonally forward, and capture an enemy piece by moving two consecutive steps in the same line, jumping over the piece on the first step. Several enemy pieces can be captured in one move, provided that this is done by successive jumps from one piece, the jumping must not be in the same row, and possibly zigzag to change direction diagonally. In English draughts men can only jump forward in international draughts and Russian draughts men can jump both forward and backward.
1.2. General rules. Kings. (Короли)
When a man reaches jamochnogo field is also called crownhead, the farthest row forward, it becomes a king, and marked by placing an additional piece on top of the first man, and acquires additional powers including the ability to move back and options when they can no longer do to capture ago. Like men, a king may make successive jumps in a single turn provided that each jump captures an enemy or a king.
In international draughts, kings also called flying kings can move any distance diagonally is unlocked and can knock down the opposing man any distance, jumping at any of the empty squares immediately beyond it. Because captured pieces remain on the Board until, yet to be completed, it is possible to reach the point in the multi-jump, fly where the king is blocked from capturing further piece already jumped.
Flying kings are not used in English draughts, kings only advantage over a man is the ability to move and capture backwards as well as forwards.
2. Naming. (Именования)
In most European languages, except those that acquired the game from English, draughts is called Dame, dames, ladies, or a similar term that refers to ladies. The pieces are usually called men, stones, "Labourer" pawn, or a similar term, men promoted to kings are called ladies or women. In these languages the Queen in chess or in card games is usually called by the same term as the kings in draughts. A case in point includes the Greek terminology, in which draughts is called "ντάμα" lady, which is also one term for the Queen in chess.
3. National and regional variants. (Национальных и региональных вариантов)
Russian convoy checkers. (Российская автоколонна шашки)
Column checkers Russian Towers is a Kind of draughts, known in Russia since the beginning of the XIX century, in which the game goes by the standard rules of checkers, but with the difference that they beat a precipitate is not removed from the playing field, and captured the beating pattern or draught of the tower.
The result of the tower to move around the Board as a whole, "obeying" the top link. The capture of the tower, only the upper part of the sediment removed from it. If the top of the draft is a different color than removed. as a result of battle, the tower becomes a tower of the opponent. The rules for the movement of checkers and kings correspond to the rules of Russian checkers.
- The article Russian Wikipedia in Russian column checkers.
4. Sport. (Спорт)
The world Cup in English draughts began in 1840. The winners of the mens was from the UK, USA, Barbados, and the last time Italy 3-moving division. Championship women in English draughts began in 1993. The winners of the women were from Ireland, Turkmenistan and the Ukraine.
The world championship international draughts began in 1885 in France, and since 1948 had been organized by the world draughts Federation fmjd-Federation Mondiale du jeu de Dames. This happens every two years. Even years after the tournament, the world title match will take place. Championship the men were the winners from the Netherlands, Canada, the USSR, Senegal, Latvia and Russia. The first womens world championship was held in 1973. The world Junior championship was played from 1971. The European Championships are held since 1965 for men and 2000 women.
Started other world Championships as follows: Brazilian checkers, in 1985, Russian checkers, in 1993, Turkish checkers, in 2014.
5. Invented variants. (Придумали вариантов)
- Suicide checkers also called anti-checkers, giveaway checkers or losing draughts: a variant where the goal of each player is to lose all your pieces.
- Philosophy Shogi checkers: a variant on a 9×9 Board, game ending with capturing the opponents king. Invented by Inoue Enryō and described in Japanese book in 1890.
- Vigmans checkers: each player has 24 pieces of two sets – one for the light squares, the second on the dark squares. Each player plays two games simultaneously: one on light squares, the other on the dark squares. Total score is the sum of the scores for both games.
- Levels: complex version, which allows players to upgrade their pieces beyond kings.
- The blue and the gray: on 9×9 Board, each side has 17 guard pieces that move and jump in any direction, to accompany a piece of the captain, who races in the center of the Board to win.
- Dameo: variant played on 8×8 Board, move and record rules similar to those of Armenian draughts. A special "rolling" step is used to move the line checkers are similar to traffic rules to Epaminondas. Christian Freeling In 2000.
- Hexdame: literal adaptation of international draughts to a hexagonal playing field. Christian Freeling In 1979.
- Cheskers: variant invented by Solomon Golomb. Each player starts with an elephant and a camel that jumps with the coordinates 3.1 and not 2.1 in order to stay on the black squares), and men who have reached the horizontal to facilitate elephant, camel, or king.
- Damath: the option of using mathematic principles and numbered chips popular in the Philippines.
- Weasel: checkers variant on a 7×7 Board, with 25 fields used. Jumped pieces are placed under the jumper, so constructed tower. Captures only the top of the tower jumped. This variant was invented by world chess champion Emanuel Lasker.
6. Games sometimes confused with draughts variants. (Игры иногда путают с вариантов шашек)
- Chinese checkers: based on angles, but uses a star-shaped Board divided into equilateral triangles.
- Konane: "Hawaiian checkers". (Konane: "Гавайские шашки")
- Corners: a game in which checkers move in any direction and jump over any other piece, but not exciting, friend or foe, and the players are trying to move them all into the opposite corner.
7.1. History. Ancient games. (Древние игры)
This game has been played for millennia. A Board resembling a draughts Board was found in Ur Dating from 3000 BC In the British Museum are specimens of ancient Egyptian checkerboards, found with their pieces in burial chambers, and the game was played by Queen Hatasu. Plato mentioned a game, πεττεία or petteia, as of Egyptian origin, and Homer also mentions it. The method of capture was to place the two parts on either side of the opponents piece. It was played during the Trojan war. The Romans played a derivation of petteia called latrunculi, or the game of soldiers. Pieces, and she sporadically game called calculi stones.
7.2. History. Alquerque
Arabic game called Quirkat or al-kirk, with similar play to modern draughts, played on a 5×5 Board. It is mentioned in the 10th century work Kitab al-Aghani. Al kirk is also the name for the game, which is now called nine mens Morris. Al kirk was brought to Spain by the Moors, where it became known as Alquerque, the Spanish origin of the Arabic name. Rules are given in the 13th century book Libro de Los games. In about 1100, probably in the South of France, the game of Alquerque was adapted using backgammon pieces on a chess Board. Each part was called a "Fers", the same name as the chess Queen, and the two pieces were in the same time.
7.3. History. The crown. (Корона)
The rule of crowning was used in the 13th century, as noted in Philip Chronicle Mouskats in 1243 when the game was known as Fierges, the name used for the Chess Queen "Queen" is derived from the Persian, meaning Royal Counsellor or vizier. The pieces became known as "dames" when that name was adopted for the chess Queen. The rule forcing players to take whenever possible was introduced in France in 1535, at which point the game became known as the power identical to modern English draughts. Game without forced capture became known as Le plaisant jeu de Dames, the precursor of international draughts.
In the 18th century English writer Samuel Johnson wrote a Foreword to a 1756 book about draughts by William Payne, the earliest book in English about the game.
8. Computer checkers. (Компьютер шашки)
English draughts, American 8×8 checkers has been the arena for several notable advances in game artificial intelligence. In the 1950-ies, Arthur Samuel created one of the first Board game-playing programs of any kind. More recently, in 2007 scientists from the University of Alberta developed the program Chinook to the point where he is invincible. The approach of brute force, hundreds of computers working nearly two decades was used to solve the game, showing that game of checkers always ends in a draw if neither player will not go wrong. The solution is for the draughts variation called go-as-you-please GAYP checkers and not for the variation called Three-move restriction checkers. As of December 2007, this makes English draughts the most complex game ever solved.
9. Computational complexity. (Вычислительная сложность)
Generalized checkers is played on a Board of N × N.
It is PSPACE-hard to determine whether the specified player has a winning strategy. And if a polynomial bound is placed on the number of moves that are allowed in between jumps, which is a reasonable generalization of the drawing rule in standard checkers, the problem is in PSPACE, thus, it is PSPACE-complete. However, without this bound, checkers answers-full.
However, other problems have only polynomial complexity:
- Can one player remove all the other players chips in one move several jumps.
- Can one players king in one move.
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- Women s Draughts - 64 World Championship has been organized by the World Draughts Federation FMJD since 1993 for Brazilian and Russian draughts The first
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- Women s World Draughts Championship match at the international draughts was held 2 9 September 2016 in Karpacz Poland International Draughts Federation
- 23, 1961 is a retired International draughts player and 4 times Women s World Champion in International draughts Levina is a Kharkiv University alumnus
- 2013 World Draughts Championship match at the international draughts was held May 12 18, 2013 in Tallinn, Estonia International Draughts Federation FMJD
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- 2015 World Draughts Championship match at the international draughts was held October 25 31, 2015 in Izmir, Turkey International Draughts Federation FMJD
- The 2017 World Draughts - 64 Championship held in Saint Peterburg, Russia. 64 players from Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America competed in the
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