★ History of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
The History of Saint Pierre and Miquelon is one of early settlement by Europeans taking advantage of the rich fishing grounds near Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, and is characterized by periods of conflict between the French and British.
There is evidence of prehistoric indigenous inhabitants on the island, but there is no entry, the local people during the European colonization. Europeans began to regularly visit from the early 16th century and their settlements are among the oldest in America. At first the Basque fishermen only visited the Islands seasonal during the fishing season, to the mid-17th century were permanent residents of France in the Islands.
With the end of the 17th century, British attacks led to the French settlers abandoning the Islands, and the British took possession from 1713 to 1763. Then the French took them and settlers returned to live peacefully for 15 years. French support for the American revolution led to a British attack and the deportation of the French settlers. Possession of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, passed between France and Britain for the next 38 years, as the Islands suffered attacks by both countries, voluntary or forced eviction of residents, and upheaval associated with the French revolution.
France finally reclaimed the Islands after the second abdication of Napoleon in 1815, and then followed 70 years of prosperity for the French fishing industry and residents. However, political and economic changes led to the slow decline of the fishing industry after the late 19th century. Was a short 13 year economic boom on the island associated with the period of prohibition in the United States, when Saint-Pierre and Miquelon was a known base for smuggling alcohol. This boom ended with the end of prohibition in 1933, and the economy plunged into a depression.
The Islands are an overseas territory of the Nazi-controlled Vichy regime in France after the fall of France in World War II, and was released a year and a half later the free French troops in 1941. After the war, the fishing industry continued to languish, and now fish stocks fell so low that fishing is very limited. Saint Pierre and Miquelon are now trying to diversify its economy through tourism and other fields.
1. Prehistory. (Предистория)
And paleoeskimos Beothuk or Dorset culture was discovered on the island of Saint-Pierre at Anse à Henry, North of the city of Saint-Pierre.
In the Beothuk painted themselves with red ochre, which was the origin of the term "Indian." In Beothuk will not live long after their first meeting with Europeans.
The Dorset culture preceded the Inuit or Thule people, and the last remaining tribes Dorset was destroyed by disease, when they encountered Europeans.
Some artifacts found on the Islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon date back to 6000 BC. There is no information about the native housing in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon by the time when the Europeans arrived.
Tribe micmac, a group of indigenous in the provinces of Newfoundland and Canadas marine, use the terms "Senpir" on the island of Saint-Pierre, "Mikliin" on the island of Miquelon, and the "Wenjuikjikan" for the capital, Saint-Pierre.
2. Exploration. (Разведка)
The first map showed that Saint-Pierre and Miquelon was the Mappa Mundi of 1500 created by Juan de La Cosa, where they were labeled illa de La Trenidat. There are some who argue that the Green island encountered during the two pre-1472 Portuguese expeditions under joão VAZ Corte-real and the 1501 Portuguese expedition under his son Gaspar Corte-real were St. Pierre and the Islands near it. The map, compiled by Johannes Ruys published in 1507 depicts Miquelon, St. Pierre and the surrounding Islands, and labelled as Barbatos.
The Portuguese Explorer, Joao Alvares Fagundes, on October 21, 1520, he visited the Islands called Saint Pierre island group the eleven thousand virgins, as the day was the feast of St. Ursula and her virgin companions. Jacques Cartier of France referred to Saint Pierre and Miquelon and the neighboring Islands as the Islands of Saint-Pierre in a written report after his visit in 1536. It was the earliest known written mention of the name of Saint-Pierre.
Alonzo de Santa Cruz wrote that the Islands of eleven thousand virgins was a favorite place for many fishermen from Ireland and Brittany in 1541. In Islario Jean Alphonse, a French geographer, which was published in 1544, described Saint-Pierre and nearby Islands. The first use of the name Miquelon on the large Western Islands in the Saint Pierre island group of Les aventureux du flight captain Martin de Hoyarsal, a resident of du çubiburu reference book for sailors known as a "manufacturing navigational pilot", written by Basque seaman Martin de Hoyarçabal in 1579.
3. Early European settlement. (Раннее европейское поселение)
In the 16th century the Islands were used as the basis for the seasonal cod fisheries of the French city of La Rochelle, Granville, Saint Malo and the Basques. When French Explorer Jacques Cartier was in Saint-Pierre in 1536 he noted the French and Breton fishery, writing:Nous fumes ausdictes yles sainct Pierre, ou trouvasmes plusieurs navires, tant de France que de Bretaigne, depuis le jour sainct Bernabe, XIe de juing, jusques au XVIe jour dudict moys
that isWe stayed to the so-called Saint-Pierre islands where we found several French and Breton ships, from St. Barnabes day, 11 June, until 16th day of said month.
By this time, Basque, Breton and Norman fishermen had been fishing in the waters off these Islands for over 30 years. The name Miquelon from Basque origin as this island was used by fishermen from Saint-Jean-de-Luz.
The first written evidence of year-round residents on the Islands were included in the report in 1670, the first intendant of New France Jean Talon, who recorded the presence of thirteen fishermen and four sedentary residents. By 1687, there were three families living on the Islands. There was a small chapel, built in 1689, and the military post called Pointe AUX cannon battery was constructed in 1690 in Saint-Pierre. Saint-Pierre there are many neighboring French fishermen, for example, in the Bay of Happiness and Hermitage Bay. Tensions arose between seasonal visitors to the Islands and those fishermen who settled on the Islands, especially for access to the shore for drying and curing fish. In the 1690s there were nearly 200 people working on the Islands. During the war, king Williams 1689 at 1697 and Queen Annes war, from 1702 to 1712, there were at least five British attacks on the Islands. This has led to the abandonment of the island many of the French settlers in 1708. Some of the settlers who left moved to the island of Cape Breton, live in new French fishing colony of Ile Royale. The Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 brought these wars to an end, and France ceded possession of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and Newfoundland, great Britain.
4. British possession. (Британское владение)
After they took control of the Islands in 1713, the British changed the name of St. Pierre to "Saint Peters". The British government commissioned two surveys of their new dominions between 1714 and 1716. Newfoundland planter and merchant, William Taverner, examined the region West of Placentia Bay, the British Ministry of trade. The British Admiralty asked Lieutenant John Gaudi to conduct a cartographic survey of the area in 1716.
Some of the French settlers swore allegiance to Britain, and remained, and for a while ships from Saint-Malo continued to visit the island. However, this trade was illegal and eventually stopped. Slowly the British and Anglo-American traders and settlers began to move to the Islands. In 1722, the island of Miquelon was sold to captain Diamond sarjeant, a Massachusetts resident, who sold 2 / 3 of Miquelon to Samuel mountains of new Hampshire in 1756, and sold the remaining 1/3 of Miquelon to Robert trail of Portsmouth, new Hampshire in 1758.
In the summer of 1763, after Britain agreed to return the Islands by the French, James cook mapped the Islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. Cook wrote that:The Island is as subject to Fogs as any part in Newfoundland yes if we may credit the late Planters it is very convenient for catching and curing of Codfish.
5. Return to France. (Вернуться во Францию)
At the end of the seven years war in 1763, France lost a significant portion of its North American Empire. However, two of the provisions in the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht were that France be granted the right to fisheries in the waters around Saint Pierre and Miquelon, as well as provide shelter or Abri for fishermen. France asked that these provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht, to be honored, and the United Kingdom agreed during the Paris agreement negotiations. Britain therefore returned to Saint Pierre and Miquelon to France in 1763, and allowed the visiting French fishermen come ashore in Newfoundland to dry their catch.
Between 1763 and 1778, the Islands became a refuge for Acadian deportees from Nova Scotia. Some of the Acadians who received refugee status were wealthy shipowners. Although the Acadians tried to farm the Islands, these efforts were mostly unsuccessful, and they were forced to rely on fishing, and offer fish-drying and other services to visiting French fishing fleets mainly from Saint-Malo. The French government decided in 1767 that the Islands were too small and too poor for the Acadians. France moved the Acadians back to France, settling them in the ports of Brest, Saint-Malo, Lorient and Dunkirk. In 1768, the French government changed its decision and sent back to the Acadians of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
Trade grew up between New England and Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and then with the Newfoundland mainland in the variety of merchandise. Society of Newfoundland from Placentia Bay had a large proportion of Irish settlers, many of whom were Roman Catholic, which is illegal in Newfoundland until 1784. Irish Catholics of Placentia Bay will travel to St. Pierre to have their weddings and baptisms performed by Catholic priests. Although the British tried to discourage the trade and contacts between Newfoundland and the Islands, they were not successful.
6. Attacks and deportations. (Нападений и высылки)
In 1778 the Islands were attacked by a force led by Newfoundland Governor John Montagu and the population deported by the British in retaliation for French support of the American revolutionary war. The inhabitants were sent to France, and their houses were destroyed. France regained the Islands in 1783 after the peace of Paris and some of the residents returned to the Islands.
The French revolution erupted in 1789, and the events in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon are not protected from the twists and turns that followed. In the early spring of 1793, news of the trial and execution of Louis XVI reached the island. All the Royal symbols were subsequently removed from Saint Pierre and Miquelon. The Acadian population of Miquelon was loyal to the French Royal family, and decided to leave the colony for the Magdalen Islands, a small archipelago to the North of Nova Scotia.
Then in may of 1793, British hostility to the French revolution and the fact that France declared war on Britain as part of the war of the first coalition, led to another British attack on the Islands under captain William Affleck of Halifax. Seasonal fishermen and the French armed forces were deported in 1793 and then in 1794 950 residents, who were shipped to Halifax and held for two years.
British fishermen took possession of the Islands. Only 2 years later, French forces under rear-Admiral de Richery attacked the island in 1796, sinking 80 British vessels. The British abandoned the Islands, and the French destroyed the city. After that the Islands remained deserted until 1816.
7. French restoration after Napoleon. (Французский восстановления после Наполеона)
Although the Treaty of Amiens, 1802 indicated that Saint Pierre and Miquelon returned to France, this agreement was not given the promised restoration. The Islands were finally returned to France after the second abdication of Napoleon in 1815. French fishermen again settled on the island in 1816.
The French fishing fleet went out again to the Islands for supplies and to dry and cure their catch. The islanders did a good business, worked hard, SSF, or equipment, to visit the fishing fleet. About 200 French vessels came to Fish in the waters, and as many as 8000 French fishermen came to visit every year from St. Malo, Fécamp, St. Brieuc, and Dieppe. The catch was divided into dried "saltfish" for the Caribbean and of Europe and "wet-cured" fish for the French market. This venture maintains an active trade with Newfoundland for bait and other products.
Although there were three large fires in St. Pierre, the island flourished. A post office was established in 1854, and in 1889 the "Bank des Iles" and in 1866 the island administration began a newspaper called "the Cake" Napoleon "Officielle".
On the banks of Newfoundland are increasingly visited by French fishermen for drying their catch. Although the British had intended that the French are not to erect any permanent structures or live in Newfoundland, the terms of the contract were ambiguous. French settlement appeared on the Northern coast of Newfoundland, which became known as the French shore and on the South and West coasts.
8. Changing times. (Менялись времена)
To increase French presence on the French shore led to tension between the French and English inhabitants, and extended negotiations between France and Britain. These negotiations culminated in the Convention in 1857, in which Britain agreed to allow French settlements on the Cote dazur and in the end the exclusive use of the area. The Newfoundland legislature reacted very negatively to this agreement, and Britain to reconsider. France renounced its rights under the contract Cordiale of 1904. One of the aggressive actions of Newfoundland was the adoption of the law of lure in 1887. This reduced the number of lures for fishermen at Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. In addition, the market for "saltfish" made up in 1886 and went into decline. The introduction of steamships meant that fishing vessels were able to return to France with their catch without a stop in Saint Pierre and Miquelon for supplies. It all hurt the economy in Saint Pierre and Miquelon.
Submarine TRANS-Atlantic Telegraph cables from France in the 19th century typically were routed from the French mainland through stations on Miquelon and Saint Pierre, and then in Nova Scotia or the United States. The first was laid in 1869 from the lighthouse at Le Minou on the North side of the entrance of the Strait leading to the harbour of Brest in France to St. Pierre and then to Duxbury, Massachusetts. Of the 12 French TRANS-Atlantic submarine Telegraph cables laid between 1869 and 1897, 6 of them passed through Miquelon and Saint-Pierre. Islands are becoming more closely linked with the outside world.
In 1903, U.S. Senator Henry Cabot Lodge advocated that the United States should purchase the island from France. Lodge was concerned about the influence of France in Saint Pierre and Miquelon, possible political and cultural consequences for Canada and the United States, and the influence of the French fishing fleets in New England fisheries. The islands economy was in decline because of the poor cod fishing seasons, and many residents were angry with France, insisting on approval of all teachers on the Islands. For these reasons, many residents of the island were in favor of becoming part of the United States, believing that they could then sell their fish in the rest of the United States without import taxes, and that the United States not to interfere in their educational system. In response, some Canadians asked the British for the purchase of the island from France instead. In the elections on the Islands a representative of the French chamber of deputies, one candidate was in favor of annexation, while the incumbent candidate was not. The incumbent candidate who was against annexation, he won reelection by a small margin in December, 1903. The Islands were bought any one country, and they remained part of France.
Another strong blow to the economy of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, an agreement was signed between Britain and France in 1904 over territorial issues, in which France traded its exclusive rights to fisheries in the waters of Newfoundland for consideration in Africa. Commercial advantages of language and tradition that Saint Pierre and Miquelon employed in their relationships with France and other countries was substantially weakened during this time.
Companies merged, and many residents left for greener pastures, as the economy has withered to one-third of its former size by 1914. The first World war led to disruptions of supplies from France between 1914 and 1918, and the death of more than 100 residents in the trenches of Europe.
9. Windfall from Prohibition. (Сверхдоходы от запрета)
Starting in 1920 the United States adopted the Eighteenth amendment to the U.S. Constitution which led to prohibition. As a result, Saint-Pierre and Miquelon became the transshipment point for bringing illegal alcohol from Canada to the United States. Some canadian provinces also experimented with prohibition, but alcohol producers in Canada were still allowed to distill wine for export. The French law prohibiting the import of foreign liquor abolished in 1922, the significant increase in smuggling of alcohol. Canadian whisky, Caribbean rum and legally imported French wines and spirits were the main products illegally imported and then shipped from the Islands.
Many gangsters including al Capone and bill McCoy set up operations on the Islands, using them as a base to smuggle alcohol into the United States. Fishermen and SSF gave up his usual job to unload alcohol from Canada, Europe and Bermuda and store it in warehouses. New fish processing plant was converted into a warehouse. In addition, distilleries were established on the Islands. This economic boom lasted until the end of prohibition in 1933, and was known as "Le temps de La a fraude this". As quickly as it began, the boom collapsed when prohibition was repealed, leaving a depressed local economy.
Local legend has it that Capone regularly visited Saint-Pierre, and a local bar displays a hat, presumably his.
10. World War II
France was defeated in 1940, Nazi Germany and Northern France was occupied. In the South of France governed by the Vichy France who collaborated with Germany. Vichy France was still recognized as the legitimate government of France from neutral countries, including the United States.
Governor Gilbert de Bournat of Saint-Pierre joined the Vichy France, but the Islands were in a difficult situation. The Islands were dependent on French subsidies, it is assumed that in the first part of the 20th century, France spent 40 million francs to support the islands economy. In addition, a significant proportion of the French fishing fleet decided not to return to occupied France, and remained in the harbour of Saint Pierre. French General Charles de Gaulle created the Free French, which was recognized by Britain as the government in exile in France. In addition, the UK and the United States is concerned that Saint-Pierre and Miquelon under the control of the Vichy may be used along the axis to spy on allied shipping as it was not a radio transmitter on St. Pierre, who is considered to be sending messages to German submarines.
In the first years of the Second world war, the United States maintained formal relations with Vichy France. According to the Monroe Doctrine, the United States strongly opposes any change in control over the Islands by force. However, it is possible in Canada because of pressure from Winston Churchill expressed his concern about the troops of Vichy, near Canada. De Gaulle realized that Canada might want to capture Saint Pierre and Miquelon thereby eliminating French territory so close to Quebec, so he secretly planned his capture the Free French. On Christmas eve 1941, free French forces of the three corvettes and the submarine Surcouf, headed by rear Admiral Emile Muselier "attacked" on the Islands. Officials of the Vichy immediately surrendered.
He became a major international incident, since the use of the military forces of Free France was contrary to the Monroe doctrine. U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and Churchill were outraged to learn that de Gaulle ordered the landings without even consulting with them. The United States and Canada under the threat of armed intervention, despite free France, being an ally of both countries. However, U.S. Secretary of state Cordell hull were then denied any further U.S. interest in the Islands, and the Islands were not critical for any of the allied countries.
The free French Corvette Mimosa, with a crew mainly from Saint Pierre and Miquelon, escorted allied convoys. On 9 June 1942, while escorting convoy ONS-100, she was torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-124. Losses were heavy, the French commander Roger Biro were killed and 58 French and 6 British sailors. Was only four French sailors were rescued by canadian destroyer canadian Navy Assiniboine.
11. Recent history. (Новейшая история)
At the end of the Second world war in 1945, Saint Pierre and Miquelon resumed its place as a center for cod-fishing. Other countries joined the French fleet to Fish in the waters around the Islands. The economy was not as prosperous as it was, and in the 1960s, the French government grants make up half the islands budget. This has led to the reputation of the inhabitants of the island as "the worlds most expensive French".
In the late 1950-ies de Gaulle offered all French colonies the political and financial independence. Saint Pierre and Miquelon opted to remain part of France.
A political leadership crisis in Saint Pierre and Miquelon erupted in 1965. France sent to the Armed forces of the Gardes mobiles. In response, the residents of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon has established a three-day General strike in protest against this interference in local Affairs.
The Islands became completely calm doutrе measures of France in 1976. This status was modified in 1985 and the Islands became a territory with special status collectivite territorialeбыл à Statute of the mansion under pressure from the United States. After the constitutional reform of 2003 it became collectivite doutrе-Mer, while keeping its specific name territorialeбыл collectivite de Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
Canada tried to reduce the codfishing around Newfoundland in the 1970s and 1980s years, for fear of serious damage to fish populations. The French responded with the "codfish crusade" and fished in places that were prohibited. The canadian government inspected French fishing trawlers and jailed some fishermen. In 1994, France and Canada agreed to reduce fishing industry in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
To the dismay of law enforcement officials, the continuing smuggling of alcohol and tobacco products from Saint Pierre and Miquelon to Newfoundland. This illegal trade has a long history and tradition, and partly due to the depressed local economy.
At the moment, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the only remaining vestige of Frances once vast North American possessions. They were always the most important as a fishing centre, being near the Grand banks of Newfoundland, some of the worlds richest fishing grounds. However, they gradually diversify its economy into tourism and other activities, with the assistance of the French government.
In the result of an agreement between the European Union and France, the Euro became the official currency of the French overseas territory of French Guiana, reunion, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte in 2002.
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