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Reproduction is a biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known forms of life, each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. There are two forms of reproduction: asexual and sexual. In asexual reproduction an organism can reproduce without the participation of another organism. Asexual reproduction is not limited to single-celled organisms. Cloning of an organism is a form of asexual reproduction. Through asexual reproduction, the organism creates a genetically similar or identical copies of themselves. Evolution of sexual reproduction is a major puzzle for biologists. Two times the cost of sexual reproduction is that only 50% of the organisms to reproduce, and organisms are only 50% of their genes. Sexual reproduction typically requires the sexual interaction of two specialized organisms, called gametes, which contain half the number of chromosomes of ordinary cells and are created by meiosis, with a typical male fertilizes the female of the same species to create a fertilized zygote. This produces offspring organisms whose genetic characteristics are derived from these two parental organisms.



"Allogamy" is a term used in the field of biological reproduction describing the fertilization of an ovum from one individual spermatozoa of another. On the contrary, autogamy is a term used for self-fertilization. In the case of fertilization is an instance of allogamy. The pregnant occurs in hermaphroditic organisms where the two gametes fused in fertilization of a single person. This is common in plants and some protozoa. In plants, allogamy is used specifically, refers to the use of pollen from one plant to fertilize the flower of another plant and usually synonymous with the term "cross-pollination" or "cross-pollination" of the outcrossing, although the latter term may be used more specifically to mean pollen exchange between different plant strains or even different plant species, where the term cross-hybridization may be used, not just between different individuals. Parasites having complex life cycles can pass through the next stages of allogamous and autogamous reproduction, and describe the hitherto unknown allogamous stage can be significant consequences of human disease.


Alternation of generations

Alternation of generations a type of life cycle that occurs in these plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and Heterokontophyta, which have special haploid sexual and diploid asexual stages. In these groups, the multicellular haploid gametophyte with N chromosomes, alternates with a multicellular diploid sporophyte with 2 n chromosomes, consisting of N pairs. A Mature sporophyte produces haploid spores by meiosis, a process that reduces the number of chromosomes to half, from 2 to n. Haploid spores germinate into a haploid gametophyte. At maturity, the gametophyte produces gametes by mitosis does not change chromosome number. Two gametes originating from different organisms of the same species or from the same organism fuse to produce a diploid zygote, which develops into diploid sporophyte. This cycle, from gametophyte sporophyte gametophyte or sporophyte equally to the way in which all land plants and many algae undergo sexual reproduction. The relationship between sporophyte and gametophyte varies among different groups of plants. In those algae which have alternation of generations, sporophyte and gametophyte are separate independent organisms, which may or may not have a similar appearance. In liverworts, mosses and hornworts, the sporophyte is less well developed than the gametophyte and depends on it. Although moss and hornwort sporophytes can of photosynthesis, they require additional photosynthate from the gametophyte to sustain growth and spore development and depend on supply of water, mineral nutrients and nitrogen. In contrast, in all modern vascular plants the gametophyte is less well developed than the sporophyte, although their Devonian ancestors of the gametophytes and sporophytes of approximately equivalent complexity. In ferns the gametophyte is a small flattened autotrophic prothallus, on which the young sporophyte is briefly dependent on its power. In flowering plants, reduction of gametophyte is much more extreme, it consists of just a few cells which grow entirely inside the sporophyte. Animals move in different ways. They directly produce haploid gametes. No haploid spores capable of dividing are produced, so do not have a multicellular haploid phase. Some insects have sex-determine the system by which haploid males are produced from unfertilized eggs, but females are produced from fertilized eggs are diploid. Life cycles of plants and algae with alternating haploid and diploid multicellular stages are referred to as diplohaplontic equivalent terms haplodiplontic, diplobiontic or dibiontic also in use. Life cycles, such as those of animals in which there is only a diploid multicellular phase are referred to as diplontic. Life cycles in which there is only a haploid multicellular phase are referred to as haplontic.



Amenorrhea is absence of menstruation in women of reproductive age. Physiological States of amenorrhoea are seen, most often during pregnancy and lactation, the latter also forming the basis of the form of contraception known as the lactational amenorrhea method. Outside of reproductive age, the absence of menstruation in childhood and after menopause. Amenorrhea is a symptom of many possible causes. Primary amenorrhea is defined as no secondary sexual characteristics at age 14 with menarche or normal secondary sexual characteristics but no menarche to 16 years. This may be caused by developmental problems such as congenital absence of the uterus, ovarian failure to obtain or maintain egg cells, or delay of pubertal development. Secondary amenorrhea cessation of menstrual cycles is often caused by hormonal disturbances from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, from premature menopause or intrauterine scar formation. It is defined as the absence of menstruation for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation, or six months for women with a history of oligomenorrhoea.



Anisogamy is a form of sexual reproduction that involves the Union or fusion of two gametes that differ in size and / or shape. Small gametes is male, whereas the larger gamete is the female. There are several types of anisogamy. Both gametes may be smack, so moving. In addition, both gametes may be flagellated. The latter situation occurs in some algae and plants. In the red algae Polysiphonia, still the eggs are fertilized with non-motile sperm. In flowering plants, gametes fixed cells in the gametophytes. The form of anisogamy that occurs in animals, including humans, is oogamy, in which large, immobile egg cells the egg is fertilized a small, motile sperm in the semen. The egg is optimized for longevity, while small sperm cells optimized for the mobility and speed. The size and resources of the egg allow the production of pheromones, which attract the swimming sperm cells.


Apicomplexan life cycle

Apicomplexans, a group of intracellular parasites, have life cycle stages evolved to allow them to survive in different conditions that they are exposed to during their complex life cycle. Each stage of the life cycle of apicomplexan organism is characterized by a cellular variety with a distinct morphology and biochemistry. Not all apicomplexa develop all the following cellular varieties and division methods. This presentation is intended as a diagram of a hypothetical generalised apicomplexan organism.



  • Reproduction or procreation or breeding is the biological process by which new individual organisms offspring are produced from their parents
  • Plant reproduction is the production of new offspring in plants, which can be accomplished by sexual or asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction produces
  • Sexual reproduction is a type of reproduction that involves a complex life cycle in which haploid gametes with a single set of chromosomes combine to produce
  • Reproduction is a monthly peer - reviewed medical journal covering the cellular and molecular biology of reproduction including the development of gametes
  • Human Reproduction is a peer - reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of human reproduction including reproductive physiology and pathology
  • Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction which does not involve the fusion of gametes or change in the number of chromosomes. The offspring that
  • Because speculative genres explore variants of reproduction as well as possible futures, SF writers have often explored the social, political, technological
  • Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization. It typically involves sexual intercourse between a man and a woman
  • Vegetative reproduction also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or cloning is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in
  • Animal Reproduction Science is a monthly peer - reviewed journal that publishes original research and reviews on topics relating to reproduction and fertility
  • The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology ESHRE was founded in 1985 by Robert Edwards University of Cambridge and J. Cohen Paris
  • Canine reproduction is the process of sexual reproduction in domestic dogs, wolves, coyotes and other canine species. In domestic dogs, sexual maturity
  • Reproduction is the first album released by British synthpop group The Human League. The album was released in 1979 through Virgin Records. Reproduction
  • Third - party reproduction or donor - assisted reproduction is any human reproduction in which DNA or gestation is provided by a third party or donor other
  • Reproduction Fertility and Development is an international peer - reviewed scientific journal published by CSIRO Publishing. The journal publishes original
  • Animals make use of a variety of modes of reproduction to produce their young. Traditionally this variety was classified into three modes, oviparity embryos
  • In the theory of photography, tone reproduction is the mapping of scene luminance and color to print reflectance or display luminance, with the aim of
  • The net reproduction rate, R0, is the average number of daughters that would be born to a female or a group of females if she passed through her lifetime
  • painting reproductions are paintings that have been created by copying in oils an original oil painting by an artist. Oil painting reproductions are distinct
  • Molecular Reproduction and Development is a peer - reviewed scientific journal that publishes research articles on developmental and reproductive biology
  • mammalian reproduction Marsupial Reproduction Reproductive behavior of kangaroos Red kangaroo Reproduction Eastern grey kangaroo Reproduction Desert
  • Stratified reproduction is a widely used social scientific concept, created by Shellee Colen, that describes imbalances in the ability of people of different
  • Assisted Human Reproduction Act the Act is law enacted by the Parliament of Canada. Its purpose is to regulate assisted human reproduction AHR and related
  • theory, the cost of reproduction hypothesis is the idea that reproduction is costly in terms of future survival and reproduction This is mediated by
  • Receptors in Fish Reproduction World Scientific. ISBN 9789812569189. Potts GW, Wootton RJ and Wootton RJ Eds 1984 Fish reproduction strategies and
  • Cultural reproduction is the transmission of existing cultural values and norms from generation to generation. Cultural reproduction refers to the mechanisms
  • The Animal Reproduction Research Institute ARRI may be considered to date back to 1968 when the first center for bull investigation in Egypt was established
  • A reproduction part, or repro, is a part that has been independently manufactured to meet original equipment manufacturer s OEM specifications by a third
  • Marxian economics, economic reproduction refers to recurrent or cyclical processes. Michel Aglietta views economic reproduction as the process whereby the
  • Fragmentation in multicellular organisms is a form of asexual reproduction in which an organism is split into fragments. Each of these fragments develop


Adelphogamy is a form of sexual partnership between sibling eukaryotes, for example in some species of fungi, flowering plants or ants, or in humans. In sociology the term adelphogamy can also refer to fraternal polyandry, or the relationship between brother and sister.

Reproduction hierophante скачать.

Reproduction news, articles and features New Scientist. ASPIRE is proud to have launched our 1st issue of Fertility & Reproduction F&R – The Official Journal of ASPIRE at ASPIRE 2019, Hong Kong. Reproduction перевод. Reproduction Eszter Salamon. Citation Style: Author Year. Date: Thursday, September 29, 2011. Discipline: Microbiology. File Name: Re. Publisher: BioScientifica. URL.

Allogamy English to Tamil Meaning Tamil lexicon Dictionary.

Here you can find the antonyms list for the word allogamy. Also you can find some other opposite words using the online search on our website. Cross fertilization biology Britannica. How Do You Spell ALLOGAMY? Correct spelling for the English word allogamy is IPA phonetic alphabet. Experimental Allogamy of the Tomato EXALTO a new multi. The terrestrial orchid genus Epipactis has become a model system for the study of speciation via transitions from allogamy to autogamy, but. Allogamy, varietal adulteration and the breeding of okra. Telephone number, CIF and address of ALLOGAMY SL. View all information on this company located in Jaen for FREE.

What is Alternation of.

Of individuals alternate between haploid and diploid organisms. This can be contrasted to sexual reproduction in animals, in which both haploid and diploid cells are found in every. Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations CK 12 Foundation. Main Entry: alternation of generations the alternate occurrence of two or more forms and especially of a sexual and an asexual generation in the life cycle of a. Alternation of Generations and Classification With Special jstor. The alternation of two or more different forms in the life cycle of a plant or animal heterogenesis, xenogenesis. Derived forms: alternations of generations. Alternation of generations definition. IX. Alternation of generations, metamorphosis, and direct development. W. Wedekind. Pages 38 44 Published online: 29 Sep 2009. Pages 38 44. Published.

Amenorrhea перевод.

Amenorrhea UAB Medicine. Amenorrhea. A Review of Etiology and Treatment in 350 Patients. G. E. Seegar Jones, M.D., and W. Ben Nalley, M.D. AMENORRHEA is not a disease but a. Oligomenorrhea. Abnormal Genital Bleeding and Secondary Amenorrhea Journal of. Amenorrhea is often a sign of another health problem rather than a disease itself, and it can happen for many reasons. It can occur as a natural. Secondary amenorrhea. Primary Amenorrhea due to Hypothalamic disease Cancer. Amenorrhea High Impact List of Articles PPts Journals 3355. Amenorrhea Wake Forest Baptist Health. Amenorrhea, also known as missed periods, is the absence of a normal monthly period or menstrual cycle. There are two types of amenorrhea: Primary.

Why are equally sized gametes so rare? The instability of isogamy utionary.

Anisogamy and therefore males and females have evolved many times from this ancestral state, but many eukaryotic lineages are still. Correct spelling of anisogamy, 1 definitions of anisogamy at. The evolution of anisogamy the production of gametes of different size is the first step in the establishment of sexual dimorphism, and it is a. Standing variation of beneficial mutations is sufficient for ETD. 名 As a noun. Reproduction by the union or fusion of two differing gametes ​especially differing in size. Hyphenation, an i sog a my. Part of Speech, 名 noun. Anisogamy 翻译 英汉词典 Mandarin Chinese English Dictionary. Correct spelling of anisogamy. Check how to say anisogamy in English. Следующая Войти Настройки Конфиденциальность.

Parisitology Flashcards.

TERMINOLOGY, TAXONOMY AND LIFE CYCLES. OF APICOMPLEXA. ELIZABETH U. CANNING. Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College of. Apicomplexan Parasite, Eimeria falciformis, Co opts Host.org. The apicomplexan life cycle is complex and may be broken down into three broad stages: sporozoite, merozoite, and gametocyte Fig. 1. While the general life. Life cycle progression and sexual development of the Code Ocean. A Highly simplified apicomplexan life cycle. Apicomplexans are haplonts, and meiosis sporogony immediately follows fertilization. Fertilization might occur. TERMINOLOGY, TAXONOMY AND LIFE CYCLES OF APICOMPLEXA. Is well established as they all undergo a series of asexual and sexual reproduction involving either one or two hosts whereby a diploid zygote is formed by the union of gametes. It then undergoes a meiotic division to form infective haploid sporozoites. Life cycle progression and sexual development of the apicomplexan. Apicomplexan Parasite, Eimeria falciformis, Co opts Host Tryptophan Catabolism for Life Cycle Progression in Mouse. Manuela Schmid, Maik. Host Apicomplexan Parasite Interactions: Leveraging Biological. This code capsule is meant to accompany the manuscript Life cycle The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium is a leading global cause of severe.

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