★ Non-cellular life
Acellular or cell-free life is a life that exists without a cellular structure, at least part of its life cycle. Historically, most definitions of life postulates that a living organism must consist of one or more cells, but it is not considered necessary, and the current criteria allow life forms based on other constructive activities.
The main candidates for cell-free viruses. A minority of biologists consider viruses living organisms, but most do not. Their primary objection is that no known viruses capable of Autonomous beings: they must rely on cells to copy them. However, the recent discovery of giant viruses that possess genes for the part required transfer machines greatly increases the risk that they may already be extinct ancestors that can grow and multiply independently. Most biologists agree that the ancestor is the true non-cellular form of life, but the existence and characteristics remain uncertain.
Engineers sometimes use the term "artificial life" to refer to software and robots inspired by the biological processes, but they do not satisfy any biological definition of life.
1. Viruses as non-cellular life. (Вирусы как неклеточная жизнь)
The nature of viruses remained unclear for many years after their discovery as pathogens. They have been described as poisons or toxins in the ground, then as "infectious proteins", but with the development of Microbiology, it became clear that they also possessed the genetic material, and some structure, and the ability to spontaneously assemble from their component parts. This led to a discussion about what should be seen as essentially organic or inorganic - as a very small biological organisms or very large biochemical molecules, and since the 1950s, many scientists considered viruses as existing at the border between chemistry and life, a gray area between living and non-living.
The recent discovery of giant viruses aka "giruses," large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses, pandoravirus NCLDVs like this argument, because they are not only physically larger than the previously known viruses, but also have much larger genomes, including genes encoding aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, key proteins involved in translation, which only ever before seen in cellular organisms. Some biologists have expressed the hypothesis that the ancestors of giant viruses evolved from cells and involved in vital processes, as independent self-reproduction of cells, the ability, ultimately again lost. Some additional hypotheses of ancient viral origin, which arose together with the first archaea or to the bow. Such viruses will represent a life form bona FIDE, and his descendants, at least, the giant viruses, but possibly all known viruses can be phylogenetically included in the fourth sphere of life.
Current research is being conducted in this area, using methods such as phylogenetic bracketing on giant viruses, to determine the characteristics of their proposed progenitor. However, other phylogenetic analyses argue that giant viruses are just highly derived viruses double-stranded DNA.
Viral replication and Assembly is of importance for the study of the origin of life, as she once again underline the hypothesis that life could have started as self-assembling organic molecules.
2. Viroid. (Вироидов)
Viroid is the smallest infectious agents known to biologists, consisting solely of short strands of circular, single-stranded RNA without protein coats. They are mostly pathogens of plants and some animal pathogens, some of which are of commercial value. The genomes of viroids are extremely small in size, ranging from 246 to 467 nucleobases. For comparison, the genome of the smallest known viruses capable of causing an infection by themselves are around 2.000 nucleobases in size. Viroid are the first known representatives of a new biological Kingdom sub-viral pathogens.
RNA viroids do not code for any protein. Its replication mechanism that captures RNA-polymerase II of the host cell enzyme normally associated with synthesis of RNA from DNA, which instead catalyzes "rolling circle" synthesis of new RNA using RNA viroids as a template. Some viroid are ribozymes, having catalytic properties which allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit-size genomes from larger replication intermediates.
Viroid reached values outside of Virology of plants, as one possible explanation of their origin is that they represent" living relics” from a hypothetical, ancient, and non-cellular RNA world before the evolution of DNA or protein. This species was first proposed in the 1980s and regained popularity in 2010-ies to explain the most important milestones in the evolution of life from nonliving matter Abiogenesis.
3. Taxonomy. (Таксономия)
In the discussion of taxonomic aspects of life, the terms "Acytota" or "Aphanobionta" is sometimes used as the name of a viral Kingdom, domain, or Empire. The corresponding name of the cell life will be Cytota. Non-cellular organisms and cellular life would be the two top-level divisions of life, where life in General will be called organisms, purity, or curriculum vitae. Tucson Cytota will include three top-level divisions of its own, the Domains bacteria, archaea and Eukarya.
- A cellular automaton CA is Life - like in the sense of being similar to Conway s Game of Life if it meets the following criteria: The array of cells
- A cellular automaton pl. cellular automata, abbrev. CA is a discrete model studied in computer science, mathematics, physics, complexity science, theoretical
- Spectrometry In The Life Sciences Frequently Asked Questions about Individual Non - Member Subscriptions Molecular Cellular Proteomics. Retrieved
- block cellular automaton or partitioning cellular automaton is a special kind of cellular automaton in which the lattice of cells is divided into non - overlapping
- finding these patterns in Conway s Game of Life The Garden of Eden theorem of Moore and Myhill asserts that a cellular automaton on the square grid, or on a
- Cellular confinement systems CCS - also known as geocells - are widely used in construction for erosion control, soil stabilization on flat ground and steep
- Cellular automata, as with other multi - agent system models, usually treat time as discrete and state updates as occurring synchronously. The state of every
- The Game of Life also known simply as Life is a cellular automaton devised by the British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970. The game is a zero - player
- Conway s Game of Life and other cellular automata, a still life is a pattern that does not change from one generation to the next. A still life can be thought
- simulate life processes to understand the underlying mechanics of biological phenomena. Cellular automata were used in the early days of artificial life and
- In computer science and machine learning, cellular neural networks CNN or cellular nonlinear networks CNN are a parallel computing paradigm similar
- their complex life cycle. Each stage in the life cycle of an apicomplexan organism is typified by a cellular variety with a distinct morphology and biochemistry
- Immunisation Evolution of ageing Gerontology Altered intercellular communication Cellular senescence Deregulated nutrient sensing Epigenetic alterations Genomic
- Cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another. Usually, the cell changes to a more specialized type. Differentiation
- Cellular agriculture focuses on the production of agriculture products from cell cultures using a combination of biotechnology, tissue engineering, molecular
- In a cellular automaton, an oscillator is a pattern that returns to its original state, in the same orientation and position, after a finite number of
- uncertain. Therefore, this listing may be paraphyletic if cellular life evolved from non - cellular life or polyphyletic if the most recent common ancestor were
- leather, gelatin, and silk. In recent years a number of cellular animal agriculture companies and non - profits have emerged due to technological advances and
- A reversible cellular automaton is a cellular automaton in which every configuration has a unique predecessor. That is, it is a regular grid of cells
- the smallest unit of life Cells are often called the building blocks of life The study of cells is called cell biology, cellular biology, or cytology
- becoming a coenocyte. A membrane would then form around each nucleus and the cellular space and organelles occupied in the space thereby resulting in a group
- apply well to the non - differentiated earliest life Life Artificial life Extraterrestrial life Non - cellular life Organism Origin of life Daniel E. Koshland
- life Earliest known life forms Extraterrestrial life Hachimoji DNA Iron sulfur world hypothesis Nexus for Exoplanet System Science Non - cellular life Non - proteinogenic
- study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level. Bioinformatics developing of methods
- In cell biology and pathophysiology, cellular adaptation refers to changes made by a cell in response to adverse or varying environmental changes. The
- The Rule 110 cellular automaton often simply Rule 110 is an elementary cellular automaton with interesting behavior on the boundary between stability
- The Cellular Jail, also known as Kālā Pānī Hindi for black waters was a colonial prison in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. The prison was used
- any form of non - cellular life As of 2011 there was talk about nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses possibly being a fourth domain of life a view supported
- 2007 Useful junk Alu RNAs in the human transcriptome Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences Submitted manuscript 64 14 1793 800. doi: 10
- nucleic acids contained by viruses in a microbiome. Human virome Non - cellular life Microbiology Metagenomics Hugenholtz, Philip Tyson, Gene W. 2008
Coleridge's theory of life
Hiding Place (band)
Philosophy of life
Reverence for Life
The Seven Pillars of Life
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