Human flight into space-this is space travel with a crew and passengers on Board the spacecraft. The spacecraft was carrying people can be controlled directly from a man of the crew, or it can be either remotely controlled from ground stations on Earth or to be Autonomous, capable of performing a mission without human intervention. The first man in space was Yuri Gagarin, who flew the spaceship "Vostok-1" launched by the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 in the framework of the "East". People flew to the moon nine times between 1968 to 1972 in the Apollo program of the United States, and a permanent presence in space for 19 years and 102 days on the International space station. All human flight into space, still manned, with the first Autonomous man-carrying machine in the design phase, starting in 2015. Russia and China have manned space program "Soyuz" and the "Shenzhou". In the United States, SpaceShipTwo reached the edge of outer space in 2018, it was the first space flight with a crew from the United States since the space Shuttle retired in 2011. Currently, in all expeditions on the International space station "Soyuz" use of funds which remain attached to the station to quickly return, if necessary. The United States is developing commercial crew transportation to facilitate access to the ISS and low earth orbit, and the ship "Orion" in super-low earth orbit applications. During the flight, as a rule, government activities, commercial space flight is gradually taking on a greater role. The first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when space ship number one was conducted in suborbital flight, as well as a number of non-governmental companies involved in the development of space tourism. NASA also plays an important role to stimulate private spaceflight through such programs as the commercial orbital transportation services cots and CCDev commercial crew development. In its proposals for budget 2011 was released in 2010, the Obama administration moved towards a model where commercial companies would supply NASA with transportation of people and cargo to low-earth orbit. Vehicles used for these services could serve both NASA and potential commercial customers. Commercial outfitting of the ISS began two years after the retirement of the space Shuttle, and launches commercial crew could begin by 2020.
Cosmos 110 was a Soviet spacecraft launched on 22 February 1966 from the Baikonur cosmodrome on Board the rocket "Rising". He carried two dogs, Coal and wind.
The living interplanetary flight experiment is an interplanetary mission developed by the Planetary society. It consisted of sending selected microorganisms on a three-year interplanetary round-trip in a small capsule aboard the Russian "Phobos-Grunt" spacecraft in 2011, which was not to return samples of the Martian moon Phobos. On the "Phobos-Grunt" mission failed to leave earth orbit and was destroyed. The goal was to test whether selected organisms could survive an indefinite number of years in deep space, overtaking them through interplanetary space. The experiment would have tested one aspect of transpermia, the hypothesis that life could survive space travel, if protected inside rocks blasted by impact from one planet to the Earth on the other.
On Mars gravity biosatellite was a project as a competition between universities in 2001 by the Mars Society. The goal was to create a concept of a spacecraft to study the effects of Mars-level gravity on mammals. Presentations were made by Robert Zubrin society "Mars", and the award for best design was given at the University of Washington UW. The University continues to develop the concept until the end of the school year in June 2002, after which funding has become a problem. The team contacted members of the UW team, who represented the Massachusetts Institute of technology and two universities agreed to continue the development together. Later, the University of Queensland – Australia UQ joined the team as well. The program ended in 2009.
Survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated using the model objects and the effects of low earth orbit. Bacteria were among the first studied organisms, when in 1960, the Russian satellite carried E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter aerogenes on orbit. Many species of microorganisms were chosen for exposure experiments, since, as indicated in the table below. Experiments on the adaptation of microbes in space has led to unexpected results. Although sometimes the organism may be weakened, they can also increase their pathogenic potency. It is possible to classify these organisms into two groups, person responsible, and extremophiles. Studying human-bear microorganisms is essential for human well-being and the future of manned missions into space, while extremophiles are vital for studying the physiological needs of survival in space. NASA indicated that normal adults have ten times more microbial cells as human cells in their bodies. They are also almost everywhere in the environment, and although generally invisible, can form a slimy biofilm. Extremophiles have adapted to live in the most extreme conditions on Earth. This includes in hypersaline lakes, arid regions, deep sea, acid centres, cold and dry Arctic and permafrost. The existence of extremophiles has led to the assumption that microorganisms can survive in the harsh conditions of extraterrestrial environments and to be used as model organisms for understanding the fate of biological systems in these environments. The focus of many experiments was to study the possible survival of organisms inside lithopanspermia species, or their survival on Mars for understanding the likelihood of past or present life on this planet. Because of their ubiquity and resistance to spacecraft decontamination, bacterial spores are considered potential forward contaminants on robotic missions to Mars. Measurement of resistance of such organisms to space conditions can be used to develop adequate decontamination procedures. Study and testing of microorganisms in outer space ultimately can be applied for directed panspermia or terraforming.
Plant growth in space has sparked much scientific interest. At the end of the 20th and 21st century, the plants often take to space in low earth orbit, to be grown in zero gravity, but under pressure controlled environment, which is sometimes called the garden space. In the context of human flight into space, they can eat and / or provide a refreshing atmosphere. Plants can absorb carbon dioxide in the air to produce valuable oxygen, and can help control the humidity in the cabin. Growing plants in space may give a psychological advantage to crews of manned space flight. As a rule, factories were part of the research or technical developments for further development of space gardens or scientific experiments. To date, the plants were taken into space, was used mainly for scientific interest, with limited contribution to the functioning of the ship, but the Apollo project tree the Moon was more or less inspired by the mission of forest and trees part of the country for the bicentennial celebration. The first task when growing plants in space is how to make plants grow without gravity. This runs into difficulties related to the effect of gravity on root system development, providing the necessary types of lighting, and other problems. In particular, the flow of nutrients to the root, as well as biogeochemical cycles of nutrients and microbial interactions in soil substrates are particularly complex, but, as shown, to allow space crops in Hypo - and micro-gravity. NASA plans to grow plants in space to help feed astronauts, and to provide psychological benefits for long-term space flight. In 2017 aboard the ISS in a single device for plant growth, 5th harvest Chinese cabbage Brassica Rapa from her part of the allocation for consumption by the crew, while the rest was saved for study. In the beginning of the discussion of plants in space, there were trees, a brick space station, the Moon, in 1869 story "the brick Moon".
Probe 5 was a spacecraft of the Soviet program "probe". In September 1968, he became the second spacecraft to travel to the moon, and the first to safely return to Earth. ZOND 5 carried out the first terrestrial organisms in the vicinity of the moon, including two turtles, Drosophila eggs, and plants. The turtle has occurred the biological changes during the flight, but it was concluded that the changes were primarily due to hunger and they were little affected by space travel. Spacecraft "ZOND" was a variant of the Soyuz 7K-L1 with a crew to lunar flyby spacecraft. It was launched a proton-K carrier rocket with a Blok D upper stage to conduct scientific research during your lunar flight.
ZOND 6, a formal member of the Soviet program "probe" and an unmanned version of the spacecraft Soyuz 7K-L1 manned lunar flight, the spacecraft was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite in earth Parking orbit. The spacecraft, which carried scientific probes including cosmic ray and micrometeoroid detectors, photography equipment, as well as biological goods, was a precursor to a manned circumlunar which the Soviets hoped could occur in December 1968, beating the American Apollo 8. However, after rounding the moon, ZOND-6 crashed while returning to Earth due to parachute failure.
Life in space
- Life in Space is the follow up solo album by Nik Turner to Space Fusion Odyssey. The album was released on Cleopatra Records in September, 2017. The album
- Life Sciences in Space Research is a quarterly peer - reviewed scientific journal covering astrobiology, origins of life life in extreme environments
- Space for Life French: Espace pour la vie is a museum district in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It brings together the city s four most prominent natural
- Lego Space is a Lego theme that features astronauts, spaceships, and extraterrestrial life Originally introduced in 1978, it is one of the oldest and
- transport of microorganisms in space sent to Earth to start life here, or sent from Earth to seed new stellar systems with life The Nobel prize winner Francis
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- European Programme for Life and Physical Sciences in Space and applications utilising the International Space Station started in 2001 and was intended
- Life in the So - Called Space Age is the 1998 album released by God Lives Underwater and is their second full - length album. The title comes from the cover
- for and against space colonization. The two most common in favor of colonization are survival of human civilization and the biosphere in the event of a
- Life Space Death is a collaborative album by Toshinori Kondo and Bill Laswell, released on April 22, 2001 by Meta Records. Adapted from the Life Space
- Space exploration is the use of astronomy and space technology to explore outer space While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with
- Outer space or simply space is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies. Outer space is not completely empty - it is a hard
- Church of Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard included space opera narratives in his writings, wherein thetans the name given to human souls were reincarnated
- generally applied to systems supporting human life in situations where the outside environment is hostile, like in space or underwater, or medical situations where
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA as part of the Space Shuttle program. Its official program name was Space Transportation System STS
- Real life is a phrase used originally in literature to distinguish between the real world and fictional or idealized worlds, and in acting to distinguish
- institute a code of space ethics to prevent the destruction of the space environment. Furthermore, the advancement of life in space pertain to questions
- Founded in 1983, the Space Foundation vision is to inspire, educate, connect, and advocate on behalf of the global space community. Located in Colorado
- A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space vacuum and temperature extremes. Space suits are often worn
- Space tourism is human space travel for recreational purposes. There are several different types of space tourism, including orbital, suborbital and lunar
- battles, chivalric romance, and risk - taking. Set mainly or entirely in outer space it usually involves conflict between opponents possessing advanced
- Space architecture, in its simplest definition, is the theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space The architectural
- Space debris also known as space junk, space pollution, space waste, space trash, or space garbage is a term for defunct human - made objects in space - principally
- A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a human crew in orbit for an extended
- Hot Space is the tenth studio album by the British rock band Queen. It was released on 21 May 1982 by EMI Records in the UK and by Elektra Records in the
- Before humans went into space in the 1960s, several other animals were launched into space including numerous other primates, so that scientists could
- International Space Station crews. The primary life support system for the EMU suit used on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station is manufactured
- inspired by the space race and concerned human s first close encounter with alien life forms. Meek then went on to have a UK and US No 1 success in 1961 with
- Life On Another Planet, also known as Signal from Space is a science fiction graphic novel by Will Eisner dealing with the social and political consequences
- emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere. Space weather is distinct
Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment
Mars Gravity Biosatellite
List of microorganisms tested in oute ..
Plants in space
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