Chirality is a property of asymmetry important in several branches of science. The word "chirality" comes from the Greek χειρ, "hand", a familiar chiral object.
Object or system is chiral if it differs from its mirror image, that is, it can not be imposed on him. Conversely, the mirror image achiral object, such as a sphere, cannot be separated from the object. A chiral object and its mirror image are called enantiomorphs Greek "opposite forms" or, when referring to molecules, enantiomers. Not a chiral object is called achiral sometimes amphichiral and can be superimposed on its mirror image.
The term was first used by Lord Kelvin in 1893 in the second Robert Boyle lecture at the Oxford University Junior scientific club which was published in 1894:
I call any geometrical figure or group of points chiral and say it has chirality, if its image in a plane mirror, ideally realized, cannot be brought to coincide with itself.
Human hands are perhaps the most universally recognized example of chirality. The left hand is not superimposable mirror image of the right hand, no matter how the two hands are oriented, it is impossible for all the major features of both hands to coincide in all axes. This difference in symmetry becomes obvious if someone attempts to shake the hand of the person using your left hand, or left hand glove is placed on right hand. In mathematics chirality is the property of a shape that is not identical to its mirror image.
In mathematics, a figure is chiral, and say, chirality if it cannot be mapped to its mirror image, only rotation and translation. For example, the right Shoe different from the left Shoe, and clockwise is different from the outside. See for the full mathematical definition.
A chiral object and its mirror image are said enantiomorphs. The word enantiomorph is derived from the Greek enantios opposite ἐναντίος μορφή Morphe form. Non-chiral figure is called achiral or amphichiral.
Spiral and Mobius strip are chiral two-dimensional objects in three-dimensional ambient space. J, L, C and Z-shaped tetrominoes of the popular video game Tetris also exhibit chirality, but only in two-dimensional space.
Many other familiar objects exhibit the same chiral symmetry of the human body, such as gloves, glasses where the two lenses differ in prescription, and shoes. A similar notion of chirality is in knot theory, as described below.
Some chiral three-dimensional objects, such as spirals, can be assigned to the right or left hand, in accordance with the right-hand rule.
1.1. Math Geometry. (Геометрия)
In geometry shapes are achiral if and only if its group of symmetry contains at least one orientation-reversing isometry. In two dimensions, every figure has the axis of symmetry is achiral, and it can be proved that every bounded achiral figure must have an axis of symmetry. In three dimensions, each figure has a plane of symmetry or center of symmetry achiral. However, there are achiral figures lacking both plane and center of symmetry. From the point of view of a group of points, chiral figures, no improper rotation axis with N. This means that they do not contain the center of inversion I, or a mirror plane σ. Only numbers With group destination TS 1, TS, D, N, T, O or I can be chiral.
1.2. Math Knot theory. (Теории узлов)
A knot is called achiral if it can be continuously deformed into its mirror image, otherwise it is called chiral. For example, the unknot and the figure-eight knot are achiral, while the trefoil is chiral.
2. Physics. (Физика)
In physics, chirality may be found in the spin of a particle, where is the objectivity of the object is determined by the direction in which the particle spins. Not to be confused with the helicity which is the projection of the spin along the linear momentum of a subatomic particle, chirality-pure quantum mechanical phenomenon of spin. Although both can be right or left-handed properties only in the case of massless they have a simple ratio. In particular, for massless particles the helicity is the same as chirality, and the antiparticle have the opposite sign.
Impartiality in both the chirality and the helicity associated with the rotation of the particle, while it moves in linear motion with reference to the human hands. The thumb of the hand points in the direction of rectilinear motion, until the fingers into the palm, representing the direction of rotation of the particle, i.e., clockwise and counterclockwise. Depending on the linear and rotational motion of the particle can be determined left-handedness or right -. Transformation of symmetry between the two is called parity. The invariance of parity on a Dirac fermion is called chiral symmetry.
2.1. Physics. Electromagnetism. (Электромагнитизм)
The propagation of electromagnetic waves as left-handedness is wave polarization and described in terms of helicity occurs in a spiral. Polarization of electromagnetic waves is a property that describes the orientation, i.e. time-varying direction vector and the amplitude vector of the electric field.
Chiral mirrors belong to the class of metamaterials, which will reflect circularly polarized light of a certain helicity to the hand-preserving way, in the absorption of circular polarization of the opposite hand. However, most absorbing chiral mirrors work only in a narrow frequency range, as limited by principle of causality. Using various design techniques, allowing unwanted waves to pass through and not absorb unwanted waves, chiral mirror is able to show good performance in broadband.
3. Chemistry. (Химия)
A chiral molecule is a molecule that has a non-superposable mirror image. Function, which is often the cause of chirality of the molecules is the presence of an asymmetric carbon atom.
The term "chiral" in General is used to describe the object that is not superposable on its mirror image.
In chemistry, chirality usually refers to molecules. Two mirror chiral molecule are called enantiomers or optical isomers. Pairs of enantiomers are often designated as "right" and "left hand", or, if they have no bias, "achiral". As polarized light passes through chiral molecules, the plane of polarization, when viewed along the axis toward the source, will rotate clockwise to the right or counterclockwise to the left. Right-handed rotation right-handed D on the left levorotary L. D - and L-isomers of the same compound, but are called enantiomers. The equimolar mixture of two optical isomers will produce no net rotation of polarized light as it passes through. Left-handed molecules have L - prefix with their names, D is a prefix for right-handed molecules.
Molecular chirality is of interest because of its application to stereochemistry in inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, biochemistry and supramolecular chemistry.
More recent developments in chiral chemistry include the development of chiral inorganic nanoparticles, which may have a similar tetrahedral geometry as chiral centers associated with SP3 carbon atoms, which is traditionally associated with chiral compounds, but on a larger scale. The spiral and other symmetry chiral nanomaterials were also obtained.
4. Biology. (Биология)
All known forms of life show specific chiral properties in the chemical structures as well as macroscopic anatomy, development and behavior. In any particular organism or evolutionary related set of its individual compounds, organs, or behavior in the same enantiomorphic form. Deviations with opposite forms may be found in a small number of chemical compounds, or a particular organ or behavior, but this change is strongly dependent on the genetic components of the body. Of chemical molecular scale level, biological systems show extreme heterogeneous synthesis, absorption, feeling, metabolic processing. A live system usually seen with two enantiomers of the same compound in radically different directions.
In biology, homochirality is a common property of amino acids and carbohydrates. Chiral protein-the conversion of amino acids, which are translated using ribosomes from the genetic coding occur in the L form. However, D-amino acids occur in nature. Monosaccharides carbohydrates-units are usually in D-configuration. DNA double helix is chiral, as any form of a spiral, chiral, and B-form of DNA shows a right turn.
Sometimes, when two enantiomers of the compound in the organisms, they differ significantly in taste, smell and other biological actions. For example, lemon-found in the orange causing the smell, and limonene, found in lemons, causing their smell, show different odors due to the different biochemical interactions in the human nose. -Carvone is responsible for the smell of caraway oil, and --carvone is responsible for the smell of peppermint oil.
In addition, for synthetic compounds, including medicines, in the case of chiral drugs, two enantiomers show a remarkable difference in their biological action. Darvon dextropropoxyphene is a painkiller, while its enantiomer levopropoxyphene Novrad anti-cough agent. In the case of penicillamine, s-isomer used in the treatment of primary chronic arthritis, while R-isomer has no therapeutic effect and is very toxic. In some cases, less therapeutically active enantiomer can cause side effects. For example, the S-naproxen is a painkiller, but the R-isomer to cause kidney problems. Natural herbal form of alpha-tocopherol vitamin E, rrr-α-tocopherol while the synthetic form, all-racemic vitamin E, or DL- - tocopherol in equal parts of the stereoisomers RRR, RRS, RSS, SSS, RSR SR, SSR, SRR, and gradually decreases biological equivalence, so 1.36 mg DL-tocopherol is equivalent to 1.0 mg of D-tocopherol.
Examples of macroscopic chirality was found in the plant world, the animal world and other groups of organism. A simple example is the direction of winding of any vine that can grow in the form of a left - or right-hand spiral.
In anatomy, chirality is found in the imperfect mirror symmetry image of many kinds of animal bodies. Organisms such as gastropods exhibit chirality in coiled shells, which will lead to asymmetry. More than 90% of species of gastropods have right-handed right-shells in their coiling, but a small number of species and genera are virtually always left-handed left-handed. Very few species such as Amphidromus perversus indicate an equal mixture of right-and left-handed individuals.
In humans, chirality is also referred to as left-handedness or asymmetry is an attribute of humans defined by their unequal distribution of fine motor skill between the left and right hands. The man who is more dexterous with the right hand called the right hand, the one who is more skilled with the left is said to be left-handed. Chirality is also seen in the study of facial asymmetry.
In flatfish, the summer flounder or Fluke left-eyed, while halibut are right-eyed.
5. Popular Culture. (Популярная Культура)
Chirality, chiral theory, and even "bitches" features such as a very hard to 2019 video Game of death twist, from Hideo Kojima and Kojima Productions for.
- light, a common technique in studying chirality Chirality is based on molecular symmetry. Specifically, a chiral compound can contain no improper axis
- called an achiral knot or amphicheiral knot. The chirality of a knot is a knot invariant. A knot s chirality can be further classified depending on whether
- A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image see the article on mathematical chirality The spin of a particle may be used to
- Axial chirality is a special case of chirality in which a molecule does not possess a stereogenic center the most common form of chirality in organic
- Mathematical Theory of Chirality by Michel Petitjean Symmetry, Chirality Symmetry Measures and Chirality Measures: General Definitions Chiral Polyhedra by Eric
- all inherently chiral molecules A simple example of inherent chirality is that of corannulene commonly referred to as bowl chirality in the literature
- The theme of chemical chirality or the handedness of the molecular structure of certain substances, appears in many works of fiction. Although little
- Planar chirality is the special case of chirality for two dimensions. Most fundamentally, planar chirality is a mathematical term, finding use in chemistry
- term supramolecular chirality is used to describe supramolecular assemblies that are non - superposable on their mirror images. Chirality in supramolecular
- in order to control the stereochemical outcome of the synthesis. The chirality present in the auxiliary can bias the stereoselectivity of one or more
- exhibit chirality due to the presence of a two - fold rotation axis. Planar chirality may also provide for chirality without having an actual chiral center
- molecule is called an enantiomer or is said to exhibit chirality or enantiomerism. The term chiral comes from the Greek word for the human hand, which
- Chirality handedness is a property of asymmetry. Chirality may also refer to: Chirality chemistry a property of molecules having a non - superimposable
- Chiral Lewis acids CLAs are a type of Lewis acid catalyst that effects the chirality of the substrate as it reacts with it. In such reactions the synthesis
- Chirality is a peer - reviewed scientific journal covering chiral chemistry in relation with physiology. Chirality home page Official website Chirality
- on chiral discrimination Chirality 6 2 47 50. doi: 10.1002 chir.530060202. ISSN 1520 - 636X. Chirality 2004 Symposium and Exhibit Chirality 16
- Chirality is a solo piano album by American pianist John Burke. In an homage to Johann Sebastian Bach, Chirality used the chemical property of asymmetry
- A chiral derivatizing agent CDA also known as a chiral resolving reagent, is a chiral auxiliary used to convert a mixture of enantiomers into diastereomers
- enantiopure substances. Common chiral starting materials include monosaccharides and amino acids. The built - in chirality is then preserved in the remainder
- lasers. Chiral Photonics is also developing chirality in polymeric thin films which, for instance, would enable high quality projection displays. Chiral Photonics
- where the stereogenic center can reside at sites other than phosphorus. P - chirality exploits the high barrier for inversion of phosphines, which ensures that
- contains a single enantiomer of a chiral compound. The chiral stationary phase can be prepared by attaching a chiral compound to the surface of an achiral
- form of dissymmetry with the term chirality being coined by Lord Kelvin a year later. The origin of chirality itself was finally described in 1874
- geometrically chiral or it can refer to the symmetries of the polytope as a combinatorial structure an abstract polytope Chirality is meaningful for
- Homochirality is a uniformity of chirality or handedness. Objects are chiral when they cannot be superposed on their mirror images. For example, the left
- In particle physics phenomenology, chiral color is a speculative model which extends quantum chromodynamics QCD the generally accepted theory for the
- have this particular chirality or indeed whether life needs to be homochiral. Protein chains built from amino acids of mixed chirality tend not to fold or
- In mathematics, chiral homology, introduced by Alexander Beilinson and Vladimir Drinfeld, is, in their words, a quantum version of the algebra of functions
- The chiral Potts curve is an algebraic curve defined over the complex numbers that occurs in the study of the chiral Potts model of statistical mechanics
- asymmetrical analogues. Chiral ligands combine with metals to form chiral catalyst, which engages in a chemical reaction in which chirality is transfer to the
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