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ⓘ East German uprising of 1953. The East German uprising of 1953 began with a strike action by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June, and turned into a wide ..

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East German uprising of 1953
                                     

ⓘ East German uprising of 1953

The East German uprising of 1953 began with a strike action by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June, and turned into a widespread uprising against the communist German Democratic Republic government the next day. It involved more than one million people in about 700 localities.

The uprising in East Berlin was violently suppressed by tanks of the Soviet occupation forces, and the Kasernierte Volkspolizei. In spite of the intervention of Soviet troops, the wave of strikes and protests were not easily brought under control. There were demonstrations in more than 500 towns and villages after 17 June.

The date, 17 June, was celebrated as a public holiday in West Germany up until the German reunification, after which it was replaced by German Unity Day, celebrated annually on 3 October. Strikes and working class networks, particularly relating to the old Social Democratic Party of Germany, anti-communist resistance networks and trade unions played a key role in the unfolding of the uprising. The event was always significantly downplayed in the Soviet Union.

                                     

1. Background

In May 1952, the Federal Republic of Germany rejected Soviet leader Joseph Stalin’s second "Germany Note" and then signed up to the European Defence Community Treaty. Following these events, it became clear both to Moscow and Berlin that Germany would remain divided indefinitely. In Berlin, SED Party General Secretary Walter Ulbricht interpreted Stalin’s failed attempt at German reunification as a green light’ to proceed with the" accelerated construction of socialism in the GDR,” which the party announced at its Second Party Conference in July 1952. This move to Sovietise the GDR consisted of a drastic increase in investment allocated to heavy industry, discriminatory taxation against the last private industrial enterprises, the forced collectivisation of agriculture and a concerted campaign against religious activity in East Germany.

However, the result of this change in economic direction was the rapid deterioration of workers’ living standards, which lasted until the first half of 1953, and represented the first clear downward trend in the East German living standard since the 1947 hunger crisis. Travel costs rose as generous state subsidies were cut and many consumer goods began to disappear from store shelves. Factories were forced to clamp down on overtime: the wage bill was now excessive when set against a restricted budget. Meanwhile, food prices rose because of collectivisation – 40% of the wealthier farmers in the GDR fled to the West, leaving over 750.000 hectares of otherwise productive land lying fallow – and a poor harvest in 1952. Workers’ cost of living therefore rose, while the take-home pay of large numbers of workers – many of whom depended on overtime hours to make ends meet – was diminishing. In the winter of 1952-53, there were also serious interruptions in the supply of heat and electricity to the cities. By November 1952, sporadic food riots and incidents of industrial unrest took place in some of the GDR’s major industrial centres: Leipzig, Dresden, Halle and Suhl. Industrial unrest continued throughout the following spring, which ranged from rabble-rousing to anti-SED graffiti to alleged sabotage.

To ease the economic strain caused by the "construction of socialism," the Politburo decided to increase worker norms on a compulsory basis by 10% across all state-owned factories. In other words, workers now had to produce 10% more for the same wage. Additionally, there were increases in prices for food, health care, and public transportation. Taken together, the norm and price increases amounted to a 33 percent monthly wage cut. The norm increase would take effect on 30 June, Ulbricht’s 60th birthday.

Ulbricht’s response to the consequences of crash Sovietization was to tighten East Germans’ belts; many East Germans’ response was to leave. In 1951, 160.000 people left; in 1952, 182.000. Yet by the first four months of 1953, 122.000 East Germans had already departed for the West, despite the now mostly sealed border.

The new collective leadership in the Soviet Union, established following Stalin’s death in March 1953, was shocked by this when it received in early April a report from the Soviet Control Commission in Germany which provided a detailed, devastating account of the East German economic situation. By 2 June, the Soviet Union leadership issued an order" On Measures to Improve the Health of the Political Situation in the GDR,” in which the SED’s policy of accelerated construction of socialism was strongly criticised. The huge flight of all professions and backgrounds from East Germany to the West had created" a serious threat to the political stability of the German Democratic Republic.” To salvage the situation, it was now necessary to end forced collectivisation and the war on private enterprise. The Five-Year Plan now needed to be changed at the expense of heavy industry and in favour of consumer goods. Political-judicial controls and regimentation had to be relaxed, and coercive measures against the Protestant Church had to cease. Ulbricht’s" cold exercise of power” was denounced. However, there was no explicit demand to reverse the unpopular raised work norms. This decree was given to SED leaders Walter Ulbricht and Otto Grotewohl on 2 June, the day they landed in the Soviet capital. Georgy Malenkov warned them that changes were essential to avoid a catastrophe.

On 9 June, the East German Politburo met and determined how to respond to the Soviet leadership’s instructions. Although most Politburo members had concurred that the announcement of the" New Course” required careful preparation of the party and the population at large, Soviet High Commissioner for Germany Vladimir Semyonov insisted that it be implemented right away. Thus, the SED fatefully published the" New Course” programme in Neues Deutschland, the official party newspaper of the SED, on 11 June. The communique criticised the mistakes made by the SED and announced that most of Ulbricht’s Sovietisation campaign would now be reversed, just as had been instructed by Moscow. There was now going to be a shift towards investment in consumer goods; the pressures on small private enterprise would be removed; forced collectivisation would end; and policies against religious activity would be discontinued. But, crucially, the norm increase was not revoked.

The communique and its forthright admission of past mistakes shocked and confused many East Germans – both SED members and the wider populace. Disappointment, disbelief and confusion pervaded local party organisations, whose members felt betrayed and panicky. The wider populace viewed the" New Course” as a sign of weakness on the part of the East German regime.

The next day, 12 June, 5.000 people participated in a demonstration in front of the Brandenburg prison. More confusion followed: on 14 June, an editorial in Neues Deutschland condemned the new work norms, yet in that exact issue there were news articles praising workers who had exceeded those same norms.

On 15 June, workers at the Stalinallee" Block 40” site, Berlin, now with their hopes raised about the possibility that the work norms would be rescinded, dispatched a delegation to East German Prime Minister Otto Grotewohl to deliver a petition calling for a revocation of the higher work norms. Grotewohl ignored the workers’ demands.

                                     

2.1. Uprising 16 June

An article in the trade union paper, Tribune, restated the necessity of the norm increases. Evidently, the government would not retreat on the issue of the 10% norm increase.

So, at 9am on the morning of 16 June, 300 workers from the construction sites at" Hospital Friedrichshain” and" Stalinallee Block 40” struck and marched on the FDGB headquarters in the Wallstrasse and thence to the city centre, hoisting banners and demanding a reinstatement of the old norms. Demands broadened out to encompass political matters. Via Alexanderplatz and Unter den Linden, most of the demonstrators moved to the government seat on Leipziger Strasse; others went to the SED HQ on Wilhelm-Pieck-Strasse. En route, they took over two sound trucks and used them to spread their calls for a general strike and a demonstration, set for the Strausberger Platz at 7am the morrow. In front of the GDR House of Ministries, the quickly growing crowd demanded to speak to Ulbricht and Grotewohl. Only Heavy Industry Minister Fritz Selbmann and Professor Robert Havemann, president of the GDR Peace Council, were brave enough to emerge. Their attempts to calm the workers were drowned out by the clamour of the crowd, which shouted the pair down.

Meanwhile, the Politburo deliberated, unable to decide what to do. Despite the urgency of the situation, it was only after hours of deliberation – under the pressure of the demonstrators, and probably also from Semyonov – that the leadership decided to revoke the norm increase. They decreed that increases in productivity would now be voluntary. They blamed the strikes and demonstrations partly on how the rise had been implemented, partly on foreign provocateurs. But by the time an SED functionary reached the House of Ministries to give the workers the news, the protestors’ agenda had expanded well beyond the issue of norm increases.

Later that afternoon the crowd dispersed, and workers returned to their sites. Save for isolated clashes between the People’s Police and groups of demonstrators, there was a period of calm for the remainder of the day.

The SED leadership was surprised by the depth of resentment and the extent of anti-regime actions. Indeed, so out of touch were they that they expected a massive propaganda drive would be sufficient to cope with the emerging crisis. It would not be enough, and Ulbrich probably realised this only after a few hours after that suggestion was made.

The Soviet authorities were likewise completely taken aback by the widespread protests that followed the demonstrations in East Berlin. Their response was improvised and uncoordinated.

Later that evening, Semyonov met with the SED leadership and informed them of his decision to send Soviet troops to Berlin.

Throughout the night of 16 June and early morning of 17 June, the news of events in East Berlin spread quickly throughout the GDR: via word of mouth and by Western radio broadcasts, particularly RIAS.

RIAS had been broadcasting about the strikes being staged against the increase in work norms throughout the day; in the afternoon, there were broadcasts of the change in the demonstrator’s demands: from the repeal of the higher work quotas and price cuts to shouts of" We want free elections.”

RIAS was later approached by East Berlin workers who sought assistance from them in disseminating their call for a general strike the next day.

The station’s political director, Gordon Ewing, decided that the station could not directly lend itself as a mouthpiece to the workers: in his view, this had the potential to start a war. It would not actively incite rebellion, either – simply broadcast information about the demonstrations, factually and comprehensively.

Nonetheless, at 7.30pm RIAS reported that a delegation of construction workers had submitted a resolution for publication. The resolution stated that the strikers, having proved by their actions that" they were able to force the government to accept their justified demands,” would" make use of their power at any time” if their demands for lower quotas, price cuts, free elections and indemnity for all demonstrators were not fulfilled.

Later that night, there was all but active encouragement to demonstrate against the regime. RIAS Programme Director Eberhard Schutz called the regime’s reversal on the norm question" a victory, which our Ostberliners share with the entire working population of the Soviet Zone.” He attributed the government’s U-turn to the workers’ actions. His listeners’ demands – i.e., the resignation of the government, Western-style liberties, etc. – were justified, and encouraged them to support the demonstrators. Schutz said that RIAS and the East German people expect these demands to be met: it was the East German people’s task to show the SED and the Soviet Communist Party that this was true.

Following West Germanys Federal Minister for All-German Questions Jakob Kaiser’s admonition in a late might broadcast to East Germans to shy away from provocations, RIAS, starting with its 11pm news broadcast, and from then on in hourly intermissions, repeated the workers’ demand to continue the strike the next day, calling specifically for all East Berliners to participate in a demo at 7am on the 17th at Strausberger Platz.

                                     

2.2. Uprising 17 June

East Berlin

Following Semyonov’s decision, Soviet troops entered the environs of East Berlin in the early morning of 17 June. Meanwhile, crowds of workers began to gather at Strausberger Platz and other public places and began towards the city centre.

En route, they encountered GDR security forces – regular and Barracked People’s Police units KVP – who, apparently lacking instructions, did not initially intervene.

Along with SED and FDJ functionaries, police officials tried – and mostly failed – to convince the marchers to return to their workplaces and homes. Where police attempted to halt or disperse the crowds, they rapidly ended up on the defensive.

As they drew in ever-greater numbers, a feeling of solidarity permeated the demonstrators. Loudspeaker cars and bicycles provided communications between the different columns of marchers from the outer districts as, all morning, they converged on the city centre.

On improvised banners and posters, the demonstrators again demanded the reinstatement of the old norms, but also price decreases, the release of fellow protestors who had been arrested the day before, even free and fair all-German elections. Slogans like" Down with the government!” and" Butter, not Arms” were also visible. Party posters and statues – especially those depicting SED and Soviet leaders – were ransacked, burned or otherwise defaced.

By 9am, 25.000 people were gathered in front of the House of Ministries, and tens of thousands more were en route to Leipziger Strasse or across Potsdamer Platz.

Between 10am and 11am, 80 to 100 demonstrators seemed to storm the government seat, visibly demonstrating that the 500 members of GDR People’s Police and State Security had been overpowered.

Then, suddenly, Soviet military vehicles appeared, followed by tanks, and they appeared to prevent a complete takeover. Within an hour, Soviet troops had cleared and isolated the area around the government headquarters. At noon, the Soviet authorities terminated all tram and metro traffic into the Eastern sector and all but closed the sector borders to West Berlin to prevent more demonstrators from reaching the city centre. An hour later, they declared martial law in East Berlin.

The repression took place outside East Berlin police HQ – where Soviet tanks opened fire on" the insurgents”.

Fighting between the Red Army and later GDR police and the demonstrators persisted into the afternoon and night – with, in some cases, tanks and troops firing directly into the crowds.

Executions most prominently of West Berlin worker Willi Gottling and mass arrests followed.

Overnight, the Soviets and the Stasi started to arrest hundreds of people. Ultimately, up to 10.000 people were detained and at least 20, probably as many as 40, people were executed, including Red Army soldiers who refused to obey orders.

With the SED leadership effectively paralysed at the Soviet headquarters Karlshorst, control of East Berlin passed to the Soviets in East Berlin.

Outside of East Berlin

All of East Germany’s 24 cities with a population larger than 50.000 experienced upheavals; likewise in the case of roughly 80% of its towns with populations above 10.000 but below 50.000.

Approximately 339.000 participated in 129 demonstrations outside of Berlin; more than 225.000 people struck in 332 factories.

The main centres of activity included the industrial region around Halle, Merseburg, and Bitterfeld, as well as middle-size towns like Jena, Gorlitz, and Brandenburg.

No more than 25.000 people participated in strikes and demonstrations Leipzig, but there were 32.000 in Magdeburg, 43.000 in Dresden, 53.000 in Potsdam – and in Halle, a figure close to 100.000.

At first, such demonstrations were relatively peaceful, but as increasing numbers began to participate, the protests became more violent. Looting, particularly of Party-owned shops, became a regular occurrence; there was some arson, and many Party functionaries were beaten up later in the day. In some towns, the jails were seized by the demonstrators, who demanded the release of certain political prisoners.

When the Red Army intervened in these places outside of Berlin, they seemed to be more restrained and more passive. Some Soviet soldiers even displayed a friendly attitude towards the demonstrators.

In the countryside, meanwhile, protests took place in more than 200 villages. However, many East German farmers did not take collective action against the regime: the most common expression of protest in rural areas was for farmers to leave and/or dissolve recently formed collective farms and resume farming on one’s own.

Although the demands made by protesters could be political – in favour of the dissolution of the East German government and the organisation of free elections, e.g. – often they were simply of a local and economic character. They were about issues like bread shortages, unpopular night shifts, even the number of toilets in the workplace and the fact that tea was being served in rusty urns.

That said, many strikers demanded that their factories to be taken out of state ownership and returned to the original employers, or that employers who’d been imprisoned be released from jail.

Others, particularly workers, demanded the re-foundation of the SPD in East Germany. Among former Social Democrats there existed enormous bitterness against their ex-leader Otto Grotewohl, whom they believed had betrayed the SPD.’ In their view, he should now have his neck wrung.’

Also expressed were widely held grievances against the intelligentsia, who were perceived to enjoy unfair privileges’, such as special deliveries of basic foodstuffs and other commodities.

There were even Nazi elements involved in the protests, though seldom as ringleaders. Walls, bridges and school blackboards were defaced with Nazi slogans and swastikas. In some places, Nazi songs were sung on demonstrations. A significant minority of East Germans still clung to ideas of Nazism.



                                     

3. Aftermath

Protests and demonstrations continued for days after 17 June and, according to the GDR security service, the situation calmed down only by 24 June.

Many workers lost faith in East Germany’s socialist state following the denouement of the Uprising. Out of disgust at the violent suppression of the strikes – at the fact that the Volkspolizei had shot at workers: that workers had shot their own kind – the SED lost large numbers of members. Throughout the Bezirke of Leipzig and Karl-Marx-Stadt, hundreds of SED members, many of whom had spent decades in the labour movement, left the party. At the Textima plant in Altenberg, 450 SED members had left the party by 7 July – most of them workers, many of whom with great experience in the labour movement. There was also a widespread refusal of workers to pay their trade union subscriptions: they now ceased to support it, and hence also to confer legitimacy upon it.

Ulbricht Survives

Meanwhile, Ulbricht’s position as party leader became tenuous, and his position was only saved by the leadership turmoil in Moscow following the death of Joseph Stalin. Ulbricht, after all, was tainted by his association with the disastrous Second Party Conference, the policies following which had led to the crisis East Germany was now mired in.

By the time of a Politburo meeting on 8 July, it seemed that Ulbricht was approaching the end of his time as party leader. Minister of State Security Wilhelm Zaisser conceded that the whole Politburo was responsible for the accelerated construction of socialism’ and the disastrous fallout thereof. But he also added that to leave Ulbricht as leader" would be opposed catastrophic for the New Course.” By the end of the meeting, just two Politburo members supported Ulbricht’s continued leadership: Free German Youth League chief Erich Honecker and Party Control Commission Chairman Hermann Matern. Ulbricht only managed to forestall a decision then and there with a promise to make a statement at the forthcoming 15th SED CC Plenum, scheduled for later that month.

The leading Soviet officials in East Berlin – Semyonov, Yudin and Sokolovskii – had reached the same conclusion in a report describing and analysing the events of 17-19 June, submitted to Moscow two weeks earlier, 24 June. In a self-serving report which sought to play down the culpability of the Soviet Commission in East Berlin and emphasise the responsibility of Ulbricht for the Uprising, they concluded – inter alia – that Ulbricht’s position as general secretary should be terminated, and that the party would move towards collective leadership, in addition to other far-reaching structural political changes in East Berlin.

However, the situation in Moscow dramatically changed just two days later, on 26 June, when Soviet Security Chief Lavrentiy Beria was arrested. On 2 July, when a commission met to discuss proposals for reform in East Germany, the decision was made to shelve the far-reaching and political sensitive changes. The Soviet leadership, preoccupied with the Beria affair and its internal implications, became disinclined to rock the East German boat and more inclined towards the maintenance of the status quo: to maintain power in East Germany via the reinforcement of an experienced, reliable, if Stalinist and unpopular, ruler.

In late July Ulbricht, ever more certain of his continued backing in Moscow, expelled his main opponents, Zaisser, Hernstadt and Ackermann, from the Politburo, and thus strengthened his position further.

By late August, Moscow had committed to shoring up the current East German regime. Now, the situation in East Germany had stabilised thanks to economic measures implemented by Moscow and East Berlin. Major political changes in the GDR dropped off the agenda. Substantial economic and financial aid was to flow into East Germany and reparation payments were to cease by the end of the year. Additional prisoners of war would be freed and Moscow’s mission in Berlin elevated to the status of embassy. Ulbricht’s position was firmly secure once more.

The Uprisings impact on the long-term development of GDR

According to historian Corey Ross, the party leadership derived two key lessons from 17 June.

The first was that it became more concerned about shopfloor discontent and now sought more determinedly to preclude it from escalating into a broader conflict. Factory surveillance was now raised to better monitor the mood of the workforce, Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse workforce combat groups were established as an on-the-spot force to prevent or quell any signs of unrest, and the Stasi was expanded and improved to deal swiftly with any signs of organised protest in the future.

The second was that it became clear that a heavy-handed venture such as the accelerated construction of socialism’ could never again be embarked upon. SED General Secretary Walter Ulbricht was haunted throughout the 1950s by the thought of a repetition of 17 June. The government never again attempted to introduce arbitrary blanket norm increases such as it attempted in May and June 1953. The" New Course” policies – increased investment in consumer goods, housing and price and travel subventions – led to an improvement in living standards overall but failed to achieve an immediate end to the discontent that had been accumulating over the past year.

Workers, meanwhile, learnt that little could be gained from open confrontation – to act openly against the regime in large numbers was to be left to their own devices by the West against Soviet tanks.

                                     

4. Legacy

In memory of the 1953 East German rebellion, West Germany established 17 June as a national holiday, called Day of German Unity. Upon German reunification in October 1990, it was moved to 3 October, the date of formal reunification. The extension of the Unter den Linden boulevard to the west of the Brandenburg Gate, called Charlottenburger Chaussee, was renamed StraSe des 17. Juni "17 June Street" following the 1953 rebellion.

The event is commemorated in "Die Losung", a poem by Bertolt Brecht. Other prominent GDR authors who dealt with the uprising include Stefan Heym Funf Tage im Juni / "Five Days in June", Munich 1974 and Heiner Muller Wolokolamsker Chaussee III: Das Duell / "Volokolamsk Highway III: The Duel", 1985/86.

West German group Alphaville mention the date explicitly as "the seventeenth of June" but without reference to the year in their 1984 song "Summer in Berlin," from the album Forever Young. When the compilation album Alphaville Amiga Compilation was assembled for release in East Germany in 1988, the song "Summer in Berlin" was submitted for inclusion, but rejected "for political reasons."

The 1966 Gunter Grass play The Plebeians Rehearse the Uprising depicts Brecht preparing a production of Shakespeares Coriolanus against the background of the events of 1953.

                                     

5. Bibliography

  • Ostermann, Christian F. The United States, the East German Uprising of 1953, and the Limits of Rollback online
  • Tusa, Ann. The Last Division: a History of Berlin, 1945-1989. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1997.
  • Richter, James, "Re-Examining Soviet Policy towards Germany in 1953", Europe-Asia Studies, Vol. 45, No. 4 1993, pp. 671-691
  • Ross, Corey, Constructing Socialism at the Grass-Roots: The Transformation of East Germany, 1945-65, London: Macmillan, 2000.
  • Port, Andrew, "East German Workers and the" Dark Side”of Eigensinn: Divisive Shop-Floor Practices and the Failed Revolution of June 17, 1953" in Falling Behind or Catching Up? The East German Economy, 1945-2010, ed. Hartmut Berghoff and Uta Balbier, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
  • Sperber, Jonathan. "17 June 1953: Revisiting a German Revolution" German History 2004 22#4 pp. 619–643.
  • Richie, Alexandra. Fausts Metropolis: a History of Berlin. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers, 1998, ch 14
  • Ostermann, Christian F.; Malcolm Byrne. Uprising in East Germany, 1953. Central European University Press.
  • Kopstein, Jeffrey, "Chipping Away at the State: Workers Resistance and the Demise of East Germany", World Politics 48 April 1996, 391-42
  • Baring, Arnulf. Uprising in East Germany: June 17, 1953 Cornell University Press, 1972
  • Ostermann, Christian F. " Keeping the Pot Simmering": The United States and the East German Uprising of 1953." German Studies Review 1996: 61–89. in JSTOR
  • Harman, Chris, Class Struggles in Eastern Europe, 1945–1983 London, 1988 ISBN 0-906224-47-0
  • Millington, Richard 2014. State, Society and Memories of the Uprising of 17 June 1953 in the GDR. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Hutchinson, Peter, "History and Political Literature: The Interpretation of the "Day of German Unity" in the Literature of East and West", The Modern Language Review, Vol. 76, No. 2 Apr., 1981, pp. 367-382
  • Watry, David M. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014.
  • Pritchard, Gareth, The Making of the GDR: From antifascism to Stalinism, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000
  • Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk: 17. Juni 1953. Geschichte eines Aufstands. Beck, Munchen 2013.


                                     
  • The Plzen uprising of 1953 occurred when workers in the Czechoslovak city of Plzen revolted in violent protest for three days, from 31 May to 2 June, against
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  • The Warsaw Uprising Polish: Powstanie Warszawskie German Warschauer Aufstand was a major World War II operation, in the summer of 1944, by the Polish
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  • 1811 German Coast uprising was a revolt of black slaves in parts of the Territory of Orleans on January 8 10, 1811. The uprising occurred on the east bank
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  • German reunification German Deutsche Wiedervereinigung was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic GDR, colloquially East Germany
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  • 1953 January February March April May June July August September October November December The following events occurred in June 1953 Uprising in Plzen:
                                     
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  • The Soweto uprising was a series of demonstrations and protests led by black school children in South Africa that began on the morning of 16 June 1976
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  • Bloc resembled Labour Revolts, such as the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the Polish 1970 protests although many
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  • March 1958 was a German communist politician and the first Minister for State Security of the German Democratic Republic 1950 1953 Born in Gelsenkirchen
  • autumn of 1989. Walter Ulbricht was the party s dominant figure and effective leader of East Germany from 1950 to 1971. In 1953 an uprising against
                                     
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  • The film industry in Germany can be traced back to the late 19th century. German cinema made major technical and artistic contributions to early film

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation

Uprising in East Germany, 1953 The National Security Archive.

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German Rearmament and American Diplomacy, 1953 –1955.

3 Oct 2016 in authoritarian regimes: The June 1953 East context of the June 17, 1953 uprising in East Germany, the first national rebellion against. Berlin Executions Johnsons Russia List 6 13 03. Germans Revisit 1953 East German Revolt. TONY CZUCZKA. Published 8:00 pm EDT, Saturday, June 14, 2003. Associated Press Writer. THE BERLIN RADIO WAR DRUM University of Maryland. Uprising in East Germany 1953 the Cold War, the German question, and the first East German and Soviet Leaders in Moscow, 2 4 June 1953 Document No. Germany Divided and Reunified EuroDocs. Uprising against the Stalinist German Democratic Republic. Germany East - History - Uprising, 1953 Germany East - History - Uprising, 1953 June. In more. June 2019 Calendar with Holidays Germany WinCalendar. Lin provided, for example, in 1953 to East Germany, in 1956 to. Hungary, and. Without the intervention of Soviet troops, the uprising of June 1953 might well.


Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Academic Kids.

The East German Uprising of 1953, Deconstructing Socialism, and the Broken place in July, 1952, where party officials determined their new path for East. Jim Dankiewicz: The East German Uprising of June 17, 1953. 26 May 2018 We examine this relationship in the context of the June 17, 1953, uprising in East Germany, the first national rebellion against communist rule in. This is not a Politburo, but a madhouse, The post World War II. 13 Nov 2009 of its troops into East Berlin to crush a rebellion by East German workers who took to the streets on June 16, 1953, to protest an increase in. June 17, 1953 Jacobin. 18 Jun 2018 Dr. Richard Millington talks to us in detail about the East German uprising of 17 June 1953 and what brought about its sudden end. Churchill betrayed East German rising World news The Guardian. Get this from a library! Uprising in East Germany June 17, 1953.


The June 1953 East German Uprising by Charles Crabtree, Holger L.

11 Sep 2018 East Germany GDR was a socialist nation formed in 1949. It became Protestors hurl stones during the June 1953 uprising in East Berlin. Cold War Misperceptions: The Communist and SAGE Journals. 13 Jul 2011 In this article Rosie Shelmerdine explores the true nature of the East German rebellion by asking whether the events of June 1953 are best. Uprising of 1953 in East Germany or: June 17 1953 matrixmann. The June 1953 uprising in East Germany saw the first large scale, country wide revolt against Soviet occupation anywhere in Eastern Europe, which was.


All Eyes on Berlin The Daily Beast.

6 For recent English language works on the East German uprising see Pritchard, Matthew, The SED, German Communism and the June 1953 Uprising New. Transmitting Revolution Radio, Rumor, and the 1953 East German. In April 1953, shortly after the death of Stalin, East German leader Walter Ulbricht appealed On 16 June, building workers at the Stalin Allee construction project went out on strike in protest. By 9pm the uprising in Berlin had been crushed. The East Berlin Uprising, June 16 17, 1953 Association for. Condemned as a fascist putsch in the East and praised as a peoples uprising in the West, the uprising of 17 June 1953 shook East Germany. Drawing on. Repression and Resistance in Eastern Germany 1945–1955. 12 Jun 2018 On 16 June 1953, construction workers in East Berlin launched strike A week after the uprising, some 125.000 West Germans attended a.


The East German Uprising, 1953 Office of the Historian.

At the helm of the GDR. A sizable portion of the third chapter is dedicated to the East German Uprising on. June 17, 1953, and the actions and events that led up. German Propaganda Archive East German Material. In communist East Germany, young people constituted the social group for whom especially after the June 1953 uprising, it undermined the GDRs long term. East Germany John D Clare. The East German revolt of 1953. The first real uprising, by working people, against the Communist and Socialist system. Socialism Sucks. On June 17, 1953,. Platz des Volksaufstandes von 1953 Berlin 2019 All You Need to. On the morning of 16 June, 300 East Berlin construction workers went on strike and marched down Stalinallee, now Karl Marx Allee, towards.

4 Rias Berlin and the June 17, 1953, Uprising in East Germany.

The East German uprising of 1953 German: Volksaufstand vom 17. Juni 1953 began with a strike action by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June, and. Dramatic Scenes Berlin Riots 1953 YouTube. As an analysis of the East German uprising in June 1953, shortly after the death of Stalin and the remarkable change of policy on the part of the Soviet. ABSTRACT June 17, 1953 A Fifty Year Retrospective on a German. 15 Jun 2001 Washington, D.C., June 15, 2001 – Forty eight years ago, on June 17, 1953, the Uprising in East Germany, 1953 The Cold War, the German. The German Question Adenauer Videobook Videobooks. The East German rising of June 1953 GARETH DALE Before the archives of the As the first of several mass uprisings against Stalinist regimes, but doubtless.


Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Military FANDOM powered.

How did the East German Uprising impact the course of the Cold War? In August 1953, Malenkov declared in the Supreme Soviet that there was no disputed. The United States, the East German Uprising of 1953, and the Limits. 2 Apr 2014 Translation of Der 17. Juni 1953. Uprising in East Germany June 17, 1953. by: Baring, Arnulf. Publication date: 1972. Topics: Germany East. German Democratic Republic East Germany Spartacus Educational. On June 16, 1953, East Berlin construction workers abandoned their work sites on In the course of the violent suppression of the uprising, thousands of. The East German Uprising. And Western Responses to the East German. Refugee Crisis in 1953. Valur Ingimundarson. The East German Uprising, on 16 and 17 June 1953, was not only.


June 17, 1953 German History in Documents and Images.

Telephone Memoranda May – June 1953 1 – East German uprising Richard Nixon re Congress and Hungary Nehru and Hungarian uprising Walter Judd re. Topics matching Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Revolvy. Rioters in Berlin, Germany stone Russian tanks in protest against Soviet rule. GV. Massed. Uprisings in hungary and poland Eisenhower Presidential Library. 7 Nov 2011 The pressures of the plan caused an exodus of East German citizens the discontent of the workers resulted in an uprising on June 17, 1953.


Uprising of 1953 in East Germany data.

On June 16th, 1953, a decision to increase work quotas in order to satisfy into a full blown revolt that might have overthrown the East German government had. Cartoon Drawings, Available Online, East Germany Library of. This chapter examines the June 17, 1953 uprising in East Germany and the decisive role RIAS played in those turbulent events. RIASs participation in the. East Berlin historical division, Berlin, Germany google - wiki.info. Robert McGeehan, The German Rearmament Question: American Diplomacy and. 1955 and Arnulf Baring, Uprising in East Germany, June 17, 1953, trans. Uprising in East Germany June 17, 1953. Translated from the. Episode 6 – The 1953 East German Uprising with Dr Richard Millington. Audio Player Books. State, Society and Memories of the Uprising of 17 June. East German uprising of 1953 google - wiki.info. Uprising of 1953 in East Germany Erich Maroske 1 F. ▻ Monuments and memorials to the 1953 Uprising in the German Democratic Republic 7 C, 18 F.


Commentary: Uprising in East Berlin, 1953 google - wiki.info.

1953 uprising initially thought to be a workers uprising in Berlin. in the USSR on the 29th June, partly because of his failure to bolster Ulbricht in East Germany. TIMELINE: East Germany From wartime ashes to unity Reuters. 20 July 1953. For President Eisenhower, as for many of his contemporaries in East and West, the widespread rebellion against the oppressive Communist. State, Society and Memories of the Uprising of 17 June 1953 in the. Popular Uprising – 17 June 1953. It is a Tuesday morning on Block 40, one of the large construction sites on Stalinallee, East Berlins prestigious new boulevard.


East German Uprising Globgoogle - wiki.info.

Recent scholarship has recognized the June 1953 uprising in the German proved successful in keeping the Soviets and the East German regime off balance. Constructing Socialism in East Germany An ScholarlyCommons. The uprising of 1953 in East Germany started with a strike by East Berlin construction workers on June 16th 1953. It escalated into a widespread uprising against. The Cheapest Atom Bomb Drake University. 17 Jun 2015 On June 17, 1953, East German workers rose up to protest their governments harsh economic policies. The uprising failed largely because of a. In Eastern Germany, 1953 Uprising Is Remembered The New York. 18 Jun 2013 President Obama will visit Germany this week, 60 years after the first on June 17, 1953, Germans staged the very first uprising in the communist Eastern Bloc. The 1953 East German uprising began as a strike by 300. Dramatic Scenes Berlin Riots 1953 Uprising of 1953 i… Flickr. 1 Feb 2017 I illustrate these arguments with an account of the East German regimes response to the 17 June uprising in 1953, including analysis of an.

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