★ History of rail transport in Great BritainThis article is part of the history of rail transport by country series.
The railway system of great Britain began the construction of a local isolated wooden wagonways since 1560-ies. Patchwork of local rail lines operated by small private railway companies developed in the late 18th century. These isolated single expanded during the railway boom of 1840-ies in the national network, although still run dozens of competing companies. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, these amalgamated or were bought by competitors until only a few large companies remained. The entire network was brought under control by the government during the First World war and the several advantages of a merger and planning was demonstrated. However, the government opposed calls for the nationalization of the network. In 1923, almost all the remaining companies were merged into the "Big four": the Great Western railway, the London and North Eastern railway, London, Midland and Scottish railway and southern railway. The "big four" were joint-stock public companies and they continued to run the railway system until 31 December 1947.
Since the beginning of 1948, the "Big four" were nationalised to form British Railways. Although there was some initial changes in the order of service, usage increased and the network became profitable. The decline in passenger numbers and financial losses in the late 1950s and early 1960s saw the closure of several branches and the main line and small stations under the Beeching axe. High-speed intercity trains were introduced in the 1970-ies. The 1980s saw a sharp reduction in rail subsidy and above inflation increases in fares and losses of the company. Rail transport was privatized in the period 1994-1997. Passed the ownership of the track and infrastructure of the company "Railtrack", while passenger services were franchised to individual private sector operators were initially 25 franchises and freight services sold outright. After privatization, the passenger volume rose to the highest level, but whether this is because privatization is disputed. The Hatfield accident set in motion a series of events that led to the final collapse of Railtrack and its replacement with network rail, government, not for dividend company.
1. Before 1830: the pioneers. (До 1830 года: пионеры)
Wagonway was, in fact, the railroad is powered by animals to draw cars or cars used by German miners in Alston, Cumbria, England, perhaps from the 1560-ies. In wagonway was built in Prescot, near Liverpool, somewhere about 1600, possibly as early as 1594. Owns Philip Leighton, a line carried coal from a quarry near Knowsley Hall station is within half a mile.
Another wagonway was sir Francis Willoughbys Wollaton Wagonway in Nottinghamshire built Between 1603 and 1604 to transport coal.
In early 1671 scolded the roads were in Durham to facilitate the export of coal, the first of them was Wagonway Tenfold. Many of these tramways or other side of the coach was built in the 17th and 18th centuries. They just are straight and parallel rails of timber on which the carts with simple flanged iron wheels, pulled by horses, which allowed a few cars to be moved at the same time. The first public railway in the world, the lake lock railroad, a narrow gauge railway built near Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England.
Although the idea of fencing with wooden wagonways originated in Germany in the 16th century, the first use of steam locomotives in the UK. His early "Russian Railways" were straight and were constructed from parallel rails of timber on which ran horse-drawn carts. It was succeeded in 1793 when Benjamin Outram constructed a mile-long tramway with L-shaped cast-iron rails. These rails became obsolete when William Jessop began production of cast iron rails without guiding ledges - the wheels of the truck instead of flanges. Cast iron is brittle and so the rails usually break easily. Consequently, in 1820, John Birkenshaw introduced a method of rolling wrought iron rails that were used in the future.
The first passenger public railway was opened railway Swansea and mumbles in Oystermouth in 1807, using horse-drawn carriages on an existing tram line.
In 1802 Richard Trevithick designed and built the first unnamed steam locomotive to operate on smooth rails.
The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Salamanca, built in 1812 by John Blenkinsop and Matthew Murray for the 4 ft 1.219 mm gauge Middleton. Salamanca was a rack and pinion locomotive, with cog wheels driven by two cylinders embedded into the top part of the center-flue boiler.
In 1813, William Hedley and Timothy Hackworth constructed a steam locomotive the Puffing Billy for use on the tramway between Stockton and Darlington. The puffing Billy is presented to the piston rods, extending up on the rotary beams, connected in turn by means of rod to a crankshaft beneath the frames, which in turn drove the gears attached to the wheels. This meant that the wheels were coupled, allowing better traction. A year later, George Stephenson improved on the design with his first locomotive Blucher, which was the first locomotive to use single-flanged wheels.
That design convinced the backers of the proposed Stockton and Darlington Railway to appoint Stevenson as the engineer for the line in 1821. While traffic was originally intended to be horse-drawn, Stephenson carried out a fresh survey of the route to allow steam haulage. This law was subsequently modified to permit the use of locomotives, as well as for passengers who will be transported by rail. 25 km 40 km route opened on 27 September 1825 and, with the help of Stephensons locomotion no 1, the first locomotive public railway in the world.
2. 1830 – 1922: early development. (1830 – 1922: раннее развитие)
In 1830 the Liverpool and Manchester railway opened. This set the pattern for modern Railways. It was the worlds first intercity passenger railway and the first regular transport, terminal stations and services as we know them today. Railroads transported goods and passengers is also the worlds first station by goods train station Park lane goods on Liverpools South pier, up to 1.26 km Wapping tunnel. In 1836 in Liverpool end of the line was extended to the railway station lime street in the city centre Liverpools through the 1.1 mile long tunnel.
Many of the first public Railways were built as local rail lines operated by small private railway companies. With increasing rapidity, more and more lines, often without regard for their potential for movement. The 1840s was the biggest decade for railway growth. In 1840, when the decade began, railway lines in Britain were few and scattered, but within ten years, almost the entire network was laid in most of cities, towns and villages near the railway and sometimes two or three. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the majority of the first independent railway companies merged or were bought by competitors until only a few large companies left to see the railway mania.
This period also saw a steady increase in the participation of the state, especially in security matters. The 1840 law "for the regulation of Railways" approved by the Board of trade to appoint railway inspectors. The railway Inspectorate was established in 1840, in the investigation of causes of accidents and recommend ways to address them. In 1844, a bill was submitted to Parliament, proposing the state purchase of Railways, it has not been adopted. However, to lead to the introduction of minimum standards for the construction of wagons and a mandatory 3rd class passenger accommodation - the so-called "parliamentary trains".
There were calls for the nationalization of the entire 1800 years, with F. Keddell write that "the only legitimate basis for the preservation of the monopoly will be proof that the railroad company has made a fair and proper use of their great powers, and contributed to the prosperity of the people. But the exact opposite case". The entire network was brought under control by the government during the First World War and a number of benefits of the merger identified and planning. However, conservative members of the government coalition wartime resisted calls for the formal nationalisation of the Railways was first proposed by William Gladstone Yuart in 1840-ies in 1921.
3. 1923 – 1947: The Big Four. (1923 – 1947: Большая Четверка)
On 1 January 1923, almost all the railway companies were merged into the Big four: Great Western railway, the London and North Eastern railway, London, Midland and Scottish railway and the southern railway company. A number of other lines, already operating as joint Railways, remained separate from the "big four", these include the Somerset and Dorset joint Railway and the Midland and great Northern joint railway. The "big four" were joint-stock public companies and they continued to run the railway system until 31 December 1947.
Competition from road transport during the 1920s and 1930s years has significantly reduced the revenue available to the Railways, although needs for maintenance networks has never been higher, as investment had been deferred in recent decades. Rail companies accused the government in favour of road transport due to road construction is subsidized by taxpayers, while the railway limits the ability of the industry to use flexible pricing because it was conducted in accordance with approved national price lists. The government response was to Commission several inconclusive Reports that the Salter Report of 1933 finally recommended that road transport should be taxed directly to Fund the construction of roads and the increase was entered transport tax and fuel. He also noted that many small lines will never be likely to compete with road transport. Although these changes to the road have helped their survival, the railroads entered a period of slow decline, due to the lack of investment and changes in transport policy and lifestyles.
During the Second world war, enterprises, departments have teamed up to operate effectively as one company. Assistance in the country the war is a heavy burden on the resources of the Railways and a substantial backlog of maintenance developed. After 1945, for both practical and ideological reasons, the government decided to increase rail services in the public sector.
4. 1948 – 1994: British Rail. (1948 – 1994: Британская Железная Дорога)
Since the beginning of 1948, the Railways were nationalized to form British Railways in recent years, "British Railways" under the control of the British transport Commission. Although there was some initial changes in the order of service, usage increased and the network became profitable. The regeneration of track and stations was completed in 1954. Company rail fell and, in 1955, the Network again ceased to be profitable. In the middle of 1950-ies saw the hasty introduction of diesel and electric rolling stock to replace steam in a modernisation plan costing many millions of pounds, but the expected transfer back from road and rail transport did not happen and losses are the mountains. This failure to make the Railways more profitable through investment of governments of all political beliefs to limit investment in railway transport in drip feed and seek economies through the reduction.
The desire for profitability led to a significant reduction of the network in the mid 1960-ies. Dr. Richard Beeching was given the task by the government railway restructuring "Beeching axe". As a result of this policy many branch and secondary routes are closed because they were considered unprofitable. The closure of stations serving rural communities removed much feeder traffic from the main passenger services. The closure of many freight depots that had been used by larger industries such as coal and iron led to a significant transfer of road transport. The gates were very unpopular with the public at the time and remain so today.
The levels of passengers has been steadily declining since the late fifties to the late seventies. Then passenger traffic is experiencing a Renaissance with the advent of high-speed Intercity 125 trains in the late 1970s and early 1980-ies. The 1980s saw a sharp reduction in government funding and above-inflation increases in fares, but the service has become more economical. After the sectorisation of British rail, intercity was profitable. Intercity became one of the best British 150 companies operating city centre to city centre travel across the country from Aberdeen and Inverness to the North of Poole and Penzance in the South.
Between 1994 and 1997, British rail was privatised. Passed the ownership of the track and infrastructure of the company "Railtrack", passenger services were franchised to individual private sector operators were initially 25 franchises and freight sold six companies have been created, but five of them were sold to one buyer. The conservative government under John major said that privatisation would see an improvement in the field of passenger transport. Passenger levels since greatly increased.
5. 1995: after privatization. (1995: после приватизации)
Since privatization, the number of passengers increased sharply, by 2010, the railway was carrying more passengers than at any time since the 1920s. and the number of passengers in 2014 rose to a record level of more than twice in the 20 years since privatisation. Train tickets cost more than under British rail.
The Railways have become significantly safer since privatisation and now the safest in Europe. However, the image rail was damaged as a result of some prominent incidents shortly after privatization. These include the Southall train crash where a train with faulty automatic warning system was switched off has passed stop signal at LADBROKE grove railway accident also caused the train brake and the Hatfield train crash in fragmentation due to the development of microscopic cracks.
After the Hatfield accident, the rail infrastructure company "Railtrack", introduced 1.200 emergency speed restrictions on its network and instigated an extremely costly nationwide track replacement programme. Subsequent serious violations in the work of the national network and the company of growth in motion a series of events that led to the final collapse of the company and its replacement with network rail, government, not for dividend company.
From April 2016 the British rail network has been seriously disturbed in many cases by large-scale railroad strikes affecting rail franchises across the country. Industrial action started in the South of the service as a dispute over the planned introduction of driver-only operation, and has since expanded to encompass many different issues relating to the railway industry, and in February 2018, the majority of industrial action remains unresolved, a further attack was planned. The scale, impact, and the bitterness of the all-Russian railway strike was against the miners strike 1984-85 media.
Starting in 2018, the state subsidies to the railway sector in real terms was approximately three times higher than in the late 1980-ies.
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