Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers and related services. Its most known software products line of Microsoft Windows operating systems, Microsoft Office, and Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are Xbox game console and the Microsoft surface line of personal computers with a touch screen. In 2016 it was the worlds largest software maker company. The word "Microsoft" hybrid "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft took the 30th place in the rating Fortune 500 in 2018 the ranking of the largest U.S. corporations with total revenue. Microsoft was founded by bill gates and Paul Allen April 4, 1975 to develop and sell basic interpreters for the Altair 8800. It rose to dominate the operating system market personal computer with MS-DOS in the mid 1980-ies, after the Windows operating system. The companys 1986 initial public offer IPO and subsequent increase in the share price, created three billionaires and about 12.000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s years, he has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their major acquisition in LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, after the acquisition of Skype technologies for $8.5 billion in may 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft in the market to IBM compatible operating system PC market and office Suite market, although it lost a large part of the common market to Android OS. The company also produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktop computers, laptops, tabs, gadgets, and servers, including Internet search with Bing, the digital services market through MSN, the mixed reality glasses HoloLens, in cloud computing Azure and software development in Visual Studio. Steve Ballmer replaced gates as CEO in 2000 and later had a "devices and services" strategy. It was developed with Microsoft acquires danger Inc. in 2008 to market a personal computer for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the line Microsoft surface tablets, and later forming Microsoft mobile through the acquisition of Nokias devices and services division. Since Satya Nadella took the post of Director General in 2014, the company turned on the equipment and focused on cloud computing, which helped the companies shares reached the highest level since December 1999. Previously ousted from Apple in 2010, in 2018 Microsoft regained its position as the most valuable public company in the world. In April 2019, the company Microsoft has reached a trillion dollars in market capitalization, becoming the third public U.S. company to be worth more than $ 1 trillion after Apple and Amazon, respectively.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. It is considered one of the Big Four tech companies along with Amazon, Google, and Facebook. The companys hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the AirPods wireless earbuds and the HomePod smart (and the smart HomePod) speaker. Apples software includes the macOS, iOS, iPadOS, watchOS, and tvOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the Shazam acoustic fingerprint (the Shazams acoustic fingerprint) utility, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, and Xcode. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV, iMessage, and iCloud. Other services include Apple (Other services include the Apple) Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, and Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniaks Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days. It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc., in January 1977, and sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years, Jobs and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had and production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, and Apples marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably (Apple Wozniak departed amicably) and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT. As the market for personal computers expanded and (personal computers and expanded) evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company - reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, and product focus. In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the desperately failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in (becoming the CEO in) 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apples status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, and acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc., reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, and launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, and Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months later, Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. In June 2019, Jony Ive, Apples CDO, left the company to start his own firm, but stated he would work with Apple as its primary client. Apple is well known for its size and revenues. Its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the worlds largest technology company by revenue and one of the worlds most valuable companies. It is also the worlds third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei. In August 2018, Apple became the first public U.S. company to be valued at over n (public U. S. company to be valued at over n) trillion. The company employs 123.000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018. It operates the iTunes Store, which is the worlds largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are actively in use worldwide. The company also has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the worlds most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials.
Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate with headquarters in Seoul. It includes many subsidiaries, most of them United under the Samsung brand, and is the largest South Korean chaebol. Samsung was founded by Lee Byung-Chul in 1938 as trading company. Over the next three decades the group diversified in various fields, including food processing, textiles, insurance, securities, and retail. Samsung entered electronics industry in late 1960s and the construction and shipbuilding industries in the mid 1970-ies, these areas would drive its subsequent growth. Following lees death in 1987, Samsung was separated into four business groups: Samsung group Shinsegae, CJ group and "Hansol" groups. Since 1990, Samsung has increasingly globalized its activities, and electronics, particularly mobile phones and semiconductors, have become the most important source of income. 2017, Samsung has a 6th line global brand. Notable Samsung industrial partners include Samsung electronics, the worlds largest company in the field of information technology, consumer electronics, the maker and the chip maker measured by revenues 2017, Samsung heavy industries the worlds 2nd-largest Shipbuilder measured by 2010 revenues and Samsung Engineering and Samsung C& t, respectively the worlds of the 13th and 36th largest construction company. Other notable subsidiaries include Samsung life insurance the worlds 14th largest company in life insurance, Samsung Everland operator of Everland resort, the oldest theme Park in South Korea and Cheil worldwide largest 15 worlds advertising Agency, as income for 2012. Samsung has a powerful influence on South Koreas economic development, politics, media and culture and was the main driving force behind the "Miracle on the Han river". Child companies produce around a fifth of total exports of South Korea. Company chips was equal to 17% of South Koreas GDP 1.082 billion.
Adobe Ink. is an American multinational software company headquartered in San Jose, California. It is historically focused on the creation of multimedia and creativity software product, later a sortie in the direction of Digital marketing software. Adobe is best known for its Adobe ecosystem of Flash web software for editing images in Photoshop, vector graphics editor Adobe Illustrator, acrobat reader, portable document format, and Adobe creative Suite, as well as his successor to Adobe creative cloud. 28 Jan, Adobe 2020 has surpassed Oracle to achieve the second highest market capitalization for a software company in the world. Adobe was founded in December 1982 John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript language page description. In 1985, Apple computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers from the, which helped spark desktop publishing revolution. By 2019, Adobe company more than 21.000 employees worldwide, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe also has major development operations in Newton, Massachusetts, new York, new York, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Lehi, Utah, Seattle, Washington and San Francisco, California, USA. It also has major development operations in Noida and Bangalore in India.
Corporation McDonalds-American fast food company founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald in San Bernardino, California, USA. They renamed their business the diner, and later turned the company into a franchise with the Golden arches logo, introduced in 1953 in Phoenix, Arizona. In 1955 ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as an agent of franchise and began to acquire the chain from the McDonald brothers. MacDonalds first headquarters in oak brook, Illinois, but moved its headquarters to Chicago in early 2018. McDonalds is the worlds largest restaurant chain by revenue, serves more than 69 million customers a day in more than 100 countries in various retail outlets, 37.855 in 2018. Although McDonalds is best known for its hamburgers, cheeseburgers and fries, they also have chicken products, Breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes, rolls, and desserts. In response to changing consumer tastes and negative reaction due to the illness of its power, the company added to its menu of salads, fish, smoothies and fruit. The income of the McDonalds Corporation from the rent, royalties and fees paid by the franchisees, and also sales in company-operated restaurants. According to two reports published in 2018, McDonalds is the worlds second largest private employer with 1.7 million workers in Walmart with 2.3 million people.
Coca-Cola, or coke, is a carbonated soft drink produced by the Coca-Cola company. Was originally marketed as a temperance drink, and thought how therapeutic it was invented in the late 19th century by John Pemberton and bought out by the businessman Asa Griggs Candler, whose marketing strategy has led Coca-Cola to the dominance of the world soft drink market throughout the 20th century. The drink name refers to two of its original ingredients: Coca leaves and Cola nuts. The current formula for Coca-Cola commercial remains a mystery, despite many of the registered recipes and experimental centres was published. The Coca-Cola company produces concentrate which is then sold to licensed Coca Cola Bottlers worldwide. Plants that take up exclusive contracts with the company, produce finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. A typical 12-us-fluid ounces 350 ml contains 38 grams 1.3 oz of sugar, usually in the form of high fructose corn syrup. The Bottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola in shops, restaurants and vending machines throughout the world. Coca-Cola company also sells concentrate for soda large restaurants and catering distributors. The Coca-Cola company sometimes introduced other Cola called Coca-Cola. The most common of these is diet coke, along with others including caffeine-free Coca-Cola, diet coke caffeine-free, Coca-Cola does not contain sugar, Coca-Cola cherry, Coca Cola vanilla, and special versions with lemon, lime and coffee. Based on Interbrands "best global brand" investigation of 2015, Coca-Cola was the worlds third most valuable brand after Apple and Google. In 2013, coke products have been sold in more than 200 countries worldwide, with consumers drinking more than 1.8 billion company beverage every day. Coca-Cola takes 87 place in the rating Fortune 2018 list of the 500 largest corporations by turnover.
Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced by PepsiCo. Originally created and developed in 1893 by Caleb Bredhem and introduced as Brads drink, it was renamed as "Pepsi-Cola" in 1898, and then shortened to Pepsi in 1961.
Amazon.kom, Inc. is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle that focuses on e-Commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming and artificial intelligence. He is one of four major technology companies, alongside Google, Apple and Facebook. Amazon is known for its disruption of established industries at the expense of technological innovation and mass. The worlds largest online market, assistant provider AI, and cloud computing platforms as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world. It is the second largest private employer in the United States and one of the worlds most valuable companies. Amazon was founded by Jeff Bezos in Bellevue, Washington, in July 1994. The company originally started as a online market for books, but later expanded to sell electronics, software, video games, clothing, furniture, food, toys and jewelry. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the U.S. by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired a whole foods market for the US$ 13.4 billion, which greatly expanded the presence of the Amazons as a brick-and-mortar retailers. In 2018, Bezos announced that two day shipping, Amazon Prime, has exceeded 100 million subscribers worldwide. Amazon deals downloads and streaming video, music and audiobooks via Amazon Prime video, music and sound subsidiaries. Amazon also has a publishing arm, Amazon publishing, film and television studios, Amazon studios, and child of cloud computing, Amazon web services. It manufactures consumer electronics, including Kindle e-books, Fire tablets, fire TV, and Echo devices. In addition, the acquisition of the Amazon include rings, twitch, whole foods market, and IMDb. Among the various controversies, the company has been criticized for technological overreach of surveillance, Hyper-competitive and demanding culture of work, tax evasion and anti-competitive practices.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identificeret one sellers of goods or services, unlike other sellers. Brands are used in business, marketing, and advertising for recognition, and, most importantly, create and retain value as a brand to define it for the benefit of brands, customers, owners and shareholders. Brand names are sometimes distinguished from the generic or store brands.
The practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians who, as we know, is branding the cattle 2.700 BC. Branding was used to distinguish one persons cattle from another way is a kind of symbol burned into the animals skin with a hot branding iron. If the person stole all the cattle and all who saw the character may calculate the actual owner. The term was expanded to mean strategic personality for a product or company, so the "brand" at the present time testifies to the values and promises that the consumer can perceive and buy into. Over time the practice of branding objects to extend to a wider range of packaging and products offered for sale, including oil, wine, cosmetics, and fish sauce and, in the 21st century extends even further on services such as legal, financial, medical, political parties, and people such as Lady Gaga and Katy Perry. Branding from the point of view of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets is one of the oldest forms of practice.
In the modern era, the concept of branding has expanded to include marketing and communication techniques that will help to distinguish a company or product from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The main components that form the brands of tools include brand identity, brand communication, such as logos and brands, brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding brand management strategy. Many companies believe that there is often little to distinguish between several types of products, in the 21st century, therefore, branding is one of the few remaining forms of product differentiation.
Brand equity is a set of measurable from brands, and checked by monitoring the effectiveness of these components of branding. As markets become more dynamic and fluctuates, the brand is based on the introduction of marketing methods to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects, like reduced sensitivity to price. A brand is essentially a promise to your customers that they can expect from products and may include emotional and functional benefits. When the client is familiar with the brand or favors is not comparable with competitors, the Corporation has achieved a high level brand. Special accounting standards have been developed to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is often the most valuable asset on the balance sheet of the Corporation. The brand owners carefully manage their brands to create shareholder value. Assessment of brand value is a management technique that assigns a monetary valuation of the brand, and allows marketing investment, managed example: priority brand portfolio to maximize shareholder value. Although the acquired brands on the balance sheet, the notion of determining the cost of a brand forces marketing leaders should be focused on long-term management of the brand and managing for value.
Brand the word is often used as a synonym with a link to the company that is strongly identified with the brand. Brand or often used to refer to the car brand, which may differ from vehicle to vehicle. The concept brand is a brand which is associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or the environment, rather than a specific product, service or business. Trademark-a brand associated with the product.
1. Etymology. (Этимология)
The word brand is derived from its original and current values as a firebrand, burning piece of wood. This word comes from the old high German brinnan and Old English byrnan, biernan, and brinnan through middle English as birnan and BROND. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and ceramics, and there are markings on the skin of slaves and cattle. Later, the assailants were replaced by red-hot iron. The marks themselves took on the term became closely linked with master products. Through this Association, the term finally obtained its current value.
2. History. (История)
Branding and labeling have a long history. Branding, probably started with the practice of branding cattle to prevent theft. Images of branding cattle found in ancient Egyptian tombs of about 2.700 BC. Over time, buyers realized that the brand has provided information on the origin and the ownership, and can serve as a guide to quality. Branding has been adapted farmers, potters and merchants to use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics. Forms of branding or proto-branding arose spontaneously and independently throughout Africa, Asia and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seal, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products from the Qin dynasty 221-206 BC, a large number of prints to survive from the Harappan civilization in the Indus valley 3.300–1.300 BC, where the local community largely depends on the trade of seals came into use in UR in Mesopotamia around 3.000 BC and contributed to the marking of goods and property, and those signs on pottery were common in Ancient Greece and Rome. Decals, for example, stamps on pottery, was also used in Ancient Egypt.
Вещиtwede Diana says that "the function of consumer packaging protection, utilities, and communication occurs whenever packages were the subject of the transaction". It showed that the amphorae, used in the Mediterranean trade between 1.500 and 500 BC had a wide variety of forms and labels that consumers use to gather information about the type of product and quality. The systematic use of forged inscriptions dated around IV century BC. Mostly preliterate society, in the form of the amphora and its scenic markings gave information about the content, region of origin and even the identity of the producer, which were understood to convey information about the quality of the product. David Wengrow argued that branding became necessary after the urban revolution in Ancient Mesopotamia in the 4th century BC, when the large-scale economy of mass production of goods such as alcoholic drinks, cosmetics and textiles. These ancient societies imposed strict forms of quality control over products and you have to pass the value to the consumer with your brand. Manufacturers of steel by attaching a simple stone seals for food, which eventually lost to clay seals bearing impressed with the images often associated with the manufacturers of the individual, Thus, giving the product personality. Not all historians agree that these marks are comparable with modern brands or labels, with some suggesting that his early paintings of the brands or just the prints used in pottery should be called proto-brands, while other historians claim that the presence of these simple marking does not mean that the Mature title of the practice drive control.
Scientific studies have found evidence of branding, packaging and labelling in ancient times. Archaeological evidence of potters marks were found on the width of the Roman Empire and in Ancient Greece. The stamps were used on brick, ceramics and storage containers, as well as in fine ceramics. The marking of ceramics became commonplace in Ancient Greece in the 6th century BC. Vase made around 490 BCE bears the inscription" Sophilos painted me”, indicating that the object was made and painted by one Potter. Branding may have been necessary to support an extensive trade in these pots. For example, the 3rd century Gallic pots bearing the names of famous potters and the place of manufacture, such as Attianus of Lezoux, Tetturo and Cinnamus of Lezoux, Vichy has been found as far away as Essex and Hadrians wall in England. English potters based in Colchester and Chichester used stamps on their ceramic ware of the 1st century BC the Use of stamps, such stamps to the desired precious metals of about the 4th century ad. A series of five stamps is found on Byzantine silver Dating from this period.
Some of the earliest uses of the marks are manufacturers, Dating from about 1300 BC, was found in India. The oldest generic brand, in continuous use, known in India since the Vedic period CA. 1.100 BC to 500 BC, is the herbal paste known as Chyawanprash, consumed for its purported health benefits and attributed to a revered wise man or a seer by the name of Chyawan. One well-documented early example of a highly developed brand is that White Rabbit sewing needles, starting with the song dynasty in China in 960 1127 CE. Copper printing plate used to print the posters contained the message, which roughly translates as:" Jinan Lius fine needle shop, we buy high quality steel rods and make quality needles, which should be ready for use in the home as soon as possible”. The album also includes the trademark in the form of a white rabbit", which meant luck was especially relevant for women who are the main buyers. Details of the image show the white rabbit grinding herbs, and the text includes tips for buyers to find the stone of white rabbit in front of the store creators.
In Ancient Rome, trade mark or label applied to the objects for sale was known as titulus photos. The inscription usually provided information such as place of origin, destination, type of product, and sometimes the claims for the quality or name of the producer. Roman signs or lettering has been applied to a very wide range of goods, including pots, ceramics, amphorae for storage / transport containers and the plant made oil lamps. Carbonized bread found in Herculaneum, indicate that some of the bakers of bread stamped with the name of the manufacturer. Roman glassmakers signature of his works, with the name Ennion appears most noticeable.
One trader who make good use of titulus photos were Scaur Umbricius, a manufacturer of fish sauce also known as garuma to Pompeii, about 35 CE. The patterns of the mosaic in the atrium of the feature image of amphorae bearing his personal brand, and quality claims. The mosaic depicts four different amphoras, one in each corner of the atrium, and have characters as follows:1. Gari Flos SCO / A SCAURI translated as: "The best liquamen, from the shop of Scaurus"
Scaur fish sauce was known to people through the Mediterranean sea to be of very high quality, and its reputation had travelled as far as modern France. In Pompeii and Herculaneum nearby, archaeological evidence also points to branding and marking in relatively common use in a wide variety of products. Wine jars, for example, have been stamped with names such as "Lassius" and "L. Eumachius" is probably a reference to the name of the manufacturer.
The use of distinctive signs on products declined after the fall of the Roman Empire. In Medieval Europe, heraldry has developed a language of visual symbols that will be included in the evolution of branding, and in the rise of the merchants Guild the marks are peeled and applied to specific types of products. In the 13th century, the use of brands of manufacturers, it has become evident to a wide range of products. In 1266, signs manufacturers bread became mandatory in England. The Italians used brands in the form of watermarks on paper in the 13th century. Blind stamps, hallmarks and silver-makers marks – all brand, has been widely used in Europe during this period. The stigma, although known since the 4th century, especially in the Byzantine Empire, only came into General use during the medieval period. The British jewellers have introduced hallmarks for silver in 1300.
Some brands are still in stock as of the date of 2018 from the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, the period of mass production. Bass & company, the British brewery founded in 1777, became a pioneer in international brand marketing. For many years, until 1855, the bass Red triangle was applied in the barrels of its pale ale. In 1876, his brand Red triangle became the first registered trademark, produced by the British government. The Guinness book of records recognizes Tate & Lyle of Lyles Golden syrup in Britain, and in the worlds, the old branding and packaging, with its green-and-gold packaging, which has remained almost unchanged since 1885. Twinings tea has used the same logo - uppercase font under the crest is a lion - 1787, making it the worlds oldest in continuous use.
A characteristic feature of 19th-century mass marketing has been widespread use of branding taking place with the advent of packaged goods. Industrialization moved the production of many household items such as soap, from local communities to centralized factories. When sending their goods, factories literally Brand your company logo or insignia on the barrels used, effectively using the corporate trademark as a quasi-brand.
The enterprises established after the industrial revolution introduced mass produced goods and needed to sell their products to a wider market, that is, to customers previously familiar only with local goods. It became obvious that the total package of soap have difficulty competing with familiar, local products. Blanks-goods manufacturers needed to convince the market that the public can put so much confidence in non-local products. Gradually manufacturers began to use personal identifiers to differentiate their products from universal products on the market. Marketers in General started to realize that brands, which were attached to the personalities of competing brands in Moscow. 1880-s years the major manufacturers have learned to fill their identity brands, including personality traits like youth, fun, sexy, luxury or "cool" factor. This began the modern practice known as branding, where consumers buy a brand, not a product and rely on brand name and not on the recommendation of sellers.
The process of giving the brand human characteristics, represented, at least partially, in response to consumer concerns about mass-produced goods. In Quaker oats, the company began to use the image of a Quaker man in place of the trademark since the late 1870-ies with great success. Pears soap, Campbell soup, Coca-Cola, juicy fruit gum, and aunt Jemima pancakes were also among the first products to be "branded" in order to increase consumers familiarity with the merits of the products. Other brands which date from that era such as uncle Bens rice and Kelloggs cereals, to provide illustrations of the trend.
By the beginning of 1900-ies, trade publications, advertising agencies and advertising specialists began to produce books and brochures, encouraging manufacturers to bypass retailers and advertising directly to consumers with strongly branded messages. Around 1900, advertising guru James Walter Thompson published a housing ad explaining trademark advertising. It was one of the first commercial explanation of what scientists now recognize as the modern beginnings of branding and brand management. This trend continued and in the 1980-ies, and in 2018 is quantified in concepts such as brand value and brand equity. Naomi Klein has described this development as "brand equity mania". In 1988, for example, Philip Morris bought Kraft for six times more than the company was worth on paper. Business analysts reported that they actually purchased the brand name.
With the advent of mass media in the early 20th century, with adopted technology that allowed their messages to stand out. Slogans, mascots, and Jingles began to appear on radio in the 1920s and the beginning of television broadcasting in the 1930-ies. Soap manufacturers sponsored many of the earliest radio drama series, and the genre became known as soap Opera.
In the 1940s, the years manufacturers have started to recognize the way in which consumers began to develop relationships with their brands in a social / psychological / anthropological sense. Advertisers began to use motivational research and consumer research to gather insights into purchasing consumers. Strong brand campaigns for Chrysler and Exxon / Esso, using the insights obtained in the course of studies in psychology and cultural anthropology have led to some of the most tenacious campaigns of the 20th century. Brand advertisers began to imbue goods and services with a personality, based on understanding what consumers are looking for brands with personalities that match their own.
3. Concepts. (Понятия)
Effective branding can lead to increased sales not only products but also other products associated with this brand. If a customer loves Pillsbury biscuits and trusts the brand he or she is more likely to try other products offered by the company such as chocolate chip cookies, for example. The development of the brand, often the task of a design team, it takes time to produce.
3.1. Concepts. Brand names and trademarks. (Фирменные наименования и товарные знаки)
The brand name is part of the brand, which can be oral or written and identificeret product, service or company and differentiates it from other similar products inside category. Firm name may include words, phrases, signs, symbols, drawings, or any combination of these elements. For consumers, brand name is a "heuristic" memory: a convenient way to remember the preferred choice of product. Trademark, not to be confused with a trademark which refers to the name of the brand or part of brand which is legally protected. For example, Coca-Cola not only protects the brand, Coca-Cola, but also protects the distinctive Spencerian script and comfortable shape of the bottle.
It seems that the brand name and the relationship of the consumer with the brand as a whole has evolved. From simple recognition of the product, the process, the brand now has a symbolic and social identification of the spectrum.
3.2. Concepts. Corporate brand. (Корпоративный бренд)
Brand identity is a set of individual components, such as a name, a design, a set of images, slogan, concept, design, writing style, font, or symbol, etc. which sets the brand apart from the others. For the company to feel a strong sense of brand identity, it needs to have a deep understanding of your target market, competitors, and business environment. Signature style includes both a core identity and an extended identity. Core personality reflects a consistent long-term associations with the brand while extended identity includes complex parts, which help to create a constant motif.
According to Kotler et al. 2009, the identity of the brands can provide four levels of meaning:
- Attributes. (Атрибутами)
- Personality. (Личность)
- Values. (Значения)
- Advantages. (Преимущества)
Attributes of the brands is set of labels with which the Corporation wishes to be associated. For example, a brand can demonstrate their main characteristics as environmental friendliness. However, only one of the attributes of the brands is not enough to convince the customer to buy the product. These attributes must be communicated through benefits that are more emotional translation. If the attribute is eco-friendly brands, clients benefit from feeling that they are helping the environment by associating with the brand. Apart from attributes and benefits, identity brands can also include branding, to focus on representing its core values. If the company is considered to symbolize a specific value, this, in turn, attract customers who also believe in these values. For example, Nike brand is valuable "just do it" attitude. Thus, this form of brand identity that attracts clients who also share the same value. Even more extensive than his perceived value is a brands personality. In a literal sense, can be described a successful brand as if it was a man. This form of brand identity has established itself as the most beneficial for maintaining long-term relationships with customers as it gives them a sense of personal interaction with the brand together, all four forms of brand identification will help to deliver a powerful sense that the Corporation hopes to achieve and explain why customers should choose one brand over competitors.
3.3. Concepts. Brand personality. (Индивидуальность бренда)
Brand personality refers to" the set of human personality traits that are both applicable and relevant to brands”. Marketers and consumer researchers often argue that brands can be imbued with human-like characteristics that resonate with potential consumers. Such personality traits can help marketers to create unique brands that are different from competing brands. The book brand conceptualized personality as consisting of five broad dimensions, namely sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and masculinity outdoorsy and tough. Subsequent research has shown that measuring Aakers brand personality are relatively stable in a variety of industries, market segments and over time. A large part of the literature on branding suggests that consumers prefer brands with personalities that do not coincide with their own.
Consumers can distinguish the psychological aspect of a brand from the experiential aspect. The experiential aspect consists of the sum of all points of contact with the brand and is called the consumers of the brand. The brand is often designed to create an emotional response and recognition that led to the potential loyalty and repeat purchases. Experience the brand-it shares the brands perceived by the person. The psychological aspect, sometimes referred to as the brand image, is a symbolic construction created within the minds of people, consisting of all the information and expectations associated with a product, service, or companies providing them.
Marketers or product managers responsible for branding seek to develop or align the expectations behind the brand experience creating the impression that the brand associated with a product or service has certain qualities and properties that make it special or unique. Thus, the brand can become one of the most valuable elements in the advertising theme as it demonstrates what the brand owner has to offer on the market. The art of creating and maintaining a brand is called brand management. The orientation of the whole organization towards its brand is called brand orientation. Brand orientation develops in response to market intelligence.
Careful brand management seeks to make products or services that are relevant and meaningful to the target audience. Marketers tend to view brands as more than the difference between the actual cost of the product and its selling price, and brands represent the sum of all valuable qualities of a product to the consumer and is often regarded as the total investment in brand building activities including marketing communications.
Consumers may look on branding as an aspect of products or services as it often serves to denote a certain attractive quality or characteristic See also brand promise. From the perspective of brand owners, branded products or services can command higher prices. Where two products resemble each other, but one of the products has no branding, such as a generic manufacturer, the potential buyers often select the more expensive branded product on the basis of perceived quality or brand-based reputation of the brand owner.
3.4. Concepts. Brand awareness. (Узнаваемость бренда)
Brand awareness includes the ability to customers to remember and / or learn the brands, logos and company advertising. Brands help customers to understand which brands or products belong to the category of goods or services. Brands help customers to understand the constellation of advantages of the individual brands and the brand in the category differs from competing brands and thus brand helps clients and potential clients to understand what the brand meets their needs. Thus, the brand offers the client the shortest path to understanding other product or services which fall into a special category.
Brand awareness is a key step in the customer purchase decision-making process, since some awareness is a necessary condition for purchase. That is, customers will not consider a brand if they dont realize it. Brand awareness is a key component in understanding the effectiveness of brand identity and its communication methods. Successful brands are those that consistently generate a high level of brand awareness as this can often be the deciding factor in securing deals. Various forms of brand awareness can be identified. Each form reflects a different stage in the clients cognitive abilities to solve the brand in these circumstances.
Marketers generally distinguish two different types of brand awareness, namely brand recall, also known as unaided recall, or sometimes spontaneously recall and brand recognition also known as promotes brand recall. These types of consciousness operate in entirely different ways has important implications for the strategies of marketing and advertising.
- Brand recall is also known as unaided brand awareness and spontaneous awareness refers to the brand or set of brands that the consumer may retrieve from memory when prompted with the product category.
- Strategic awareness occurs when a brand is not only top-of-mind to consumers but also has distinctive qualities which consumers perceive as making it better than other brands in a particular market. The differences that distinguish a product from competitors, is also known as unique selling proposition or USP.
- Brand awareness also known as promotes brand awareness occurs when consumers see or read a list of brands, and Express familiarity with a particular brand only after they hear or see it as a type of assistant memory.
- Most companies strive for a top-of-Mind ", which occurs when the brand POPs in consumers mind when asked to name brands in a product category. For example, when someone was asked to name the type of facial tissue, the common answer is, "Kleenex", will be a top-of-mind Brand. Top-of-mind awareness is a special case of brand recall.
3.5. Concepts. Brand awareness. (Узнаваемость бренда)
Brand awareness is one of the initial stages of brand awareness and checks whether the client remembers previously exposed to the brand. Brand awareness also known as promotes brand recall relates to consumers ability to correctly differentiate the brand, when they come in contact with him. It does not necessarily require that consumers identificeret or remember the brand name. When customers have brand recognition, they are caused by either a visual or verbal signal. For example, when searching to satisfy their needs in categories such as toilet paper, the client will first be presented several brands to choose from. As soon as the customer is visually or verbally confronted with a brand, he / she can remember how got acquainted with the brand. When given some type of cue, consumers who will be able to get the right memory node, which referred to the brand, they have brand recognition. Often, this form of brand awareness helps customers in selecting one brand over another when confronted with a low level of involvement of the purchase decision.
Brand awareness is often the mode awareness of the brand, who works in the retail environment. Upon presentation of the goods at the point of sale, or after viewing its visual packaging, consumers have the opportunity to learn the brand and may be able to associate it with the attributes or values acquired as a result of the impact of promotion or word-of-mouth referrals. In contrast, brand recall, where few consumers were able to spontaneously recall the brand name within a certain category, when prompted with the brand name, a lot of consumers usually able to recognize it.
Brand recognition is most successful when people can achieve recognition is the name of the company, and using visual signs, such as logos, slogans and colors. For example, Disney successfully branded its particular script font, originally created for Walt Disneys "signature" logo, which was used in the logo for go.com.
3.6. Concepts. Remember the brand. (Помню бренд)
In contrast to brand recognition, recall, also known as unaided brand recall or spontaneous brand recall is the ability of the customer to retrieve the brand from memory. And do not give a choice of several brands to satisfy their needs, consumers are faced with the need first, and then have to remember the brand from my memory to meet this need. This level of brand recognition is stronger than brand awareness, a brand should be firmly entrenched in the memory of consumers to enable memory without assistance. This gives the company a huge advantage over its competitors, because the customer is ready to buy or at least know the companies offering in the market. Thus, brand recall is proof that the previous brand of terminals can be successfully fermented in the minds of their consumers.
Marketing mix modeling can help market leaders optimize how they spend marketing budgets to maximize impact on brand awareness and on sales. Managing brands for value creation will often involve applying marketing methods of modeling, combined with evaluation of the brand value.
4. The elements of the brand. (Элементы бренда)
Brands, usually include various elements, such as:
- Shapes: the distinctive shapes of the Coca Cola bottle and "VW beetle" are trademarked elements of those brands.
- Logo: the visual trademark that identificeret brand.
- Taste: fried chicken trademarked its special recipe of eleven herbs and spices for fried chicken.
- The slogan or motto: "Faster Top the collector" is associated with bounty paper towels.
- Graphics: the "dynamic ribbon" is a trademarked part of Coca-Cola brand.
- Name: the word or words used to identify a company, product, service, or concept.
- Scents: the rose-Jasmine-musk scent of Chanel No. 5 is trademarked.
- Movements: Lamborghini has been a sign of the upward motion of its car doors.
- Sounds: a unique tune or set of notes can denote a brand. Mobile, I thought chimes provide a famous example.
- Colors: instant recognition among consumers when they see the Tiffany & Co. with Robins egg blue Pantone No. 1837. Tiffany & Co. with the brand color in 1998.
4.1. The elements of the brand. Brand communication. (Коммуникации бренда)
Although the brand is the core asset of brand equity, the value of the individual brands will become irrelevant without constant communication of the brand. Integrated marketing communication IMC is how a brand conveys a clear consistent message to stakeholders. The five key components comprising the IMC:
- Direct marketing. (Прямой маркетинг)
- Personal selling. (Личные продажи)
- Advertising. (Реклама)
- Public relations. (Общественных отношений)
- Stock. (Акции)
The effectiveness of brand communication is determined by how well the customer perceives brands, the intended message through its IMC. Although IMC is a strategic concept, the most important elements of brand communication, reveal, as the brand sends the message that the touch points the brand uses to connect with its customers.
You can analyze the traditional model of communication in several consecutive steps:
- After completion of the step of encoding a message is complete and is portrayed through the selected channel. In IMC, the channels can include media elements such as advertising, public relations, sales promotion, etc.
- Finally, the receiver receives the message and tries to understand what the sender is committed to provide. Often, the message can be properly received because of noise in the market, which is called ".the unplanned static or distortion in the communication process.".
- It was at this point where messages can often deter from its original purpose, as a message must pass through the decryption process, which can often lead to unintended misinterpretation.
- The final stage of this process, when the recipient responds to the message received by the sender as feedback.
- First, the source / sender wants to send a message to the receiver. This source needs to encrypt a text in such a way that the receiver can understand.
When the brand conveys a brand for the receiver, he runs the risk of the receiver to misinterpret the message. Therefore, the brand must use the appropriate communication channels to positively ".affect both psychological and physical aspects of the brand is perceived".
In order for brands to effectively communicate with customers, marketers must ".consider all touch points|s, or sources of communication that the customer with the brand." Touch points represent the phase of the channel in a traditional model of communication, when a message moves from the sender to the receiver. Any point where the customer interaction with the brand while viewing the TV advertising after hearing about the brand by word of mouth or even noticing a branded license plate determines the point of tangency. According Ve et al. 2010, every contact point has "the potential to add positive or suppressing negative associations with the brands of justice" thus, the IMC brands must consistently deliver a lot of positive messages through relevant touch points related to target market. One technique involves the use of sensory stimuli of touch points to activate the emotions of the client. For example, if a brand consistently uses a pleasant smell as the initial touch point, the brand has far more chances of creating a positive long term impact on their clients feelings and memory. Otherwise, the brand can ensure that it uses the best channel of communication by focusing on touch points that suit specific areas related to customer experience. As suggested in Fig. 2, certain touch points communication with a particular stage in the customer-brand engagement. For example, the brand may recognize that promotional touch points are most effective during the pre-purchase stage, so they can target their ads for new customers and not for existing customers. Overall, brand is an opportunity to strengthen the brand using the IMK brand communication across touch points.
Brand communication is important in ensuring the success of the brand in the business world and refers to how businesses convey their brand messages, features and attributes for its users. One way of brand communication, companies can use electronic includes the word-mouth eWOM. EWoM is a relatively new approach to communicate with consumers. One popular method eWOM includes SNSs social networking sites such as Twitter. The study showed that consumers classified their relationship with the brand, and closer if that brand has been active on a specific social network Twitter. The study also found that consumers are more "retweets" and communicate with the brand, the more they trust the brand. This suggests that the company could look at the work of socio-information campaign to earn consumer confidence and loyalty, as well as in the pursuit of brand communication.
McKee 2014 it also looked brand communication and States that when communicating with a brand, companies should look to simplify their message, as this will lead to the cost increase are shown as well as more likely to target consumers Recalling and recognizing the brand.
In 2012, the Riefler stated that if the company communicating the brand is a global organization or the future of the global objectives that the company should look to use this method of interaction throughout the world turn to their consumers, and then choose the method of communication with the international understand. One of the ways the company can do this includes the choice of a product or service brand name, as this name will need to be suitable for the market in which he seeks to enter.
It is important that if a company wants to develop on the world market, the company name will also need to be suitable in different cultures and not offend or be misunderstood. When communicating with a brand, companies must realize that they must not only visually represent your brand message and should take advantage of portraying their message through multi-sensory information. One article says that the other senses, besides vision, should be aimed at communicating the brand with consumers. For example, a jingle or background music can have a positive impact on brand awareness on buying behavior and brand recall.
So, if you want to chat absolutely with selected customers, companies need to explore the communication channel that best suits their short and long term goals and should choose a method of communication that can be fulfilled by their chosen consumers. Match between product, consumer lifestyle, and the transferor is essential for the effectiveness of brand communication.
5.1. Global variables brand. Brand name
The term "brand name" is often used interchangeably with "brand", although it is more correctly used to denote written or spoken linguistic elements of any product. In this context, "brand name" constitutes a type of trademark if the brand name exclusively identifies the brand owner as the commercial source of goods or services. The brand owner can protect the rights of ownership of the brand name by trademark registration, such marks are referred to as "trademarks". Advertising officials also become part of some brands, for example: Mr. Whipple of Charmin toilet paper, and Tony the Tiger Kelloggs cereal. The definition of brand value to the assessment of the brand or using marketing methods of modeling is different to the assessment of the trademark.
5.2. Global variables brand. The type of trademark. (Тип торговой марки)
Brands come in many styles. A few include:
- Impersonation: taking names from myth like Nike or from the minds of the leaders of the ads such as "Betty Crocker".
- Memories: the names that can cause a vivid image, such as "Amazon" or "crest".
- Alliteration and rhyme: names that are fun to say, and which remain in the memory, such as "reeses pieces" or "Dunkin donuts".
- Neologisms: completely made-up words such as "Wii" or "ice cream".
- Geography: names of regions and attractions such as "Cisco" or "Fuji film".
- Descriptive names describe the product benefits or features, such as "whole foods" or "toy store".
- Hybrid: a combination of several words together to create one, such as "Microsoft" "microcomputer" and "software", "Comcast" "messages" and "broadcast", "Evernote" "forever" and "attention", "Vodafone".
- Acronym: name of initials, such as "Windows" or "IBM".
- Puns: some brands create their name by using a silly pun, such as "Lord of the fries", "WOK on water or eggs Eggscetera".
- Foreign word: adoption of a word from another language like Volvo or Samsung.
- The founders names: using the names of real people, especially the founders name, such as "Hewlett Packard", "Dell", "Disney", "Stussy" or "Mars".
The act of associating a product or service with a brand has become part of pop culture. Most products have some sort of corporate identity, ranging from table salt to designer jeans. In brandnomer is a brand name which in common parlance has become the generic term for a product or service such as band-aid, nylon, or a handkerchief that is often used to describe any brand of adhesive, all types of hosiery, or any brand of facial tissue respectively. Xerox, for example, has become synonymous with the word "copy".
5.3. Global variables brand. Line brand. (Линии бренда)
The brand line allows the introduction of different subtypes of a product under General, ideally, already established, brand name. Examples include separate Kinder chocolates, Ferrero SA subtypes "Coca-Cola", or special editions of popular brands. Cm. also brand extension.
The open knowledge Foundation created in December 2013, the standard corporate sin identification number. Sin is universal and is used on the open working group data products of the open knowledge Foundation to assign a brand product. The OKFN brand repository is critical for open data.
5.4. Global variables brand. Brand. (Бренд)
The expression of the brand, including its name, trademark, communications, and appearance – is brand. Because the identity is assembled by the brand owner, it reflects how the owner wants the consumer to perceive the brand and the brand extension company, organization, product or service. This is in contrast to the image, which is the customers mental picture of the brand. The brand owner will seek to bridge the gap between brand image and brand identity. Corporate identity is fundamental to consumer recognition and symbolizes the brands differentiation from competitors.
Brand identity is what the owner wants to convey to their potential customers. However, over time, a products brand can buy to evolve, gaining new attributes from consumers point of view, but not necessarily from the marketing communications an owner percolates to targeted consumers. Therefore businesses research consumer associations with the brand.
The brand identity is working as a guide, as a framework within which the brand will evolve and define itself, or in the words of David the book".a unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain.”
According to Kapferer 2007 has 6 facets of the brand:
- Physical data: physical characteristics and iconography of your brand such as logo or Pantone Nike orange of EasyJet.
- Culture: the values,the principles on which the brand bases its behavior. For example, Google flexible working hours and a fun environment so that employees feel happy and creative in work.
- Communication: communication between a brand and its customers, and customer expectations of the brand experience beyond the material of the product. For example, guarantees or services during and after purchase help to support stable relationships and to retain the trust of consumers.
- Reflection:" stereotypical” user of the brand. The brand is likely to be the profile bought a few of the buyer, but they will go to the person that they use in their campaigns. For example the Yate Lu and Parisian chic.
- Personality: a person how the brand communicates with its audience, which is expressed in her tone, design assets, and then integrate it in connection terminals in a Coherent way.
Self-esteem: as the customers brand represents its own ideal of how they want to look and act, what they aspire to brands can target their messages accordingly and make aspirations reflect their brand.
5.5. Global variables brand. Visual identity. (Визуальная идентичность)
The brand can also be used to attract customers to the company, if the companys brand is well-known and goodwill. The recognition and perception of a brand largely depends on its visual representation. In the visual identity of the brand is a common form of communication. Effective visual brand identity is achieved by the consistent use of particular visual elements to create distinction, such as special fonts, colors and graphic elements. At the heart of every brand is a trademark or logo. In the United States, corporate identity and logo design naturally grew out of the modernist movement in the 1950-ies and rely heavily on the principles of that movement – simplicity Ludwig Mies van der Rohes the principle of "less is more" and geometric abstraction. These principles can be observed in the work of the pioneers of the practice of visual identity design such as Paul Rand and Saul bass. As part of the companys brand identity, the logo should complement the companys strategy message. An effective logo is simple, memorable, and works well in any environment, including online and offline applications.
Color is an important element of visual brand identity and color mapping provides an effective way of ensuring color contributes to differentiation in a visually cluttered marketplace.
5.6. Global variables brand. Brand trust. (Бренд доверие)
Brand trust is the internal believability that any entity evokes. In the commercial world, the intangible aspect of brand trust affects the behavior and performance of its business partners in many intriguing ways. This forms the basis of a strong brand connect with all stakeholders, converting simple awareness to strong commitment. This, in turn, metamorphoses normal people who have an indirect or direct stake in the organization into devoted ambassadors, leading to concomitant advantages like easier acceptability of brand extensions, perception higher, and acceptance of temporary quality deficiencies. Brand trust is often used as an important part of development drawing businesses around the world. Foreign companies will often use names associated with quality, in order to trust the brand itself. An example is a Chinese company using a German name.
The credibility of the brand report is a syndicated primary research that has been developed for this metric of brand trust. It is the result of action behavior communication and attitude of an entity with the most trust results arising from its components of action. The actions of the entity is most important in creating trust in all those audiences who directly interact with the brand, the main experience of the target audiences. However, communications play an important role in transferring the trust experience to the audience who have never felt absolutely, all important secondary audience.
5.7. Global variables brand. Parity brand. (Бренд паритет)
Brand parity is the perception of the customers that some brands are equivalent. This means that buyers will be buying in the a group of accepted brands rather than choosing one specific brand. When the parity of the brand work, the quality is often not a serious problem, as consumers believe that there are only minor qualitative differences.
6. The expansion of the role of brands. (Расширение роли брендов)
The original purpose of branding was to simplify the process of identifying and differentiating products. Over time, manufacturers began to use brand communications to give the brand a unique personality. Brands came to embrace a performance or benefit promise for the product certainly but eventually also for the company behind the brand.
Today, brands play a much greater role. The power of brands to quickly convey a complex message with emotional impact and the ability of brands to attract media attention, make them ideal tools in the hands of activists. Cultural conflict over the meaning of brands is also affecting the diffusion of innovation.
7. Branding strategies. (Стратегии брендинга)
Individual branding. (Индивидуальный брендинг)
Each brand has a separate name) that can compete with other brands in the same company.
Crowdsourcing branding. (Краудсорсинг брендинг)
Its the brands that are "public" for business, which is the opposite of the traditional method where the business create a brand.
7.1. Branding strategies. Company name. (Название компании)
Often, especially in the industrial sector, the engineers of the brand will contribute to the service. Exactly how the company name relates to product names and services are part of brand architecture. Decisions about company names and product names and their relationship depends on more than a dozen strategic considerations.
In this case, strong brand name or the company name becomes a means for marketing a range of products, for example, Mercedes-Benz or black & Decker or a number of subsidiary brands.
Brand name changes are especially vivid examples of branding solutions. A name change may be a signal of various forms of ownership, as well as new lines of products. Thus, the name "Yunisis" originated in 1986 when Burroughs bought and turned on the UNIVAC, as well as newly international business machines presents a broader scope in 1924 from its original name, computing-counting-recording company. Changing brand names may also have a role in the quest to shed unwanted images: for example, Werner Erhard and partners rebranded their activities as landmark education in 1991, at a time when the publics 60 minutes investigative report stop eating and Werner Erhard brands in a negative light, and Union carbide in India companies became eveready Industries in India in 1994 after the disaster in Bhopal in 1984
7.2. Branding strategies. Individual branding. (Индивидуальный брендинг)
Each brand has a separate name) that can compete with other brands in the same company.
7.3. Branding strategies. Brands Challenger. (Брендов Challenger)
The Challenger brand-an iconic brand in the industry, where he is neither a leader, not a niche brand. Challenger brands are divided into the way of thinking that sees them have business ambitions beyond the resources and intent to make changes in the industry.
7.4. Branding strategies. Branding strategy multiproduct. (Стратегии брендинга многономенклатурного)
Branding strategy multiproduct company uses one name for all their products in-class product. When companies trade name is used, branding multiproduct also known as corporate branding, family branding or umbrella branding. Examples of companies that use corporate branding are Microsoft, Samsung, Apple, and Sony as a company name absolutely identical to their trade name. Other examples of branding strategies include diversified of the virgin and Church & Dwight. Virgo and multinational conglomerate uses punk inspired, handwritten logo red with the iconic check mark for all its products ranging from airlines, balloons, telecommunications and healthcare. Church & Dwight, a manufacturer of household products displays, the arm & hammer family brand for all products that contain baking soda as the main ingredient. Branding strategy multiproduct has many advantages. It benefits from the brand-consumers that have a good experience with the product, in turn, transmit this positive Outlook on additional objects in the same class of product as they have the same name. Therefore, the branding strategy multiproduct makes the expansion of the possible.
7.5. Branding strategies. Expansion of the product line. (Расширение продуктовой линейки)
The product line expansion is a procedure of entering a new market segment in its product class, using the current name brand. An example of this is Campbell soup company, primarily a manufacturer of canned soups. They use a branding strategy diversified by expanding the range of soup. They have over 100 flavors of soup telescoping varieties such as ordinary Campbells soup, condensed, chunky, fresh-brewed, organic, and soup on the go. This approach is regarded as favorable as it may lead to lower costs for promotion and advertising in connection with the same name is used on all products, thus raising the level of awareness about the brand. Although range expansion has potential negative results, namely that the other items in the companys portfolio may be at a disadvantage due to sales expansion. Line extensions to work at their best when they provide increased revenue, attracting new customers, or by the removal of sales from competitors.
7.6. Branding strategies. Subbranding
Subbranding is used by some multiproduct branding companies. Subbranding merges corporate, family or umbrella brand with the introduction of a new brand to distinguish a part of a line of products from others in the whole system. Subbranding helps to formulate and build sentences. It can change the personality of brands as subbranding can change the Association of the parent brand. Examples of successful subbranding can be seen through the water and Porsche. Engineer, producer of sports food and drinks effectively implemented energy G2 low-calorie line of drinks port wine. In addition, Porsche, specialized car manufacturer successfully markets its bottom line, Porsche Boxster and the more expensive lines, Porsche Carrera.
7.7. Branding strategies. Co-branding. (Ко-брендинг)
Co-branding is a variant of brand extension. This is when a single product created from mixing the two brand names of two manufacturers. Co-branding has its advantages because it allows companies to expand into new classes of products and use a recognized brand in this product class. An example of co-branding success Whitaker working with Lewis road Creamery to create a co-branded drink called Lewis road Creamery and Russian milk chocolate. This product has been a huge success in the market of New Zealand parted.
7.8. Branding strategies. The Strategy Of Multibranding. (Стратегия Multibranding)
Multibranding strategy when the company gives each product a unique name. Multibranding is best used as a approach for each brand targets a different segment of the market. Multibranding is used in assortment ways with selected companies grouping their brands based on price-quality segments. Procter & gamble p& g, the multinational manufacturers of consumer goods, which offers more than 100 brands, Each suited for different needs of consumers. For example, head and shoulders, which helps users rid of dandruff in the form of shampoo, oral-B, which offers inter-dental products, Viks, which offers cough and cold products, and Downey, which offers dryer sheets and fabric softeners. Other examples include Coca-Cola, Nestle, Kelloggs and Mars.
This approach usually leads to increased costs for promotion and advertising. This is due to the company needed to create awareness among consumers and retailers for each new brand without any previous experience. Multibranding strategy has many advantages. No risk that product failure will affect other products in the line of each brand is unique to each market segment. Although some large multi-line are not faced with this cost and complexity of implementation of the multibranding strategy can overshadow the benefits. For example, Unilever, the worlds third largest multinational companies in the consumer goods market, has recently streamlined its brands from more than 400 brands to concentrate on 14 brands with sales of more than EUR 1 billion. Unilever this problem was solved by removing the product and sales to other companies. Other multibrand companies introduce new product brands as defensive measures to respond to the competition called the battle of brands or brands fighter.
7.9. Branding strategies. The battle of brands. (Битва брендов)
The main purpose of fighting brands dispute the brands of a competitor. For example, Qantas, Australias largest airline has introduced the Singapore-go head to head against low-cost airline, virgin Australia previously known as Virgin blue. Dzhetstar-Australian budget airline for travelers with a limited budget, but he gets a lot of negative reviews because of this. The launch in Singapore allowed Qantas rival virgin Australia without criticism to be associated with Qantas from the typical brand name.
7.10. Branding strategies. Private branding strategy. (Частная стратегия брендинга)
Private branding has increased in popularity. Private branding is when a company produces products, but it is sold under the brand of wholesale or retail dealer. Private branding is popular because it typically produces high profits for manufacturers and suppliers. The cost of private brands of goods, generally cheaper than competing brands. Consumers are often deterred by these prices, because it establishes a perception of lower quality and standard, but these attitudes are changing.
In Australia, they are the leading supermarket chains as Coles and Woolworths full of store brands or trademarks. For example, in the USA, Paragon brands, Ralcorp Holdings, and sun are the main suppliers of diapers, food, and private label alkaline batteries, respectively. Costco, walmart, online, Sears, and Kroger large retailers who have their own brand. Likewise, Macys, medium-chain Department stores offers a directory of private brands in their stores from brands such as first impressions, which provide newborn and childrens clothes, hotel collection, which supply luxury linens and mattresses, and tasso Elba, which supply European style mens clothing. They use the private branding strategy specifically targeted consumer markets.
7.11. Branding strategies. Mixed branding strategy. (Смешанные стратегии брендинга)
Mixed branding strategy is where the firm sells products under its own names and that of the mediator, because the segment attracted to the seller is different from its own market. For example, Elizabeth Arden, Inc., major American cosmetic and perfume company uses a mixed branding strategy. The company sells its brand Elizabeth Arden through Department stores and product lines for skin care at Walmart with the "simple skin" brand name. Companies such as Jacuzzi, Del Monte, and dial produce private brands of household appliances, pet food, and soap, respectively. Other examples of mixed branding strategies include Michelin, Epson, Microsoft, Gillette, and Toyota. Michelin, one of the largest manufacturers of tires allowed Sears, the American retail chain to place their brand name on the tires. Microsoft, a multinational technology company to seriously consider as a brand "corporate technology", but he sells a universal home entertainment center under the brand of Xbox, to fit better into new and crazy personality. Gillette served women with Gillette for women, which became known as Venus. The launch of Venus was carried out in order to fulfill the female market previously dominant mens razor industry. Similarly, Toyota, the car manufacturer used the mixed branding. In the US, Toyota was considered a valuable car brand, cost effective, family and is known as a tool that rarely broke. But Toyota wanted to do more high-end, expensive segment of the market, so they created Lexus, the luxury vehicle division of cars of a premium class.
7.12. Branding strategies. Attitude branding and iconic brands. (Отношения брендинга и знаковых брендов)
Attitude branding is the choice to represent a larger feeling, which is not necessarily connected with the product or consumption of the products at all. Marketing labeled as attitude branding, including "Nike", "Starbucks", "the body shop", Safwa, and Apple. In the 1999 book no logo, Naomi Klein describes attitude branding as a strategy "fetish". Schaefer and Kuehlwein analyzed brands such as Apple, Ben and Jerrys or Chanel, describing them as Ueber-brands - brands that have been able to gain and hold "the meaning beyond the material."
A great brand raises the bar – it adds a greater sense of purpose to the experience, whether its the challenge to do your best in sports and fitness, or a statement that the coffee youre drinking really matters. – Howard Schultz
Iconic brands, by definition are aspects that contribute to consumer self-expression and personal identity. Brands whose value to consumers, primarily from the value of the individual, as they say, "brand personality". Some of these brands have such strong personalities that they become more or less cultural icons which makes them "iconic brands". Examples: Apple, Nike and Harley-Davidson. Many iconic brands include almost ritual behavior in the purchase or consumption of goods.
There are four key elements to creating iconic brands Holt 2004:
- "The cultural brand management process" – actively engaging in the myth-making process in making sure that the brand retains its position as an icon.
- "Prerequisites" – indicators of a product should at least be acceptable preferably with a reputation of good quality.
- "Myth-making" – a meaningful storytelling ready cultural insiders. They must be seen as legitimate and respected by consumers for stories to be accepted.
- "Cultural contradictions" – some kind of mismatch between prevailing ideology and emergent undercurrents in society. In other words, the difference with the way consumers are and how they want to be.
Schaefer and Kuehlwein offer the following Ueber-branding principles. They got them from the study of successful modern prestigious brands and what elevates them above the mass of competitors and for reasons of performance and price only in the minds of consumers:
- "The mission is incomparable" – the presence of a differentiated and meaningful brand purpose, for money. Rules to follow this goal even if it violates the mass marketing mantra "customer is always the boss / right".
- "Growth without end" – will not be perceived as omnipresent, diluting the attractiveness of the brand. Instead of growing up with authority, reinforcing the shortage / high prices, expansion sideways, and other tools.
- "Longing versus belonging" game with the opposite desires of the people to include on the one hand, and exclusivity on the other.
- "Living the dream" – to live in the mission of the brand as an organization, and through their actions. Thus, rejecting the myth of the brand from the inside, constantly and through all the manifestations of the brand. – For "Nothing is as volatile as a dream.".
- "UN-selling" – first of all seek to seduce through pride and provocation, and not to sell through the arguments.
- "From myth to meaning" – using the power of myth – Ueber-stories that charmed, and to guide people forever.
- "Here!" – Execution of product and appropriate brand rituals reflect the essence of the mission of the brand and myth. Making him the center of attention, keeping it fresh.
7.13. Branding strategies. "No-brand" branding. ("Не-бренд" брендинг)
Recently a number of companies to successfully achieve "no-brand" strategies by creating packaging that imitates generic brand simplicity. Examples include the Japanese company Muji which means "label" in English from 無印良品 – "Mujirushi Ryohin" – literally, "no brand quality goods", and the Florida company no-ad sunscreen. Although there is a clear brand Muji products are not branded. This is a no-brand strategy means that little is spent on advertisement or classical marketing and Mujis success is attributed to word-of-mouth, a simple shopping experience and the anti-brand movement. "No brand" branding may be considered as a type of branding as the product is made visible through the absence of a brand name. "Tapa amarilla" or "yellow cap" in Venezuela in the 1980-ies is another good example of no-brand strategy. It was just recognized the color of the cap of this cleaning products company.
7.14. Branding strategies. Derived brands. (Производные брендов)
In this case, the supplier of key components used by a number of suppliers of the end product may wish to guarantee its own position by promoting that component as a brand in its own right. The most frequently quoted example is Intel which positions itself in the PC market with the slogan and the sticker "Intel inside".
7.15. Branding strategies. Brand expansion and dissolution of the brand. (Расширение бренда и роспуск марки)
The existing strong brand name can be used as the vehicle for new or modified products, for example, many Fashion and designer with advanced brands in perfumes, shoes and accessories, home textiles, home goods, Luggage, sunglasses, furniture, hotels, etc.
Mars extended its brand to ice cream caterpillar to shoes and watches, Michelin to a restaurant guide Adidas and Puma to personal hygiene. Dunlop extended its brand from tires to other rubber products such as shoes Golf balls tennis racquets and adhesives. Often, the product is no different from what else is on the market, with the exception of the brand designation. A brand is the identity of the product.
There is a difference between brand extension and line extensions. The extension lines when a current brand name is used to log into a new market segment in the existing product class with new varieties or flavors or sizes. When Coca-Cola released "diet coke" and "cherry coke" they stayed in the original category of product: non-alcoholic carbonated beverages. Procter & gamble P&G did likewise extending its strong lines such as fairy soap in the neighboring dishwashing detergent and FAE automatically within the same category, dishwashing detergents.
The risk of over-expansion brand dilution where the brand loses its brand associations with a market segment, product or quality, price or cachet.
7.16. Branding strategies. Brands in social networks. (Брендов в социальных сетях)
The better mousetrap: brand invention in a media democracy 2012, Author and senior brand strategist-Pont-Simon argues that brands in social media may be the most improved version of the brand form because they focus not on themselves, on their users. Thus, the brands in social media is arguably more charismatic, in that consumers are forced to spend time with them, because the time spent in the satisfaction of fundamental human drivers related to belonging and individualism. "We wear our physical brands like badges, to help define us – but we use our digital brands to help Express who we are. They allow us to be to hold a mirror up to yourself, and thats understandable. We like what we see."
7.17. Branding strategies. Multi-brands. (Multi-брендов)
In addition, on the market, which is fragmented between a number of brands a supplier can choose to run a totally new brands in apparent competition with its existing strong brand, and often with identical product characteristics, just to absorb some of the market share, which in any case is to small brands. This is because having 3 out of 12 brands in such a market will give a greater specific weight than 1 in 10, even if the share of these new brands is taken from the existing. In its most extreme form, the provider develops a new market which it believes will be particularly attractive may choose immediately to launch a second brand in competition with the first to pre-empt others entering the market. This strategy is commonly known as a multi-brand strategy.
Private brands, of course, provides greater flexibility, allowing different products of different quality to be sold without confusing the consumers perception of what business the company is in or diluting higher quality products.
Procter & Gamble is a leading exponent of this approach to branding, running as many as ten detergent brands in the US market. It also increases the total number of "facings" it receives on supermarket shelves. Sarah Lee, by contrast, uses the approach in different parts of the business separate - from Sara Lee cakes through Kiwi polishes to pantyhose Legs. In the hospitality business, like Marriott uses the name Fairfield Inns for budget chains and the selection of hotels in rodeway uses for their cheaper hotels.
Cannibalization is a particular problem with a multi-brand strategy in which the new brand brings business beyond the established one which the organization owns. It may even be reasonable to expect, if you have a net profit overall. In addition, it may be the price the organization is willing to pay for shifting its position in the market, a new product is one step in the process.
7.18. Branding strategies. Private label. (Метка частного назначения)
Private label brands, also called own brands, or store brands have become popular. Where the retailer has a particularly strong personality such as Marks & Spencer in the UK clothing industry this "own brand" may be able to compete against even the strongest brand leaders and may outperform those products that are not heavily branded.
Designer Own Brands
A relatively recent innovation in retailing is the introduction of designer private brands. Designer-STM to include a joint contract between the famous fashion designer and retailer. Both the retailer and the designer together to design products for a wide audience, pitched at a price comparable to budget consumers. For retailers, this kind of cooperation would give them more control over the design process, as well as access to exclusive brands that have the potential to affect the attendance of the store.
In Australia, for example, a Department store, Myer, is now offering a wide selection of exclusive designer brands, including Jason Brundson, Karen Walker, Leona Edmiston, Wayne Cooper, Fleur wood and L’ for Lisa Ho. Another market, Department store, David Jones, currently offers new to leading Australian designer Collette Dinnigan, and recently announced its intention to expand the number of exclusive designer brands. Target has teamed up with Denmark Minogue to produce range" Petites’. Specsavers has teamed up with Sydney designer Alex Perry to create an exclusive range of rims while big W stock periods designed by Peter Morrissey.
7.19. Branding strategies. Individual and organizational brands. (Индивидуальные и организационные брендов)
With brand development, branding is not limited to product or service. There are several types of branding that treat individuals and organizations as the products to be branded. Most NGOs and non-profit organizations carry their brand as a tool of fundraising. The goal of most NGOs Express social impact, so that their brand has become associated with specific issues of social life. Amnesty international, habitat for humanity, world wildlife Fund and AIESEC is one of the most famous brands all over the world. NGOs and nonprofit organizations have moved beyond the use of their brands to raise funds, to Express their inner identity and clarify their social objectives and long term goals. Organizational brands are also identified the main areas of the brand logo and variables.
7.20. Branding strategies. Crowdsourcing branding. (Краудсорсинг брендинг)
Its the brands that are "public" for business, which is the opposite of the traditional method where the business create a brand.
7.21. Branding strategies. Personal branding. (Персональный брендинг)
Many businesses have started to use elements of personalization in your branding strategy, offering the customer or consumer the opportunity to choose from different options of the brand or have direct control over the brand. Examples include campaign ShareACoke #Coca-Cola, which printed the names of people and names of places on their bottles encouraging people. Airbnb created a mechanism for users to create their own symbol for a program to replace the brands brand is known as white.
7.22. Branding strategies. National place branding and public diplomacy. (Национальный брендинг мест и публичная дипломатия)
Nation branding is a field of theory and practice, which aims to assess, build and manage the reputation of countries is closely linked with branding. Some approaches applied, such as greater importance to the symbolic value of products have led countries to emphasize their distinctive features. Branding and image of the nation-state "and successful transference of this image to export is as important as what they actually produce and sell".
7.23. Branding strategies. The purpose of branding. (Цель брендинга)
Item branding is the work of cities, States and other localities to promote the location to tourists and drive additional revenues into the tax base. These activities are often undertaken by governments but can also be the result of the work of public associations. In International Association of destination Marketing is the leading industry organizations.
8. Double image dBi. (Двойное изображение дБи)
The DoppelgangeR brand image or "dBi" disparaging the image or story about the brand that it is common in popular culture. The purpose of dBi, as a rule, widely known and recognizable brands. The goal of dbis is to undermine the positive brand meanings, brand owners are trying to instill in their marketing activities.
The term comes from a combination of the German words avatar double and double Walker.
Brands double are usually created by individuals or groups to Express criticism of the brand and its perceived value, through the form of parody, and generally unflattering in nature.
Due to the ability of brands double quickly spread virally across digital media channels, they can pose a real threat to capital trust of the brand. Sometimes the organization is forced to solve the root of the problem, or re-position the brand so that it defuses the criticism.
- Campaign FUH2 protest against the Hummer as a symbol of corporate responsibility and irresponsibility of consumers to the safety of the population and the environment.
- A parody of the logo for Pepsi as a fat person, to emphasize the relationship between soft drink consumption and obesity.
- Joe chemo campaign organized to criticize the marketing of tobacco to children and their harmful effects.
In 2006, in the article "emotional branding and the strategic value of the DoppelgangeR image" Thompson, to rindfleisch, and Arsel to assume that the DoppelgangeR brand image can be use for the brand, considered as the first alarm, warning that the brand loses its emotional authenticity of the market.
- marketing, brand management begins with an analysis on how a brand is currently perceived in the market, proceeds to planning how the brand should be perceived
- sales and create brand awareness. Today, brand ambassador as a term has expanded beyond celebrity branding to self - branding or personal brand management. Professional
- Brand equity is a phrase used in the marketing industry which describes the value of having a well - known brand name, based on the idea that the owner
- consumer - brand relationship, also known as a Brand Relationship is the relationship that consumers, think, feel, and have with a product or company brand Fournier
- Russell Edward Brand born 4 June 1975 is an English comedian, actor, radio host, author and activist. After beginning his career as a stand - up comedian
- Elton Tyron Brand born March 11, 1979 is an American former professional basketball player and the current general manager of the Philadelphia 76ers
- Raw is a brand of the U.S. based professional wrestling promotion WWE. The brand was first established on March 25, 2002, with a draft on Monday Night
- Brand X with Russell Brand is an American late - night talk show, stand up comedy television series that premiered on FX on June 28, 2012, starring English
- Brand - new products and services are those introduced to a market along with a new brand Brand New may also refer to: Brand New band an American alternative
- brand name Marca Oso, which is Spanish for Bear Brand The brand s Indonesian name is Susu Cap Beruang. Bear Brand is also a sterilized milk brand
- SmackDown is a brand of the U.S. based professional wrestling promotion WWE. The brand was first established on March 25, 2002 with a draft on Monday
- The brand extension also referred to as the brand split is the separation of WWE s talent roster and, at various times, creative staff into distinct
- Livestock branding is a technique for marking livestock so as to identify the owner. Originally, livestock branding only referred to hot branding large stock
- Brand awareness refers to the extent to which customers are able to recall or recognise a brand Brand awareness is a key consideration in consumer behavior
- Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a well - developed image uses the same brand name in
- Josephine Grace Brand born 23 July 1957 is an English comedian, writer, presenter and actress. Starting her entertainment career with a move from psychiatric
- Generic brands of consumer products often supermarket goods are distinguished by the absence of a brand name, instead identified solely by product characteristics
- Iconix Brand Group is an American brand management company that licenses brands to retailers and manufacturers primarily in the apparel, footwear, and
- Madeleine Brand is an American broadcast journalist and radio personality. Brand is the host of the news and culture show Press Play, on KCRW - FM 89.9
- The Co - operative is a common branding used by a variety of co - operatives based in the United Kingdom. Many in the UK consider Co - op to be a single national
- Sir David Brand KCMG 1 August 1912 15 April 1979 was an Australian politician. A member of the Liberal Party, he was a Member of the Legislative Assembly
- The Star Brand is the name of a number of similar fictional comic book objects of power in the multiverse created by the shared universes of Marvel Comics
- Brand New is an American rock band from Long Island, New York. Formed in 2000, the band consists of Jesse Lacey vocals, guitar Vincent Accardi guitar
- Stewart Brand born December 14, 1938 is an American writer, best known as editor of the Whole Earth Catalog. He founded a number of organizations, including
- No Name styled as no name, French: sans nom is a line of generic brand grocery and household products sold by Loblaw Companies Limited, Canada s largest
- Sir Johannes Henricus Brand GCMG popularly known as Jan Brand and sometimes as John Henry Brand or Jan Henrick Brand 6 December 1823 14 July 1888
- Gordon Brand Jnr 19 August 1958 31 July 2019 was a Scottish professional golfer. He played on the European Tour, winning eight times, and later the
- Brand Nubian is an American hip hop group from New Rochelle, New York, composed of three emcees: Grand Puba, Sadat X and Lord Jamar, and formerly two
- Procter Gamble. Introduced in 1946, it is the highest selling detergent brand in the world, with an estimated 14.3 percent of the global market. The household
- ECW was a brand of the U.S. based professional wrestling promotion World Wrestling Entertainment. The brand was established on May 25, 2006, as a revival
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