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Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one place to another. In other words, the actions of transport is defined as a specific movement of the body or a thing from point a to point B. the modes of transport include air, land, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transport enables trade between people, which is essential for the development of civilization.
Transport infrastructure consists of fixed installations including roads, Railways, Airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals like airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, freight terminals, refueling depots including fuelling docks and fuel stations and seaports. The terminals may be used both for exchange of passengers and cargo, and maintenance.
Vehicles traveling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, helicopters, watercraft, spacecraft and aircraft.
Operations deal with the way vehicles are operated, and the procedures established for this purpose, including financing, legal technicalities and rules. In transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be public or private, depending on the country and mode.
Passenger transport may be public, where operators provide scheduled flights or private. Freight steel containerization, although bulk transport. used for large volumes of durable goods. Transport plays an important role in ensuring economic growth and globalization, but most types cause air pollution and use large amounts of land. While this is largely subsidized by governments, good planning of transport is very important to the traffic flow and restrain urban growth.
1. History. (История)
People first vehicles involved walking, running and swimming. The domestication of animals introduced a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing transport of heavy loads, or people riding animals for higher speed and duration. Such inventions as the wheel and sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, and was the only efficient way to transport large quantities and over long distances to the industrial revolution.
The first forms of road transport of animals, such as horses domesticated in the 4th or 3rd Millennium BC, and oxen, from about 8000 BC or humans carrying goods over dirt roads that often followed game trails. Many early civilizations, including Mesopotamia and the Indus valley, built the paved road. In classical antiquity, the Persian and Roman empires built paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep webs of gravel roads under such dry. The medieval Caliphate later built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two. The importance of water has led to most cities, that grew up as sites for Commerce located on the banks of rivers or on the coast, often at the intersection of two bodies of water. Before the industrial revolution, transport remained slow and costly, and production and consumption tended as close as possible to each other as possible.
1.1. History. Mechanical. (Механические)
The industrial revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport. With cabling, communication became instant and independent of transport of physical objects. The invention of the steam engine, closely followed its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. And speed and power is increasing rapidly, allowing specialization through production is located, regardless of natural resources. The 19th century also saw the development of the steam ship, that sped up global transport.
With the development of internal combustion engines and automobiles around 1900, road transport has become still lower, and mechanical private transport has arisen. The first "modern" roads were built during the 19th century with macadam. Later, tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving materials. In 1903 the Wright brothers demonstrated the first successful controlled airplane, and after the First world war, 1914-1918 aircraft was the fastest way to transport people and Express goods over long distances.
After the Second world war 1939-1945 the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger traffic. Scientific space flight began in 1950-ies, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest declined. In 1950-e years the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency increase of freight transport, the promotion of globalization. International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s, with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the rise of cars and highways, rail and water transport declined in relative importance. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in Japan in 1964, high-speed railway in Asia and Europe began to attract passengers on long-haul flights from the airline.
In the early history of the United States, private joint-stock Corporation owned most aqueducts, bridges, canals, Railways, roads and tunnels. Most such transportation infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of intercity passenger rail service with the establishment of Amtrak. Lately, however, the movement for the privatization of roads and other infrastructure won their positions and supporters.
2. Modes. (Режимы)
Mode of transport is a solution that allows you to use a specific type of vehicle, infrastructure and operation. Transportation of a person or of cargo may involve one mode or several modes, the latter called intermodal or multimodal transport. Each mode has its advantages and disadvantages and will be selected for the trip based on cost, capability, and path.
2.1. Modes. Human-powered. (Человека-питание)
Human-powered transport, a form of sustainable transport is the transportation of people and / or goods using human muscle-power, in the form of walking, Jogging and swimming. Modern technology has allowed machines to enhance human power. Human-powered transport remains popular for reasons of economy, leisure, exercise, as well as the protection of the environment, it is sometimes the only type, especially in underdeveloped and remote areas.
Although people are able to walk without infrastructure, the transport can be enhanced through the use of roads, especially when using the human power with vehicles, such as bicycles and roller skates. Person vehicles and also for the development of complex conditions, such as snow and water, on the water rowing and skiing even the air can be introduced from the plane human-powered.
2.2. Modes. Animal nutrition. (Питание животных)
Animal-powered transport working animals for the movement of people and goods. People can ride some animals directly, use them as pack animals to transport goods, or use them alone or in teams, to pull sleds or wheeled vehicles.
2.3. Modes. Air
Fixed-wing aircraft, commonly called airplane, heavier-than-air craft where movement of the air relative to the wings used to create lifting force. The term is used to distinguish this from rotary-wing aircraft, where the movement of the lift surfaces relative to the air generates lift. The gyro is a fixed-wing and rotary-wing vehicles. Aircraft from small trainers and aircraft for recreation to large Airliners and military transport aircraft.
Two things necessary for aircraft of the air flow over the wings for lift and landing. The majority of aircraft also need an airport with the infrastructure to repair, restocking, refueling and for the loading and unloading of crew, cargo and passengers. While the vast majority of aircraft land and take off on land, some of them are capable of taking off and landing on ice, snow and calm water.
The aircraft is the second fastest method of transport, after the rocket. Commercial jets can reach up to 955 km / h 593 km / h, single-engine aircraft 555 kilometres per hour 345 miles per hour. Aviation is able to quickly transport people and limited amounts of cargo over long distances, but carries high costs and energy use, on short distances or in inaccessible places can be used by helicopters. As at 28 April 2009 the Guardian article notes that "according to who estimates, up to 500.000 people are on planes at any time."
2.4. Modes. Earth. (Земля)
Land transport covers all ground transportation system for the movement of people, goods and services. Land transport plays an important role in bringing communities together. Ground transportation is a key factor in urban planning. It consists of 2 types, rail and road transport.
2.5. Modes. Train. (Поезд)
Rail transport is where train runs along a two parallel steel rails, known as a railway or railroad. The rails are attached perpendicularly to the ties or sleepers of wood, concrete or steel, to maintain a constant distance, or a sensor. The rails and perpendicular beams are placed on foundations of concrete or compressed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast. Alternative methods include monorail and Maglev.
The train consists of one or more related vehicles running on rails. Engines are typically provided by a locomotive That pulls a number of self-propelled machines that can carry passengers or cargo. The locomotive can be powered by steam, diesel or electricity supplied by trackside systems. Alternatively, some or all machines can be powered, known as a few units. Alternatively, a train can be powered by horses, cables, gravity, Pneumatics and gas turbines. Cars move with much less friction than rubber tires on paved roads, making trains more energy efficient, although not as efficient as ships.
Intercity trains are long-haul services connecting cities, modern high-speed trains capable of speeds up to 350 km / h 220 km / h, but this requires specially built track. Regional and commuter trains feed cities from suburbs and surrounding areas, while within the city transport is running high-capacity tramways and rapid transits, often making up the backbone of urban public transport. Freight trains traditionally used box cars, requiring manual loading and unloading of cargo. Since the 1960s, years container trains have become the dominant solution for General freight, while large quantities of bulk are transported by dedicated trains.
2.6. Modes. Road. (Дорога)
Road is an identifiable route or path between two or more locations. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise that allows for easy travel though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or repair. In urban areas, roads may pass through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route.
The most common SUV is a vehicle, a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. Other users of roads include buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles and pedestrians. As of 2010, there were 1.015 billion cars worldwide. Road transport offers a complete freedom to road users to transfer the vehicle from one lane to another and from one road to another depending on needs and facilities. This flexibility of changes in location, direction, speed and travel time unavailable for other modes of transport. We can provide door to door service only by road transport.
Automobiles provide high flexibility with low capacity, but require high energy and area, and are the primary source of noise and air pollution in cities buses allow for more efficient travel at the expense of reducing flexibility. Road transport by truck is often the initial and final stage of freight transport.
2.7. Modes. Water. (Воды)
Water transport is movement by means of a watercraft such as a barge, boat, ship or sailboat - over the surface of the water, e.g. sea, ocean, lake, canal or river. The need for buoyancy is common to watercraft, making the hull one of the main aspects of its construction, maintenance and appearance.
In the 19th century the first steam ships were developed, using a steam engine to drive the paddle wheel or propeller to move the ship. Steam produced in a boiler using wood or coal and fed through a steam external combustion engine. Now most ships have an internal combustion engine using a slightly refined oil called bunker fuel. Some ships, such as submarines, use nuclear power to produce steam. Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, stationary cannons. In the shallow draft region, hovercraft are propelled by large pusher-prop fans. To see the sea.
Although it is slow compared to other modes of transport, modern sea transport is a highly efficient method of transporting large quantities of goods. Commercial vessels, nearly 35.000 in number, carried 7.4 billion tons of cargo in 2007. Transportation by water is much cheaper than air transport for transcontinental shipping, short-sea shipping and ferries remain viable in coastal areas.
2.8. Modes. Other modes. (Другие режимы)
Pipeline transport sends goods through a pipe, most often liquids and gases, but pneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. For liquids / gases, any chemically stable liquid or gas can be directed through the pipeline. There are short-range systems for sewage, slurry, water and beer, while long-distance networks are used for oil and natural gas.
Aerial ropeway-wide mode for vehicles pulling cables instead of an internal power source. It is most commonly used at steep gradient. Typical solutions include cable cars, elevators, escalators, and lifts, some of them are also categorized as conveyor transport.
Spaceflight is transport out of Earths atmosphere into space using spacecraft. Although a large number of studies in the field of technology, it is rarely used, except to put satellites into orbit, and conduct scientific experiments. However, man first landed on the moon, probes were sent to every planet in the Solar system.
Suborbital spaceflight is the fastest of the existing and planned transport systems from a place on Earth to the distant "other place" on Earth. Faster transport could be achieved through low-earth orbit, or following that trajectory even faster using the propulsion of the rocket to guide him.
3.1. Elements. Infrastructure. (Инфраструктура)
Infrastructure is the fixed installations that allow a vehicle to operate. It consists of the roadway, terminal and facilities for Parking and maintenance. For rail, pipeline, road and cable transport, the entire way the vehicle travels must be built. Air and water transport are avoided, since the airway and Seaway do not need to build. However, they require fixed infrastructure at terminals.
Terminals such as airports, ports and railway stations-places where passengers and cargo can be transferred from one vehicle or mode to another. For passenger transport, terminals are integrating different modes to allow riders who alternate between modes to take advantage of the regime. For example, airport rail links connect airports to town centers and suburbs. Terminals for passenger automobiles are Parking lots, while buses can operate from simple stops. For freight, terminals act as transshipment points, though some cargo is transported directly from the place of production to place of use.
Infrastructure financing can be public or private. Transport is a natural monopoly and the need for the population, construction of roads, and in some countries Railways and airports are funded through taxation. New infrastructure projects can have high costs and often financed by borrowed funds. Many infrastructure owners therefore impose a fee for the use of, for example, landing fees at airports or points of toll on the roads. Regardless of this, authorities may impose taxes on the purchase or use of vehicles. Because of poor forecasting and overestimation of the number of passengers for planning, there is often a drop-down benefits for transport infrastructure projects.
3.2. Elements. Means. (Значит)
The car is not a living device that is used to move people and goods. Unlike the infrastructure, the vehicle moves along with the cargo and riders. If pulls / pushes a cable or muscle-power, the vehicle must provide its own propulsion system, this is most commonly done through a steam engine, the internal combustion engine, an electric motor, jet engine or a rocket, though other means of transportation exist. Vehicles also need a system of converting energy into motion, this is most commonly done through wheels, propellers and pressure.
Remedies often work driver. However, in some systems, such as people movers and rapid transits, are fully automated. For passenger transport, the vehicle must have a compartment, of a seat or platform for passengers. Simple vehicles, such as automobiles, bicycles or simple aircraft, may one of the passengers as a driver.
3.3. Elements. Operation. (Операция)
Private transport can only be the owner of the car, who works on a car. For public transport and freight transport, operations are done through private enterprise or by governments. Infrastructure and vehicles may be owned and operated by the same company, or they may be involved in different subjects. Traditionally, many countries have a national airline and national railway. Since the 1980-ies, many of them were privatized. International shipping remains a highly competitive industry with little regulation, but the ports may be in state ownership.
3.4. Elements. Policy. (Политика)
As the world population increases, cities grow in size and population according to the UN, 55% of the world population lives in cities and by 2050 this number is expected to increase to 68%. Public transport policy should develop to meet the changing priorities of the urban world. The policy Institute of the order provides transport, which is inherently how people are trying to travel from one place to another as quickly as possible, chaotic. This policy helps reduce the likelihood of accidents and save lives.
4. Function. (Функция)
The movement of passengers and cargo are the most common use of transport. However, other goals, such as strategic and tactical reshuffles in the Armed forces in time of war or the civilian mobility construction or emergency equipment.
4.1. Function. Passenger. (Пассажир)
Passenger transport, or travel, is divided into public and private transport. Public transport regular services on fixed routes, while private cars, which provide special services at the riders desire. The latter offers more flexibility, but has a smaller capacity and a greater impact on the environment. The trip can be as part of your daily commute, for business, leisure or migration.
Short-haul transport is dominated by car and public transport. The latter consists of buses in rural areas and small cities, supplemented with commuter trains, trams and metro in large cities. Long-haul transport involves the use of a car, trains, buses and airplanes, the latter of which were primarily used for the longest, including Intercontinental, travel. Intermodal passenger transport, when the journey is performed by using several types of transport, since all human transport normally starts and ends with walking, all passenger transport can be considered mixed. Public transport may also involve the intermediate change of vehicle, within one or more of the modes, at a transport hub such as bus or train station.
Taxis and buses can be found on both ends of the spectrum of public transport. Buses are the cheapest mode of transport, but not necessarily flexible, and taxis are very flexible, but more expensive. The average demand-responsive transport offering flexibility, while remaining affordable.
International travel may be restricted for some individuals due to legislation and visa requirements.
4.2. Function. Medical. (Медицинские)
Ambulance-is a vehicle used to transport people to or from places of treatment, and in some cases also provide inpatient care to patient. This word is often associated with Road "ambulance", which are an integral part of a medical emergency, the office of emergency medical services for persons with acute medical problems.
Medical air services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transport to move patients from medical facilities and the incident scene. Personnel provide comprehensive prehospital and emergency and intensive care for all types of patients, aeromedical evacuation or rescue operations aboard helicopter and propeller aircraft or jet aircraft.
4.3. Function. The organization. (Организация)
Freight transport, or shipping, is a key in the value chain in production. With increased specialization and globalization, production is being located further away from consumption, rapidly increasing the demand for transport. Transport creates place utility by moving goods from place of production to place of consumption. While all modes of transport are used to transport goods, there is high differentiation between the nature of the cargo transport, in which mode is selected. Organization is the process of transferring products from producer to consumer, including storage, transport, transshipment, warehousing, material handling and packaging, with associated exchange of information. Incoterms is handling the payments and responsibility for the risk during transportation.
Containerization, with the standardization of ISO containers on all vehicles and at all ports, has revolutionized international and domestic trade, offering huge reduction in transshipment costs. Traditionally, all materials must be loaded manually and unloaded in the perspective of any ship or car containerization allows for automated handling and transfer between modes, and the standardized sizes allow for achieving economies of scale in vehicle operation. It was one of the key factors in international trade and globalization since 1950-ies.
Main transportation of General goods which can be handled roughly without deterioration, typical examples are ore, coal, grain and petroleum products. Because of the homogeneity of the product, machining may lead to a huge number to be processed quickly and efficiently. The low value of the cargo combined with high intensity also means that economies of scale have become important in transport, and gigantic ships and whole trains are commonly used for transporting loose. Liquid products with sufficient volume may also be transported through pipelines.
Air transportation has become more common for products of high value, while less than one percent of world transport by volume is by airline, it amounts to forty percent of the cost. Time has become especially important in relation to principles such as postponement and just-in-time within the value chain, which leads to a high willingness to pay for quick delivery of key components or items of high value per unit weight. In addition to mail, common items sent by air include electronics and fashion clothing.
5.1. Effect. Economic. (Экономической)
Transport is a key necessity for specialization allowing production and consumption of products to occur at different locations. Throughout the history of transportation was a stimulus to expansion, better transport allows more trade and a greater spread of people. Economic growth is always dependent on increasing the capacity and rationality of transport. But the infrastructure and operation of transport have a big impact on the ground, and transport is the largest drainer of energy, transport sustainability a major problem.
In connection with the image of the modern city and the community designed and operated, the physical distinction between home and work, are, as a rule, forcing people to transport themselves to and from work, study or leisure, and move temporarily to other daily activities. Passenger transport is also the essence tourism, a major part of recreational transport. Commerce requires the transport of people to conduct business, or to face-to-face communication for important decisions or to move specialists from their place of permanent work to places where they are needed.
5.2. Effect. Planning. (Планирование)
Transport planning allows for high load and less impact regarding new infrastructure. Using forecasting models of transport, designers are able to predict the future model vehicles. At the operational level, the organization allows owners of cargo to plan transport within the supply chain. Transport as a field is also studied through transport Economics, the component for the creation of regulation policy by authorities. Transport engineering, a sub-discipline of civil engineering must take into account trip generation, trip distribution, choice of mode of transport and route assignment, while at the operational level is carried out through the transport equipment.
Because of the negative impacts incurred, transport often becomes the subject of controversy related to choice of mode, as well as increased capacity. Road transport can be seen as the tragedy of the Commons, where the flexibility and comfort for the individual deteriorate the natural and urban environment for all. Density of development depends on mode of transport with public transport will improve spatial use. Good land use keeps common activities close to peoples homes and places higher-density development closer to transport lines and hubs, to minimize the need for transport. There are savings from agglomeration. In addition to transportation, some land uses are more efficient when clustered. Vehicles consume land, and in the cities of asphalt devoted to streets and Parking can easily exceed 20 percent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste.
Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum vehicle throughput means that in many cities there is too much traffic and many - if not all - of the negative consequences that come with it. It is only in recent years that the traditional methods began to be questioned in many places, as a result of new types of analysis which bring in a much wider range of skills than those traditionally relied on-spanning such areas as environmental analysis, health, sociology and economy - the viability of the old mobility solutions is increasingly questioned.
5.3. Effect. Environment. (Среды)
Transport is a major use of energy and burns most part of the worlds oil. This creates air pollution, including nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, and represents a significant contribution to global warming through emissions of carbon dioxide for which transport is the fastest growing sector of radiation. By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to global warming. Environmental regulations in developed countries reduced the emissions of individual vehicles, it kompensiruet increase in the number of vehicles and use of each vehicle. Some ways of reducing carbon emissions of road vehicles considerably have been studied. Energy consumption and emissions greatly vary between modes, causing environmentalists call for a shift from air and road to rail and human-powered transport and increase transport electrification and energy efficiency.
Other environmental impacts of transport systems include traffic congestion and automobile-oriented cities that can consume the natural environment and farmland. By reducing transportation emissions globally, it is predicted that there will be a significant positive impact on the quality of land, air, acid rain, smog and climate change.
6. Bibliography. (Библиография)
- Bardi, Edward; John Coyle And Robert Novack 2006. The Department of transport. Thomson South-Western. ISBN 0-324-31443-4.
- Chopra, Sunil & Peter Meindl 2007. The Supply Chain Management. Pearson. ISBN 978-0-13-208608-0.
- Lay, Maxwell G 1992. The ways of the world: a history of the worlds roads and the vehicles that used them. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-2691-4.
- Stopford, Martin 1997. The Maritime Economy. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15310-7.
- Christopher P. Cooper, Rebecca Shepherd 1998. Tourism: principles and practice. The Financial Times Prent.Int. ISBN 978-0-582-31273-9. Tested Dec 22, 2012.
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