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Life extension
                                     

★ Life extension

Life extension is the idea of extending human life, either modestly due to improvements in medicine – or drastically due to the increase in the maximum lifespan beyond it, as a rule, settled the limit of 125 years. The ability to achieve such radical changes, however, do not currently exist.

Some researchers in this area, and "life promoters", "immortalists" or "longevists" those who wish to achieve longer lives themselves believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation, stem cells, regenerative medicine, molecular repair, gene therapy, pharmaceuticals, and organs such as a replacement artificial organs or xenotransplantations will eventually enable humans to have an indefinite life agerasia through complete rejuvenation to a healthy young condition. Ethical implications if the life extension is a possibility, will be discussed by experts in bioethics.

Sale allegedly anti-aging products such as supplements and hormone replacement is a lucrative global industry. For example, in the industry that promotes the use of hormones as treatment for consumers to slow or reverse the aging process in the U.S. market amounted to about $ 50 billion of revenue per year in 2009. The use of such products has not been proven to be effective or safe.

                                     

1. Average and maximum lifespan. (Средняя и максимальная продолжительность жизни)

In the process of aging, an organism accumulates damage to macromolecules, cells, tissues and organs. In particular, aging is characterized as and thought to be caused by "genomic instability, reduction of telomeres, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing substances, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and disturbances in intercellular communications." Oxidation damage to cellular contents caused by free radicals is believed to contribute to aging as well.

The longest documented human lifespan is 122 years, the case of Jeanne calment, who according to records was born in 1875 and died in 1997, whereas the maximum lifespan of a wild mouse, commonly used as a model in studies of aging, is about three years. Genetic differences between humans and mice that may account for these different aging rates include differences in efficiency of DNA repair, antioxidant defense, energy metabolism, proteostasis maintenance and processing mechanisms, such as autophagy.

The average life expectancy in the population decreases in infant and child mortality, which is often associated with infectious diseases or nutritional problems. Later in life, vulnerability to injuries and age-related chronic diseases such as cancer or cardiovascular disease play a significant role in mortality. Extension of expected lifespan can often be achieved by access to improved medical care, vaccinations, good nutrition, exercise, and avoid hazards such as Smoking.

Maximum lifespan is determined by the rate of aging for a species inherent in its genes and environmental factors. Widely recognized methods of extending maximum life span of model organisms such as nematodes, fruit flies, and mice include caloric restriction, gene manipulation, and drugs. Another technique uses evolutionary pressures such as breeding from only older members or changes in the level of external mortality. Some animals, such as Hydra, planarian flatworms, and certain sponges, corals, jellyfish do not die of old age and possess potential immortality.

                                     

2.1. Strategy. Diet and supplements. (Диеты и добавки)

Much life extension research focuses on nutrition - diets or supplements - though there is little evidence that they have influence. Many diets, promotes anti-aging advocates are often contradictory.

Some studies have shown that calorie restriction prolongs life of mice, yeast, and rhesus monkeys. However, more recent studies do not find calorie restriction to improve the survival rate in rhesus monkeys. People have long-term health consequences of moderate calorie restriction with enough nutrients is unknown.

Free-radical theory of aging suggests that antioxidant supplements can prolong a persons life. However, comments that are found that vitamin A as β-carotene and vitamin E supplements may increase mortality. Other reviews have found no link between vitamin E and other vitamins with mortality.

                                     

2.2. Strategy. Hormone treatment. (Гормональное лечение)

Anti-aging industry offers several hormone therapy. Some of them have been criticized for possible dangers and lack of proven effect. For example, the American Medical Association criticizes some anti-aging hormone therapy.

While growth hormone g is reduced with age, evidence of the use of HGH as anti-aging therapy is mixed and based mostly on animal studies. There is conflicting information that GH or IGF-1 modulates the aging process in the human body and about the direction in which its influence is positive or negative.

                                     

3. History. (История)

Life extension was the desire of humankind and the main motive in the history of scientific research and ideas throughout history, from the Sumerian epic of Gilgamesh and the Egyptian medical papyrus of Smith, all Taoists, practitioners of Ayurveda, alchemists, hygienists, such as Luigi Cornaro, Johann Cohausen and Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, and philosophers such as Francis bacon, Rene Descartes, Benjamin Franklin and Nicolas Condorcet. However, the beginning of a new time in this case can be traced back to the late 19th – early 20th century, the so-called "fin-de-siecle" end of the century, the period designated as "end of an era" and is characterized by the growth of scientific optimism and therapeutic activity, entailing a commitment to life-prolonging or life-extensionism. Among the outstanding researchers of life extension during this period was Nobel laureate biologist Elie Metchnikoff 1845-1916 -- the author of the cellular theory of immunity and the Deputy Director of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, and Charles-Edouard brown-sekara 1817-1894 -- the President of the French biological society and one of the founders of modern endocrinology.

Sociologist James Hughes argues that science was tied to the cultural narrative of the conquest of death since the age of Enlightenment. He cites Francis bacon 1561-1626 as a defender of science and reason to prolong human life, noting bacons novel New Atlantis in which scientists worked towards slowing down the aging process and prolonging life. Robert Boyle 1627-1691, founding member of the Royal society, and hope that science could make significant progress in prolonging life, according to Hughes, and suggested that such experiments as "replace blood with the blood of the young". Biologist Alexis Carrel 1873-1944 was inspired by faith in an uncertain duration of human life, which he developed after experiments with cells, says Hughes.

Regulatory struggle between food and drugs of the FDA and organizations on the extension of life included seizure of merchandise and court action. In 1991, Saul Kent and bill Faloon, the principles of the organization, was imprisoned for four hours and was released on bail 850.000 dollars each. After 11 years of legal battles, Kent and Faloon are convinced the U.S. attorney to dismiss all criminal charges against them by the FDA.

In 2003, Doubleday published "the immortal cell: one scientists quest to solve the mystery of human aging," Michael D. West. West stressed the potential role of embryonic stem cells in life extension.

Another modern life promoters include writer Gennady Stolyarov, who insists that death is "the enemy of all of us, we need to deal with medicine, science and technology", a transhumanist philosopher Zoltan Istvan, which offers "a transhumanist must protect their own existence above all else", the futurist George Dvorsky, who believes aging is a problem that desperately needs to be solved, and musician Steve Aoki, who was named "one of the most prolific wrestlers for the renewal of life."



                                     

3.1. History. Research. (Исследования)

In 1991, the American Academy of anti-aging medicine A4M was formed. American Board of medical specialties recognizes neither anti-aging medicine nor A4Ms professional status.

In 2003, Aubrey de grey and David Gobel formed the Methuselah Foundation, which provides financial grants for anti-aging research projects. In 2009, de grey and several others founded the SENS Research Foundation, a California research organization that conducts research on ageing and other means of anti-aging research projects at various universities. In 2013, Google announced calico, a new company based in San Francisco, which will use new technologies to increase scientific understanding of the biology of aging. It was headed by Arthur D. Levinson, and his research group includes scholars such as Hal V. Barron, David Botstein, and Cynthia Kenyon. In 2014, biologist Craig Venter founded human longevity Inc. company specializing in research to end aging using genomics and cell therapy. They received funding to compile a comprehensive human genotype, microbiome and phenotype database.

In addition to private initiatives, aging research is performed in University laboratories, and includes such universities as Harvard and the University of California. Researchers at the University made a number of discoveries in extending the lives of mice and insects to reverse some aspects of aging.

                                     

4.1. Ethics and politics. Scientific debate. (Научной дискуссии)

Some critics dispute the image of aging as a disease. For example, Leonard Hayflick, who determined that fibroblasts are limited to around 50 cell divisions, reasons that aging is an inevitable consequence of entropy. Hayflick and fellow biogerontologists Jay Olshansky and Bruce Carnes have strongly criticized the anti-aging industry in response to what they see as unscrupulous profiteering from the sale of unproven anti-aging supplements.

                                     

4.2. Ethics and politics. The motivation of consumers. (Мотивация потребителей)

Research Sobh and Martin 2011 suggests that people buy anti-aging products to obtain a hoped-for self, e.g., keeping a youthful skin and to avoid a feared-self as the old. Research shows that when consumers rely on themselves, it is expectations of success that most strongly drive their motivation to use the product. The study also shows why it is so bad when trying to avoid feared myself more motivation than to do well. When using the product observed to fail it is more motivating than success when consumers seek to avoid a feared-self.

                                     

4.3. Ethics and politics. Political parties. (Политические партии)

Although many scientists argue that life extension and radical life extension are possible, there is still no international or national programs focused on radical life extension. There are political forces staying for and against life extension. To 2012 in Russia, USA, Israel, the Netherlands, the longevity political parties started. They sought to provide political support to radical life extension research and technologies and ensure fastest possible and at the same time a smooth transition to the next step – life without aging and radical life extension, and provide access to such technologies to most currently living people.

                                     

4.4. Ethics and politics. Silicon Valley. (Силиконовая Долина)

Some technology innovators and entrepreneurs from Silicon valley have invested heavily in anti-aging. This includes Larry Ellison, founder of Oracle, and Peter Thiel, former CEO of PayPal, founder Larry page of Google, and Peter Diamandis.

                                     

4.5. Ethics and politics. Commentators. (Комментаторы)

Chairman Leon Kass of the presidents Council on bioethics from 2001 to 2005 has questioned whether potential exacerbation of overpopulation problems would be life extension unethical. He States his opposition to life extension with the words:

"just wish me a long life for yourself is both a symptom and a cause of our failure to open ourselves to procreation and to any higher purpose. the desire to prolong youthfulness is not only a childish desire to have life and keep it, this is an expression of a childish and narcissistic wish incompatible with devotion to posterity".

John Harris, former editor of the journal of medical ethics, argues that while it is necessary to live, according to the man himself, we have a powerful moral imperative to save lives and thus to develop and propose the extension of therapy for those who want them.

The philosopher and transhumanist Nick Bostrom argues that any technological advances in life extension must be evenly and not just the privileged few. In the extended metaphor entitled "the fable of the dragon-tyrant", Bostrom suggests death as a monstrous dragon who demands human sacrifices. In the fable, after a lengthy debate between those who believe the dragon is a fact of life, and those who believe the Dragon can and should be destroyed, the dragon is finally killed. Bostrom argues that political inaction allowed many preventable human mortality.



                                     

4.6. Ethics and politics. The problem of overpopulation. (Проблема перенаселения)

The dispute about the extension of life due to fear of overpopulation and possible effects on society. Biogerontologist Aubrey de grey counters the overpopulation critique, pointing out that the therapy could postpone or eliminate menopause, allowing women to the time interval between pregnancies and thus reduce the annual rate of population growth. Moreover, the philosopher and futurist Max more argues that, given the fact that worldwide population growth is slowing and is projected, over time stabiliziruemost and begin falling, superlongevity unlikely to contribute to overpopulation.

                                     

4.7. Ethics and politics. Public opinion polls. (Опросы общественного мнения)

Spring a survey of drinking a 2013 study in the US showed that 38% of Americans would like the life extension treatments, and 56% would reject it. However, it also found that 68% of respondents believed that most people would like it, and only 4% believe the "ideal life" to be over 120 years old. The median "ideal life" was 91 years old and the majority of the population 63% consider medical advances aimed at prolonging life, usually good. 41% of Americans believed that radical life extension method RLE is good for society, while 51% believe that it will be bad for society. One possibility for why 56% of Americans say they reject life extension treatments may be due to the cultural perception that living longer as a result over a long period of decrepitude, and that the elderly in our current society are unhealthy.

Religious people are not more likely to oppose life extension than the unaffiliated, though some of the differences between religious faiths.



                                     

5. Aging as a disease. (Старение как болезнь)

The main medical organizations and practitioners do not consider aging a disease. David Sinclair says: "I dont see aging as a disease, as it is quite predictable diseases caused by the deterioration of the body." The two main arguments used is that aging is inevitable and universal while diseases are not. However, not everyone agrees. Harry R. Moody, Director of academic Affairs for AARP, notes that what is normal and what is disease strongly depends on a historical context. David Gems, Deputy Director of the Institute of healthy aging argues that aging should be viewed as a disease. In response to the universality of aging, David Gems notes that it is as misleading as arguing that Basenji are not dogs because they do not bark. Because of the universality of aging he calls it a "special disease." Robert M. Perlman, coined the terms "syndrome of aging" and "disease complex" in 1954 to describe aging.

The discussion whether aging should be viewed as a disease or not has important implications. According to one view, this will stimulate pharmaceutical companies to develop extensions of the life cycle in the United States, it will also lead to increased regulation of the anti-aging market USA. Anti-aging now falls under the rules for cosmetic medicine which are less strict than for drugs.

                                     

6. Research. (Исследования)

Theoretically, increase maximum lifespan in humans could be achieved by reducing the speed of aging damage by periodic replacement of damaged tissues, molecular repair or rejuvenation of damaged cells and tissues, prevention of harmful epigenetic changes, or Increased activity of the enzyme telomerase.

Currently, research focuses on the strategy of extending the life of various organisms in a number of academic and private organizations. Since 2009, investigators have found a way to increase the lifespan of nematode worms and yeast in 10 times, the record of the nematode was achieved with the help of genetic engineering and expansion in yeast through a combination of genetic engineering, and calorie restriction. A 2009 review of studies of longevity, said: "extrapolation from worms to mammals is risky at best, and it cannot be assumed that intervention will lead to comparable factors of life extension. The longevity benefits of dietary restriction, or mutations that were studied previously, yielding less benefit than fruit flies, nematodes, and even less for mammals. This is not unexpected, because mammals have evolved to live in many times the worms lifespan, and people live nearly twice as long as the next longest-lived leader. From an evolutionary perspective, mammals and their ancestors have already passed several hundred million years of natural selection in favor of qualities that would directly or indirectly benefit the increase in life expectancy, and thus may have already decided on the gene sequences that contribute to life expectancy. In addition, the concept of "life extension factor" that can be used for taxa assumes linear response is rarely seen in biology."

                                     

6.1. Research. Anti-aging drugs. (Омолаживающие препараты)

There are a number of chemicals that are designed to slow the aging process currently being studied in animal models. One type of research related to the observed effects of calorie restriction the CR diet, which has been shown to extend lifespan in some animals. On the basis of this study, there have been attempts to develop drugs that will have the same effect on the aging process as a caloric restriction diet, which are known as caloric restriction mimetic drugs. Some drugs that are already approved for other purposes, was studied for possible effects on longevity in laboratory animals because of a possible CR-mimic effect, they contain a rapamycin, Metformin and other geroprotectors. MitoQ, resveratrol and pterostilbene supplements, which were also studied in this context.

Other attempts to create anti-aging received various research paths. One notable direction of research was to study the possibility of using the enzyme telomerase in order to counter the process of telomere shortening. However, there are potential dangers in this, since some research has also linked telomerase to Cancer and tumor growth and education.

                                     

6.2. Research. Nanotechnology. (Нанотехнологии)

Future achievements in nanomedicine could lead to life extension through the repair of many processes, which are responsible for aging. K. Eric Drexler, one of the founders of nanotechnology, postulated cell repair machines, including working in cells and are used as yet hypothetical molecular computers, in his 1986 book engines of creation. Raymond Kurzweil, a futurist and transhumanist, stated in his book the singularity is near that he believes that advanced medical nanorobotics could completely remedy the effects of aging by 2030. According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him circa 1959 the idea of a medical use for Feynmans theoretical nanomachines, see biological machine. Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might be reduced in size to such an extent that it would, in theory, as Feynman put it, "Swallow the doctor". The idea was included in Feynmans 1959 essay theres plenty of room at the bottom.

                                     

6.3. Research. Cloning and body part. (Клонирование и части тела)

Some advocates of life suggest that therapeutic cloning and stem cell research may provide a way to generate cells, body parts or even the whole body, usually referred to as cloning, which will be genetically identical to the prospective patient. Recently, the Ministry of defense initiated a program to explore the possibility of growing human body parts on mice. Complex biological structures such as mammalian joints and limbs, have not yet been replicated. Dogs and primates of the experiment to transplant the brain was conducted in the mid-20th century but failed due to the failure and inability to restore nerve connections. As of 2006, the implantation of bioengineered bladder grown from diseased cells has proven to be effective in the treatment of diseases of the bladder. Proponents of replacement body parts and cloning contend that the required biotechnologies may appear earlier than other life-extension technologies.

The use of human stem cells, especially embryonic stem cells, is controversial. Objections of opponents, usually based on interpretations of religious teachings or ethical considerations. Supporters of stem cell research point out that cells are constantly being formed and destroyed in different contexts. The use of stem cells derived from umbilical cord or parts of the human body may not provoke controversy.

The debates about cloning are exactly the same, but public opinion in most countries are against cloning. Some proponents of therapeutic cloning predict the production of all bodies, devoid of consciousness, for the brain transplant.

                                     

6.4. Research. Cyborgs. (Киборги)

Replacement biological susceptible to diseases of organs with mechanical can extend the life. This initiative aims at 2045.

                                     

6.5. Research. Cryonics. (Крионика)

Cryonics is the low temperature usually at -196 °C or -320.8 °F or 77.1 K from the corpse of a man, with the hope that resuscitation may be possible in the future. It is regarded with skepticism in the mainstream scientific community and characterized as quackery.

                                     

6.6. Research. Genetic editing. (Генетическое редактирование)

Edit the genome in which nucleic acid polymers are supplied as medicines and expressed as proteins, interfere with protein expression or correction of genetic mutations have been proposed as a future strategy to prevent aging.

A large set of genetic modifications have been found to increase lifespan in model organisms such as yeast, nematodes, Drosophila and mouse. As of 2013, the longest extension of time due to one manipulation of the Gene was approximately 50% in mice and 10 times in nematode worms.

                                     

6.7. Research. Fooling genes. (Одурачивание гены)

In the Selfish gene, Richard Dawkins describes an approach to life-extension that involves "genes fooling" into thinking that the body is young. Dawkins attributes inspiration for this idea called Peter Medawar. The basic idea is that our bodies are composed of genes that activate throughout our lives when we are young and others when we are older. Presumably, these genes aktiviziruyutsya under the influence of environmental factors and changes caused by these genes activating can be lethal. It is a statistical certainty that we possess more lethal genes that activate at a later age than in his youth. Therefore, to prolong life, we should be able to prevent these genes from switching on, and we should be able to do this, "detection of changes in the internal chemical environment in the body that occur during aging. and by simulating the superficial chemical properties of a young body".

                                     

6.8. Research. Download consciousness. (Скачать сознание)

One hypothetical future strategy that, as some believe, "eliminates" the complications related to the physical body, involves the copying or moving, for example, the gradual replacement of neurons with transistors of consciousness from a biological brain in non-biological computer system or computational device. The basic idea is to scan the structure of a particular brain in detail, and then build a software model that is as close to the original that, when the work on appropriate hardware, it will behave in essentially the same way as the original brain. Whether or not an exact copy mind is the actual life extension is matter of debate.

Some scientists believe that the dead in one day can be "resurrected" using simulation technology.

                                     

6.9. Research. Injection of young blood. (Инъекции молодой крови)

Currently, some clinics offer injections of blood products from young donors. The perceived benefits of treatment, none of which was demonstrated in the study include a longer period, darker hair, improve memory, improve sleep, heart disease, diabetes and Alzheimers. This approach is based on studies of parabiosis, such as Irina Conboy to do on mice, but Conboy says that young blood reverse aging in mice, even those who offers these procedures did not understand her research. Neuroscientist Tony Wyss-Mila is perfect, who also studied blood exchange on mice, and most recently, in 2014, said the people offer these procedures "basically abusing the trust of the people" and that the treatment of young blood "is the scientific equivalent of fake news". The treatment appeared in a series of serialchikov fiction silicon valley.

Two clinics in California, run by Jesse Karmazin and David C. Wright, proposed 8.000 $injection plasma extracted from the blood of young people. Karmazin has not been published in any peer-reviewed journal and in the current study does not use a control group.

                                     
  • outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to life extension Life extension study of slowing down or reversing the processes of aging
  • Following is a list of topics related to life extension Contents: Top 0 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ACE inhibitor Actuarial
  • Originally named Texas Agricultural Extension Service, then later Texas Cooperative Extension the name Texas Agri Life Extension Service was adopted on January
  • The Life Extension Foundation LEF is a company that sells supplements and vitamins. Its claimed goals are to extend the healthy human lifespan by discovering
  • The Life Extension Institute was an organization formed in the United States in 1913 with the philanthropic goal of prolonging human life through hygiene
  • Life extension is the idea of extending the human lifespan. Life extension may also refer to: Life Extension Foundation, a nonprofit organization that
  • The Life Extension Society LES with its network of coordinators was the first cryonics organization in the world. It was founded by Evan Cooper in 1964
  • The Life Extension Advocacy Foundation LEAF is a 501 c 3 non - profit organization that was co - founded in 2014 by Keith Comito, Oliver Medvedik, Richard
  • Life Extension A Practical Scientific Approach is a 1982 book ISBN 0 - 446 - 51229 - X by Durk Pearson and Sandy Shaw that popularized the life extension
  • The Alcor Life Extension Foundation, most often referred to as Alcor, is an American nonprofit organization based in Scottsdale, Arizona, United States
  • Agricultural extension is the application of scientific research and new knowledge to agricultural practices through farmer education. The field of extension now
  • The Shelf Life Extension Program SLEP is a joint program of the United States Department of Defense and the Food and Drug Administration that aims to
                                     
  • last for the life of the author plus 50 years, or 75 years for a work of corporate authorship. The 1976 Act also increased the extension term for works
  • The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service CSREES is an extension agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA part
  • Harvard Extension School HES is the extension school and one of the twelve degree - granting schools that compose Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts
  • reversal of the aging process. Rejuvenation is distinct from life extension Life extension strategies often study the causes of aging and try to oppose
  • Catholic Extension also known as the Catholic Church Extension Society is a national fundraising organization which supports and strengthens poor mission
  • Saul Kent is a life extension activist, and co - founder of the Life Extension Foundation, a dietary supplement vendor and promoter of anti - aging research
  • Turn Off the Lights is a browser extension developed by Stefan Van Damme that lets users dim everything on their screen except the video they are watching
  • UCLA Extension is a continuing education institution headquartered in Westwood, Los Angeles, on the campus of the University of California, Los Angeles
  • Virginia Cooperative Extension provides resources and educational outreach to the Commonwealth of Virginia s more than seven million residents in the
  • known for coauthoring a series of books on longevity, beginning with Life Extension A Practical Scientific Approach. While a student at the Massachusetts
  • Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence SENS John Sperling Life extension Longevity Rejuvenation Public health Infant mortality a. In standard
  • Cooperative Extension followed passage of the Smith - Lever Act of 1914, which provided federal funds to land - grant universities to support Extension work. In
                                     
  • owned and separate from the national network for most of the Extension s life The Extension never achieved the degree of usefulness envisaged. It would
  • The Homestead Extension of Florida s Turnpike HEFT designated as unsigned State Road 821 SR 821 is the southern extension of Florida s Turnpike
  • The Mission Extension Vehicle MEV is a spacecraft concept proposed by ViviSat. ViviSat was a 50 50 joint venture of aerospace firms U.S. Space and ATK
  • Slice of life describes the depiction of mundane experiences in art and entertainment. In theater, slice - of - life refers to naturalism, while in literary
  • A still life plural: still lifes is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which are either natural
  • part of base 1923 1926: extension of base eastward and northward and 1929 1931: 16 - story set - back tower. Today, the Sun Life is Montreal s 17th tallest

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation
                                     
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