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Living systems

Living systems are open self-organizing forms of life that interact with their environment. These systems are supported by flows of information, energy and matter.

Some scientists have proposed in the last few decades, in the General theory of living systems needs to explain the nature of life. Such General theory, arising out of environmental and biological Sciences, attempts to map General principles for how all living systems. Instead of studying the phenomena, trying to break into components, a General living systems theory explores phenomena from the point of view of dynamic patterns of the relationships of organisms with their environment.

                                     

1. Theory. (Теория)

The theory of living systems is a General theory about the existence of all living systems, their structure, interaction, behavior and development. This work is created by James Grier Miller, which was intended to formalize the concept of life. According to Millers original conception as spelled out in his Magnum opus living systems, a "living system" must contain each of the twenty "critical subsystems", which are defined by their functions and visible in numerous systems, from simple cells to organisms, countries, and societies. In living systems Miller provides a detailed look at a number of systems in order of increasing size, and identifies his subsystems in each. Miller considers Living systems as a subset of all systems. Below the level of living systems, he defines space and time, matter and energy, information and Entropy, levels of organization, and physical and conceptual factors, and above living systems ecological, planetary and Solar systems, galaxies, etc.

Living systems according to parent 1996, by definition "open self-organizing systems that have the special characteristics of life and interact with their environment. This happens through information and material-energy exchange. Living systems can be as simple as a single cell or as complex as a supranational organization like the European Union. Regardless of their complexity, they each depend on the same basic twenty subsystems and processes in order to survive and continue reproduction of their own species or of species within one generation."

Miller said that systems exist at eight "nested" hierarchical levels: cell, organ, organism, group, organization, Community, society and supranational system. At each level of the system is invariably composed of twenty critical subsystems that process matter–energy or information except for the first two, which process matter–energy and information: reproducer and boundary.

The processors of matter–energy:

  • Receiver, distributor, Converter, producer, storage, extruder, motor, supporter.

The processors of information are:

  • Input transducer, internal transducer, channel and net, timer added later, decoder, associator, memory, decider, encoder, output transducer.
                                     

2. Millers theory of living systems. (Фрезеровщики теории живых систем)

James Grier Miller in 1978 wrote 1.102-page volume to present his living systems theory. He built a General theory of living systems by focusing on concrete systems - nonrandom accumulations of matter–energy in physical space–time-ordered interacting, interrelated subsystems or components. Slightly revising the original model a dozen years later, he distinguished eight "nested" hierarchical levels in such complex structures. Each level is "nested" in the sense that each higher level contains a lower level in a nested fashion.

His Central thesis is that systems exist for all eight levels are open systems composed of twenty critical subsystems that process inputs, outputs, and the outputs of the various forms of matter–energy and information. Two of these subsystems - reproducer and boundary - process matter–energy and information. Eight of them process only matter–energy. The rest only ten information process.

All nature is a continuum. The endless complexity of life is made of patterns that are repeated - themes and variations - at each level of the system. These similarities and differences are proper problems for science. From the ceaseless streaming of protoplasm to multi-vector activities of supranational systems, continuously flows through living systems as they maintain their highly organized steady States.

Seppanen 1998 says that the General theory of Miller application systems on a broad scale to describe all aspects of living systems.

                                     

2.1. Millers theory of living systems. Topics in living systems theory. (Темы в живых системах теории)

The Melnikov theory argues that the mutual interconnection of the system components is distributed in hierarchical levels. Examples: cells and organs of a living system thrive on the food the organism obtains from its suprasystem, member countries of a supranational system reap the benefits of social activities, where everyone contributes. Miller says that his eclectic theory "ties the recent discoveries of many disciplines, and provides an overview in which new facts can be established."

Miller says the concepts of space, time, matter, energy and information are essential to his theory because the living systems exist in space and consist of matter and energy organized by information. The theory of millers living systems uses two types of spaces: physical or geographical space and conceptual or abstract space. Time is the fundamental "fourth dimension" of physical space–time continuum / spiral. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies physical space. Energy and mass are equivalent, since one can be converted into another. The information relates to degrees of freedom that exist in a given situation to choose among signals, symbols, messages, or patterns to be transferred.

Other relevant concepts are system, structure, process, type, level, echelon, suprasystem, subsystem, transmissions and sustainable. The system can be conceptual, concrete or abstract. The structure of the system is the organization of subsystems and components in three-dimensional space at any given time. Process which may be reversible or irreversible, refers to change over time of matter, energy or information in the system. The type defines living systems with similar characteristics. The level of the position in the hierarchy of systems. Many complex living systems at various levels, arranged in two or more echelons. In the suprasystem of any living system is the next higher system in which the subsystem or component. The combination of all the system structures that perform a particular process is a subsystem. Transfer input and output data in specific systems. Since living systems are open systems, constantly changing flows of matter–energy and information, many of them balance dynamic situations identified as steady States or flux equilibria.

Miller identifies the comparable matter–energy and information processing critical subsystems. Speaking about the eight hierarchical levels, he defines society, which constitutes the seventh hierarchy, as "a large, living, concrete system With today is almost always greater than the power of supranational deciders. Traditionally, theory at this level was based on intuition and to study the history, not data collection. Some quantitative research is now being done, and building a global system model and simulation is currently growing.

At the supranational system level, millers focus is on the international organizations, associations, and groups comprising representatives of societies of national States. Miller identifies the subsystems at this level to suit this emphasis. For example, the reproducer is "any universal supranational system which creates a single purpose supranational organization" S. 914, and the boundary is the "supranational forces, usually located on or near supranational borders, which defend, guard, or police," p. 914.



                                     

2.2. Millers theory of living systems. Strengths of millers theory. (Сильные стороны мукомолов теории)

Not just those specialized in international communication, but all communication scholars could pay particular attention to the significant contributions of living systems Theory LST of social systems approaches that Bailey said:

  • A cross-level, cross-subsystem research.
  • The emphasis on cross-level analysis and the production of numerous cross-level hypotheses.
  • Cross-subsystem research, for example, the development and testing of hypotheses in two or more subsystems simultaneously.
  • The specification of the eight hierarchical levels of living systems.
  • The specification of the twenty critical subsystems in any living system.

Bailey says that LST, perhaps the "most integrative" theory of social systems, has made a great contribution, which can be easily overlooked, such as: providing detailed analysis of system types, making the distinction between concrete and abstract systems, the discussion of physical space and time, focusing on the processing of information providing analysis of entropy, the recognition of totipotential systems, and partipotential system, providing an innovative approach to the structure of the release process, and implement the concept of joint subsystem - subsystem that belongs to two systems simultaneously, dispersal - lateral, outward, upward, and down the inclusion - inclusion of something from the environment that is not part of a system, artifact, animal or anthropogenic inclusions, adjustment process, which fights stress in the system and critical subsystems, which carry out processes that all living systems need to survive.

LSTC analysis of the twenty interacting subsystems, Bailey adds, clearly distinguishing between matter–energy-processing and information processing, as well as the analysis of the lsts of the eight interrelated system levels, enables us to understand how social systems are linked to biological systems. LST also analyzes the violation or "organizational pathologies" of the system. He expliciet the role of entropy in social research while it equates negentropy of information and order. It emphasizes both structure and process and their interrelationship.

                                     

2.3. Millers theory of living systems. Limitations. (Ограничения)

He omits the analysis of subjective phenomena, and he pays too much attention to a specific question-correlation analysis of objects to the virtual exclusion of R-correlation analysis of the variables. Claiming that society ranging from totipotential communities to nation-States and supranational systems have greater control over their subsystem components than supranational systems, but he dodges the issue of transnational power over the contemporary social system. A supranational system of millers has no resemblance to the modern world-system Immanuel Wallerstein described 1974, although they both looked the same dissipative structure of living things.

                                     
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  • Living Things may refer to: Life, all objects that have self - sustaining processes biology Organisms, contiguous living systems such as animals, plants
  • regulatory pathways. A biological system is not to be confused with a living system such as a living organism. These specific systems are widely studied in human
  • Ecological systems theory Developmental systems theory General systems theory Living systems theory LTI system theory Sociotechnical systems theory Mathematical
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  • that rotation may in fact be the most common form of locomotion in living systems though its use is restricted to the microscopic environment. At the
  • living is the cost of maintaining a certain standard of living Changes in the cost of living over time are often operationalized in a cost - of - living
  • communication systems social and economic organizations like cities an ecosystem, a living cell, and ultimately the entire universe. Complex systems are systems
  • A living wage is defined as the minimum income necessary for a worker to meet their basic needs. This is not the same as a subsistence wage, which refers
  • Systems psychology is a branch of both theoretical psychology and applied psychology that studies human behaviour and experience in complex systems It


                                     
  • Theorists include in natural systems subatomic systems living systems the solar system galaxies, and the Universe. Artificial systems include man - made physical
  • An assisted living residence or assisted living facility ALF is a housing facility for people with disabilities or for adults who cannot or who choose
  • Systems IMS 2006, Sakarya University, Sakarya, Turkey, 2006, 61 - 67. ISO 13407: 1999 titled Human - centred design processes for interactive systems
  • further input of the general systems theory of Ludwig von Bertalanffy. Systems - centered theory explains how living human systems contain their energy within
  • In polymer chemistry, living polymerization is a form of chain growth polymerization where the ability of a growing polymer chain to terminate has been
  • The International Society for the Systems Sciences ISSS is a worldwide organization for systems sciences. The overall purpose of the ISSS is: to promote
  • Living with the Living is the fifth album by the Washington, D.C. rock band Ted Leo and the Pharmacists, released in 2007 by Touch and Go Records. It was
  • evolution of these systems and their variability, stability and instability. Subsets of Earth System science include systems geology and systems ecology, and
  • ecological systems especially ecosystems. Systems ecology can be seen as an application of general systems theory to ecology. Central to the systems ecology
  • login through the LCM L website and telnet into systems from XKL, DEC, IBM, Xerox Sigma, AT T, and CDC. Living Computer Museum opened to the public on October
  • The constitution referred to as the living law of the land as it is transformed according to necessities of the time and situation.In United States constitutional
                                     
  • Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering and engineering management that focuses on how to design and manage complex systems over
  • marketing tool for the publisher of the game system that is the focus of the living campaign. While the earliest living campaigns were run by the RPGA Role Playing
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  • adaptive systems such as ecosystems and individual organisms or in the human world, communities, organizations, and families. Artificial adaptive systems include
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  • A glossary of terms relating to systems theory. Adaptive capacity: An important part of the resilience of systems in the face of a perturbation, helping
  • Night of the Living Dead is a 1968 American independent horror film written, directed, photographed and edited by George A. Romero, co - written by John
  • reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non - living substances
                                     
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