Топ-100 ⓘ July 15. 1971 – The United Red Army is founded in Japan. 180
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ⓘ July 15. 1971 – The United Red Army is founded in Japan. 1806 – Pike expedition: United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike begins an expedition from Fort Belle ..



July 15
                                     

ⓘ July 15

  • 1971 – The United Red Army is founded in Japan.
  • 1806 – Pike expedition: United States Army Lieutenant Zebulon Pike begins an expedition from Fort Bellefontaine near St. Louis, Missouri, to explore the west.
  • 1927 – Massacre of July 15, 1927: Eighty-nine protesters are killed by the Austrian police in Vienna.
  • 1955 – Eighteen Nobel laureates sign the Mainau Declaration against nuclear weapons, later co-signed by thirty-four others.
  • 484 BC – Dedication of the Temple of Castor and Pollux in ancient Rome
  • 1983 – An attack at Orly Airport in Paris is launched by Armenian militant organisation ASALA, leaving eight people dead and 55 injured.
  • 2014 – A train derails on the Moscow Metro, killing at least 24 and injuring more than 160 others.
  • 1916 – In Seattle, Washington, William Boeing and George Conrad Westervelt incorporate Pacific Aero Products later renamed Boeing.
  • 1482 – Muhammad XII is crowned the twenty-second and last Nasrid king of Granada.
  • 1998 – Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Tamil MP S. Shanmuganathan is killed by a claymore mine.
  • 1381 – John Ball, a leader in the Peasants Revolt, is hanged, drawn and quartered in the presence of King Richard II of England.
  • 1149 – The reconstructed Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated in Jerusalem.
  • 1862 – The CSS Arkansas, the most effective ironclad on the Mississippi River, battles with Union ships commanded by Admiral David Farragut, severely damaging three ships and sustaining heavy damage herself. The encounter changed the complexion of warfare on the Mississippi and helped to reverse Rebel fortunes on the river in the summer of 1862.
  • 1922 – Japanese Communist Party is established in Japan.
  • 2002 – "American Taliban" John Walker Lindh pleads guilty to supplying aid to the enemy and to possession of explosives during the commission of a felony.
  • 2016 – Factions of the Turkish Armed Forces attempt a coup.
  • 2006 – Twitter, later one of the largest social media platforms in the world, is launched.
  • 2002 – Anti-Terrorism Court of Pakistan hands down the death sentence to British born Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and life terms to three others suspected of murdering The Wall Street Journal reporter Daniel Pearl.
  • 1918 – World War I: The Second Battle of the Marne begins near the River Marne with a German attack.
  • 1959 – The steel strike of 1959 begins, leading to significant importation of foreign steel for the first time in United States history.
  • 1834 – The Spanish Inquisition is officially disbanded after nearly 356 years.
  • 756 – An Lushan Rebellion: Emperor Xuanzong of Tang is ordered by his Imperial Guards to execute chancellor Yang Guozhong by forcing him to commit suicide or face a mutiny. General An Lushan has other members of the emperors family killed.
  • 1996 – A Belgian Air Force C-130 Hercules carrying the Royal Netherlands Army marching band crashes on landing at Eindhoven Airport.
  • 1974 – In Nicosia, Cyprus, Greek junta-sponsored nationalists launch a coup detat, deposing President Makarios and installing Nikos Sampson as Cypriot president.
  • 1954 – First flight of the Boeing 367-80, prototype for both the Boeing 707 and C-135 series.
  • 1838 – Ralph Waldo Emerson delivers the Divinity School Address at Harvard Divinity School, discounting Biblical miracles and declaring Jesus a great man, but not God. The Protestant community reacts with outrage.
  • 1870 – Ruperts Land and the North-Western Territory are transferred to Canada from the Hudsons Bay Company, and the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories are established from these vast territories.
  • 1910 – In his book Clinical Psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin gives a name to Alzheimers disease, naming it after his colleague Alois Alzheimer.
  • 1823 – A fire destroys the ancient Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls in Rome, Italy.
  • 1099 – First Crusade: Christian soldiers take the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem after the final assault of a difficult siege.
  • 1410 – Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War: Battle of Grunwald: The allied forces of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeat the army of the Teutonic Order.
  • 1738 – Baruch Laibov and Alexander Voznitzin are burned alive in St. Petersburg, Russia. Vonitzin had converted to Judaism with Laibovs help, with the consent of Empress Anna Ivanovna.
  • 1789 – Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, is named by acclamation Colonel General of the new National Guard of Paris.
  • 2003 – AOL Time Warner disbands Netscape. The Mozilla Foundation is established on the same day.
  • 1207 – King John of England expels Canterbury monks for supporting Archbishop Stephen Langton.
  • 1979 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter gives his "malaise speech".
  • 1741 – Aleksei Chirikov sights land in Southeast Alaska. He sends men ashore in a longboat, making them the first Europeans to visit Alaska.
  • 1815 – Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon Bonaparte surrenders aboard HMS Bellerophon.
  • 1966 – Vietnam War: The United States and South Vietnam begin Operation Hastings to push the North Vietnamese out of the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone.
  • 1799 – The Rosetta Stone is found in the Egyptian village of Rosetta by French Captain Pierre-François Bouchard during Napoleons Egyptian Campaign.
  • 1946 – State of North Borneo, today in Sabah, Malaysia, annexed by the United Kingdom.
  • 1888 – The stratovolcano Mount Bandai erupts killing approximately 500 people, in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.
  • 1870 – Reconstruction Era of the United States: Georgia becomes the last of the former Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union.
  • AD 70 – Titus and his armies breach the walls of Jerusalem. 17th of Tammuz in the Hebrew calendar.
  • 1975 – Space Race: Apollo–Soyuz Test Project features the dual launch of an Apollo spacecraft and a Soyuz spacecraft on the first joint Soviet-United States human-crewed flight. It was both the last launch of an Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn family of rockets.
  • 1240 – Swedish–Novgorodian Wars: A Novgorodian army led by Alexander Nevsky defeats the Swedes in the Battle of the Neva.
  • 1920 – The Polish Parliament establishes Silesian Voivodeship before the Polish-German plebiscite.
                                     

1. Births

  • 1947 – Roky Erickson, American singer-songwriter and musician d. 2019
  • 1956 – Wayne Taylor, South African race car driver
  • 1984 – Veronika Velez-Zuzulova, Slovak skier
  • 1963 – Brigitte Nielsen, Danish-Italian actress
  • 1990 – Damian Lillard, American basketball player
  • 1981 – Petros Klampanis, Greek bassist and composer
  • 1956 – Steve Mortimer, Australian rugby league player, coach, and administrator
  • 1982 – Alan Perez, Spanish cyclist
  • 1793 – Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps, American educator, author, editor d. 1884
  • 1455 – Queen Yun, Korean queen d. 1482
  • 1904 – Rudolf Arnheim, German-American psychologist and author d. 2007
  • 1939 – Anibal Cavaco Silva, Portuguese economist and politician, 19th President of the Portuguese Republic
  • 1930 – Jacques Derrida, Algerian-French philosopher and academic d. 2004
  • 1953 – Alicia Bridges, American singer-songwriter
  • 1952 – Terry OQuinn, American actor
  • 1983 – Will Rudge, English cricketer
  • 1930 – Stephen Smale, American mathematician and computer scientist
  • 1926 – Leopoldo Galtieri, Argentinian general and politician, 44th President of Argentina d. 2003
  • 1985 – Sanjeev, Tamil actor
  • 1927 – Nan Martin, American actress d. 2010
  • 1948 – Dimosthenis Kourtovik, Greek anthropologist and critic
  • 1945 – David Arthur Granger, Guyanese politician, 9th President of Guyana
  • 1925 – Taylor Hardwick, American architect, designed Haydon Burns Library and Friendship Fountain Park d. 2014
  • 1850 – Frances Xavier Cabrini, Italian-American nun and saint d. 1917
  • 1799 – Reuben Chapman, American lawyer and politician, 13th Governor of Alabama d. 1882
  • 1902 – Jean Rey, Belgian lawyer and politician, 2nd President of the European Commission d. 1983
  • 1980 – Jonathan Cheechoo, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1943 – Jocelyn Bell Burnell, Northern Irish astrophysicist, astronomer, and academic
  • 1989 – Alisa Kleybanova, Russian tennis player
  • 1925 – Antony Carbone, American actor
  • 1976 – Gabriel Iglesias, Mexican-American comedian and voice actor
  • 1940 – Robert Winston, English surgeon, academic, and politician
  • 1922 – Jean-Pierre Richard, French writer
  • 1947 – Pridiyathorn Devakula, Thai economist and politician, Thai Minister of Finance
  • 1966 – Irene Jacob, French-Swiss actress
  • 1928 – Viramachaneni Vimla Devi, Indian parliamentarian
  • 1867 – Jean-Baptiste Charcot, French physician and explorer d. 1936
  • 1984 – Angelo Siniscalchi, Italian footballer
  • 1929 – Francis Bebey, Cameroonian-French guitarist d. 2001
  • 1954 – Mario Kempes, Argentinian footballer and manager
  • 1980 – Julia Perez, Indonesian singer and actress d. 2017
  • 1916 – Sumner Gerard, American politician and diplomat d. 2004
  • 1992 – Tobias Harris, American basketball player
  • 1985 – Tomer Kapon, Israeli actor
  • 1796 – Thomas Bulfinch, American mythologist d. 1867
  • 1631 – Jens Juel, Danish politician and diplomat, Governor-general of Norway d. 1700
  • 1923 – Francisco de Andrade, Portuguese sailor
  • 1986 – Tyler Kennedy, Canadian ice hockey player
  • 1947 – Lydia Davis, American short story writer, novelist, and essayist
  • 1956 – Ashoke Sen, Indian theoretical physicist and string theorist
  • 1991 – Evgeny Tishchenko, Russian boxer
  • 1961 – Forest Whitaker, American actor
  • 1977 – John St. Clair, American football player
  • 1905 – Dorothy Fields, American songwriter d. 1974
  • 1779 – Clement Clarke Moore, American author, poet, and educator d. 1863
  • 1927 – Håkon Brusveen, Norwegian cross-country skier
  • 1917 – Robert Conquest, English-American historian, poet, and academic d. 2015
  • 1631 – Richard Cumberland, English philosopher d. 1718
  • 1922 – Leon M. Lederman, American physicist and mathematician, Nobel Prize laureate d. 2018
  • 1600 – Jan Cossiers, Flemish painter d. 1671
  • 1991 – Danilo, Brazilian footballer
  • 1950 – Arianna Huffington, Greek-American journalist and publisher The Huffington Post
  • 1905 – Anita Farra, Italian actress d. 2008
  • 1979 – Renata Kucerova, Czech tennis player
  • 1934 – Harrison Birtwistle, English composer and academic
  • 1945 – Jurgen Mollemann, German soldier and politician, Vice-Chancellor of Germany d. 2003
  • 1975 – Ben Pepper, Australian basketball player
  • 1992 – Hokutōfuji Daiki, Japanese sumo wrestler
  • 1963 – Steve Thomas, English-Canadian ice hockey player and coach
  • 980 – Ichijō, Japanese emperor d. 1011
  • 1953 – Mohamad Shahrum Osman, Malaysian politician
  • 1926 – Sir John Graham, 4th Baronet, English diplomat d. 2019
  • 1954 – Giorgos Kaminis, American-Greek lawyer and politician, 78th Mayor of Athens
  • 1944 – Millie Jackson, American singer-songwriter
  • 1954 – John Ferguson, Australian rugby league player
  • 1940 – Ronald Gene Simmons, American sergeant and convicted murderer d. 1990
  • 1976 – Diane Kruger, German actress and model
  • 1921 – Robert Bruce Merrifield, American biochemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate d. 2006
  • 1945 – Jan-Michael Vincent, American actor d. 2019
  • 1887 – Wharton Esherick, American sculptor d. 1970
  • 1704 – August Gottlieb Spangenberg, German bishop and theologian d. 1792
  • 1970 – Tarkan Gozubuyuk, Turkish bass player and producer
  • 1911 – Edward Shackleton, Baron Shackleton, English geographer and politician, Secretary of State for Air d. 1994
  • 1903 – K. Kamaraj, Indian journalist and politician d. 1975
  • 1933 – M. T. Vasudevan Nair, Indian author and screenwriter
  • 1958 – Mac Thornberry, American lawyer and politician
  • 1925 – Pandel Savic, American football player d. 2018
  • 1942 – Vivian Malone Jones, American civil rights activist d. 2005
  • 1956 – Nicholas Harberd, British botanist, educator and academician
  • 1945 – Peter Lewis musician, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1934 – Risto Jarva, Finnish director and producer d. 1977
  • 1967 – Elbert West, American singer-songwriter d. 2015
  • 1925 – D. A. Pennebaker, American documentary filmmaker d. 2019
  • 1989 – Anthony Randolph, American basketball player
  • 1273 – Ewostatewos, Ethiopian monk and saint d. 1352
  • 1893 – Enid Bennett, Australian-American actress d. 1969
  • 1989 – Steven Jahn, German footballer
  • 1442 – Bocek IV of Podebrady, Bohemian nobleman d. 1496
  • 1921 – Henri Colpi, Swiss-French director and screenwriter d. 2006
  • 1918 – Brenda Milner, English-Canadian neuropsychologist and academic
  • 1935 – Alex Karras, American football player, wrestler, and actor d. 2012
  • 1962 – Nikos Filippou, Greek basketball player and manager
  • 1852 – Josef Josephi, Polish-born singer and actor d. 1920
  • 1914 – Howard Vernon, Swiss-French actor d. 1996
  • 1938 – Carmen Callil, Australian publisher, founded Virago Press
  • 1980 – Reggie Abercrombie, American baseball player
  • 1926 – Raymond Gosling, English physicist and academic d. 2015
  • 1953 – Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Haitian priest and politician, 49th President of Haiti
  • 1359 – Antonio Correr, Italian cardinal d. 1445
  • 1977 – Lana Parrilla, American actress
  • 1949 – Richard Russo, American novelist, short story writer, and screenwriter
  • 1982 – Aida Yespica, Venezuelan model and actress
  • 1925 – Philip Carey, American actor d. 2009
  • 1914 – Akhtar Hameed Khan, Pakistani economist, scholar, and activist d. 1999
  • 1992 – Wayde van Niekerk, South African sprinter
  • 1951 – Gregory Isaacs, Jamaican-English singer-songwriter d. 2010
  • 1934 – Eva Krizikova, Czech actress
  • 1606 – Rembrandt, Dutch painter and etcher d. 1669
  • 1611 – Jai Singh I, maharaja of Jaipur d. 1667
  • 1931 – Joanna Merlin, American actress and casting director
  • 1965 – Alistair Carmichael, Scottish lawyer and politician, Secretary of State for Scotland
  • 1968 – Eddie Griffin, American comedian, actor, and producer
  • 1947 – Peter Banks, English guitarist and songwriter d. 2013
  • 1858 – Emmeline Pankhurst, English political activist and suffragist d. 1928
  • 1961 – Scott Ritter, American soldier and international weapons inspector
  • 1954 – Jeff Jarvis, American journalist and blogger
  • 1973 – Brian Austin Green, American actor
  • 1919 – Fritz Langanke, German lieutenant d. 2012
  • 1962 – Michelle Ford, Australian swimmer
  • 1978 – Miguel Olivo, Dominican baseball player
  • 1938 – Ernie Barnes, American football player, actor, and painter d. 2009
  • 1808 – Henry Edward Manning, English cardinal d. 1892
  • 1938 – Barry Goldwater, Jr., American lawyer and politician
  • 1894 – Tadeusz Sendzimir, Polish-American engineer d. 1989
  • 1976 – Steve Cunningham, American boxer
  • 1975 – Cherry, American wrestler and manager
  • 1880 – Enrique Mosca, Argentinian lawyer and politician d. 1950
  • 1988 – Riki Christodoulou, English race car driver
  • 1949 – Trevor Horn, English singer-songwriter, keyboard player, and producer
  • 1983 – Nelson Merlo, Brazilian race car driver
  • 1952 – Johnny Thunders, American singer-songwriter and guitarist d. 1991
  • 1990 – Zach Bogosian, American ice hockey player
  • 1913 – Abraham Sutzkever, Russian poet and author d. 2010
  • 1956 – Joe Satriani, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1940 – Denis Heroux, Canadian director and producer d. 2015
  • 1871 – Doppo Kunikida, Japanese journalist, author, and poet d. 1908
  • 1977 – Andre Nel, South African cricketer
  • 1893 – Dick Rauch, American football player and coach d. 1970
  • 1865 – Wilhelm Wirtinger, Austrian-German mathematician and theorist d. 1945
  • 1969 – Ain Tammus, Estonian footballer and coach
  • 1925 – Evan Hultman, American politician
  • 1981 – Marius Stankevicius, Lithuanian footballer
  • 1977 – Ray Toro, American singer-songwriter and guitarist
  • 1353 – Vladimir the Bold, Russian prince d. 1410
  • 1956 – Ian Curtis, English singer-songwriter and guitarist Joy Division d. 1980
  • 1913 – Hammond Innes, English journalist and author d. 1998
  • 1979 – Edda Gardarsdottir, Icelandic footballer
  • 1967 – Adam Savage, American actor and special effects designer
  • 1946 – Linda Ronstadt, American singer-songwriter, producer, and actress
  • 1924 – Jeremiah Denton, American admiral and politician d. 2014
  • 1993 – Håvard Nielsen, Norwegian footballer
  • 1915 – Kashmir Singh Katoch, Indian army officer d. 2007
  • 1921 – Jack Beeson, American pianist and composer d. 2010
  • 1965 – Gero Miesenbock, Austrian neuroscientist and educator
  • 1929 – Charles Anthony, American tenor and actor d. 2012
  • 1972 – Scott Foley, American actor
  • 1471 – Eskender, Ethiopian emperor d. 1494
  • 1935 – Ken Kercheval, American actor and director d. 2019
  • 1917 – Nur Muhammad Taraki, Afghan journalist and politician d. 1979
  • 1949 – Carl Bildt, Swedish politician and diplomat, Prime Minister of Sweden
  • 1906 – R. S. Mugali, Indian poet and academic d. 1993
  • 1960 – Kim Alexis, American fashion model
  • 1906 – Rudolf Uhlenhaut, English-German engineer d. 1989
  • 1952 – David Pack, American singer-songwriter, guitarist, and producer
  • 1937 – Prabhash Joshi, Indian journalist d. 2009
  • 1951 – Jesse Ventura, American wrestler, actor, and politician, 38th Governor of Minnesota
  • 1918 – Bertram Brockhouse, Canadian physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate d. 2003
  • 1909 – Jean Hamburger, French physician and surgeon d. 1992
  • 1848 – Vilfredo Pareto, Italian economist and sociologist d. 1923
  • 1948 – Artimus Pyle, American rock drummer and songwriter Lynyrd Skynyrd
  • 1953 – Sultanah Haminah, Malaysian royal consort
  • 1478 – Barbara Jagiellon, duchess consort of Saxony and Margravine consort of Meissen d. 1534
  • 1926 – Driss Chraïbi, Moroccan-French journalist and author d. 2007
  • 1928 – Carl Woese, American microbiologist and biophysicist d. 2012
  • 1929 – Ian Stewart, Scottish race car driver
  • 1935 – Donn Clendenon, American baseball player and lawyer d. 2005
  • 1800 – Sidney Breese, American jurist and politician d. 1878
  • 1981 – Alou Diarra, French footballer
  • 1921 – Jean Heywood, British actress
  • 1899 – Sean Lemass, Irish soldier and politician, 4th Taoiseach of Ireland d. 1971
  • 1976 – Marco Di Vaio, Italian footballer
  • 1961 – Lolita Davidovich, Canadian actress
  • 1991 – Derrick Favors, American basketball player
  • 1958 – Gary Heale, English footballer and coach
  • 1979 – Alexander Frei, Swiss footballer
  • 1573 – Inigo Jones, English architect, designed the Queens House d. 1652
  • 1936 – George Voinovich, American lawyer and politician, 65th Governor of Ohio d. 2016
  • 1980 – BxB Hulk, Japanese professional wrestler
  • 1982 – Neemia Tialata, New Zealand rugby player
  • 1927 – Carmen Zapata, American actress d. 2014
  • 1952 – Marky Ramone, American drummer and songwriter
  • 1931 – Clive Cussler, American archaeologist and author
  • 1932 – Ed Litzenberger, Canadian ice hockey player d. 2010
  • 1827 – W. W. Thayer American lawyer and politician, 6th Governor of Oregon d. 1899
  • 1864 – Marie Tempest, English actress and singer d. 1942
  • 1865 – Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, Anglo-Irish businessman and publisher, founded the Amalgamated Press d. 1922
  • 1812 – James Hope-Scott, English lawyer and academic d. 1873
  • 1975 – Danny Law, English cricketer
  • 1961 – Jean-Christophe Grange, French journalist and screenwriter
  • 1930 – Richard Garneau, Canadian journalist and sportscaster d. 2013
  • 1903 – Walter D. Edmonds, American journalist and author d. 1998
  • 1638 – Giovanni Buonaventura Viviani, Italian violinist and composer d. 1693
  • 1966 – Jason Bonham, English singer-songwriter and drummer
  • 1948 – Twinkle, English singer-songwriter d. 2015
  • 1946 – Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of Brunei
  • 1950 – Colin Barnett, Australian economist and politician, 29th Premier of Western Australia
  • 1924 – Marianne Bernadotte, Swedish actress and philanthropist
  • 1915 – Albert Ghiorso, American chemist and academic d. 2010
  • 1930 – Einosuke Akiya, Japanese Buddhist leader
  • 1933 – Guido Crepax, Italian author and illustrator d. 2003
  • 1956 – Barry Melrose, Canadian ice hockey player, coach, and sportscaster
  • 1919 – Iris Murdoch, Anglo-Irish British novelist and philosopher d. 1999
  • 1952 – Celia Imrie, English actress
  • 1979 – Laura Benanti, American actress and singer
  • 1917 – Joan Roberts, American actress and singer d. 2012
  • 1892 – Walter Benjamin, German philosopher and critic d. 1940
  • 1613 – Gu Yanwu, Chinese philologist and geographer d. 1682
  • 1983 – Heath Slater, American wrestler
  • 1817 – Sir John Fowler, 1st Baronet, English engineer, designed the Forth Bridge d. 1898
  • 1965 – David Miliband, English politician, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
  • 1913 – Cowboy Copas, American singer-songwriter and guitarist d. 1963
  • 1959 – Vincent Lindon, French actor, director, and screenwriter
  • 1931 – Jacques-Yvan Morin, Canadian lawyer and politician, Deputy Premier of Quebec
                                     

2. Deaths

  • 1977 – Donald Mackay, Australian businessman and activist b. 1933
  • 1997 – Justinas Lagunavicius, Lithuanian basketball player b. 1924
  • 1274 – Bonaventure, Italian bishop and saint b. 1221
  • 1445 – Joan Beaufort, Queen of Scotland
  • 2012 – Boris Cebotari, Moldovan footballer b. 1975
  • 1015 – Vladimir the Great, Grand prince of Kievan Rus b. c. 958
  • 1960 – Set Persson, Swedish politician b. 1897
  • 1410 – Ulrich von Jungingen, German Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights b. 1360
  • 1857 – Carl Czerny, Austrian pianist and composer b. 1791
  • 1982 – Bill Justis, American saxophonist, songwriter, and producer b. 1926
  • 1614 – Pierre de Bourdeille, seigneur de Brantome, French soldier, historian, and author b. 1540
  • 1988 – Eleanor Estes, American librarian, author, and illustrator b. 1906
  • 2003 – Roberto Bolaño, Chilean novelist, short-story writer, poet, and essayist b. 1953
  • 1948 – John J. Pershing, American general b. 1860
  • 1919 – Hermann Emil Fischer, German chemist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate b. 1852
  • 1933 – Irving Babbitt, American scholar, critic, and academic b. 1865
  • 1992 – Chingiz Mustafayev, Azerbaijani journalist and author b. 1960
  • 1839 – Winthrop Mackworth Praed, English poet and politician b. 1802
  • 1989 – Laurie Cunningham, English footballer b. 1956
  • 1765 – Charles-Andre van Loo, French painter b. 1705
  • 2013 – Henry Braden, American lawyer and politician b. 1944
  • 2013 – Earl Gros, American football player b. 1940
  • 1961 – John Edward Brownlee, Canadian lawyer and politician, 5th Premier of Alberta b. 1884
  • 2006 – Alireza Shapour Shahbazi, Iranian archaeologist and academic b. 1942
  • 2013 – Meskerem Legesse, Ethiopian runner b. 1986
  • 2012 – Grant Feasel, American football player b. 1960
  • 1933 – Freddie Keppard, American cornet player b. 1890
  • 2015 – Aubrey Morris, British actor b. 1926
  • 2003 – Elisabeth Welch, American actress and singer b. 1904
  • 1883 – General Tom Thumb, American circus performer b. 1838
  • 1965 – Francis Cherry, American lawyer and politician, 35th Governor of Arkansas b. 1908
  • 2011 – Friedrich Wilhelm Schnitzler, German landowner and politician b. 1928
  • 1609 – Annibale Carracci, Italian painter and illustrator b. 1560
  • 1685 – James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, Dutch-English general and politician, Governor of Kingston-upon-Hull b. 1649
  • 2013 – Noel Lee, Chinese-American pianist and composer b. 1924
  • 1944 – Marie-Victorin Kirouac, Canadian botanist and academic b. 1885
  • 1990 – Omar Abu Risha, Syrian poet and diplomat, 4th Syrian Ambassador to the United States b. 1910
  • 2015 – Wan Li, Chinese politician, 4th Vice Premier of the Peoples Republic of China b. 1916
  • 1898 – Jean-Baptiste Salpointe, French-American archbishop d. 1825
  • 1990 – Margaret Lockwood, English actress b. 1916
  • 1885 – Rosalia de Castro, Spanish author and poet b. 1837
  • 2014 – Oscar Acosta, Honduran author, poet, and diplomat b. 1933
  • 1976 – Paul Gallico, American journalist and author b. 1897
  • 1946 – Razor Smith, English cricketer and coach b. 1877
  • 2015 – Masahiko Aoki, Japanese-American economist and academic b. 1938
  • 1381 – John Ball, English Lollard priest
  • 1750 – Vasily Tatishchev, Russian ethnographer and politician b. 1686
  • 1932 – Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven, South African poet and politician b. 1873
  • 1930 – Leopold Auer, Hungarian violinist, composer, and conductor b. 1845
  • 2013 – Tom Greenwell, American lawyer and judge b. 1956
  • 2001 – C. Balasingham, Sri Lankan lawyer and civil servant b. 1917
  • 2013 – Ninos Aho, Syrian-American poet and activist b. 1945
  • 1655 – Girolamo Rainaldi, Italian architect b. 1570
  • 1957 – James M. Cox, American publisher and politician, 46th Governor of Ohio b. 1870
  • 756 – Yang Guifei, consort of Xuan Zong b. 719
  • 2012 – David Fraser, English general b. 1920
  • 1767 – Michael Bruce, Scottish poet and composer b. 1746
  • 1406 – William, Duke of Austria
  • 1858 – Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, Russian painter b. 1806
  • 1844 – Claude Charles Fauriel, French philologist and historian b. 1772
  • 1397 – Catherine of Henneberg, German ruler b. c. 1334
  • 2014 – Edward Perl, American neuroscientist and academic b. 1926
  • 1966 – Seyfi Arkan, Turkish architect b. 1903
  • 1979 – Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, Mexican academic and politician, 29th President of Mexico, 1964-1970 b. 1911
  • 1953 – Geevarghese Mar Ivanios, Indian archbishop, founded the Order of the Imitation of Christ b. 1882
  • 2014 – Robert A. Roe, American soldier and politician b. 1924
  • 1974 – Christine Chubbuck, American journalist b. 1944
  • 1959 – Vance Palmer, Australian author and critic b. 1885
  • 2013 – John T. Riedl, American computer scientist and academic b. 1962
  • 1299 – King Eric II of Norway b. c. 1268
  • 1959 – Ernest Bloch, Swiss-American composer and academic b. 1880
  • 1947 – Walter Donaldson, American soldier and songwriter b. 1893
  • 2014 – James MacGregor Burns, American historian, political scientist, and author b. 1918
  • 1998 – S. Shanmuganathan, Sri Lankan politician b. 1960
  • 1904 – Anton Chekhov, Russian playwright and short story writer b. 1860
  • 1542 – Lisa del Giocondo, subject of Leonardo da Vincis painting Mona Lisa b. 1479
  • 1957 – Vasily Maklakov, Russian lawyer and politician b. 1869
  • 1986 – Billy Haughton, American harness racer and trainer b. 1923
  • 1931 – Ladislaus Bortkiewicz, Russian-German economist and mathematician b. 1868
  • 1571 – Shimazu Takahisa, Japanese daimyō b. 1514
  • 2011 – Googie Withers, British-Australian actress b. 1917
  • 1789 – Jacques Duphly, French harpsichord player and composer b. 1715
  • 1960 – Lawrence Tibbett, American singer and actor b. 1896
  • 2012 – Celeste Holm, American actress and singer b. 1917
  • 2015 – Dave Somerville, Canadian singer b. 1933
  • 1992 – Hammer DeRoburt, Nauruan educator and politician, 1st President of Nauru b. 1922
  • 1997 – Gianni Versace, Italian fashion designer, founded Versace b. 1946
  • 2012 – Yoichi Takabayashi, Japanese director and screenwriter b. 1931
  • 2010 – James E. Akins, American politician and diplomat, United States Ambassador to Saudi Arabia b. 1926
  • 1981 – Frederic Dorion, Canadian lawyer, judge, and politician b. 1898
  • 1940 – Robert Wadlow, American giant, 8"11 271 cm b.1918
  • 2012 – Tsilla Chelton, Israeli-French actress b. 1919
  • 1961. – Nina Bari, Russian mathematician b. 1901
  • 2014 – Saul Lara, Spanish footballer b. 1982
  • 1291 – Rudolf I of Germany b. 1218
  • 2000 – Louis Quilico, Canadian opera singer and educator b. 1925
  • 1851 – Juan Felipe Ibarra, Argentinian general and politician b. 1787
  • 1929 – Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Austrian author, poet, and playwright b. 1874
  • 1990 – Zaim Topcic, Yugoslav and Bosnian writer b. 1920
  • 1932 – Bahiyyih Khanum, Iranian writer and leader in the Bahai faith b. 1846
  • 1890 – Gottfried Keller, Swiss author, poet, and playwright b. 1819
  • 1388 – Agnes of Durazzo, titular Latin empress consort of Constantinople d. 1313
  • 2006 – Robert H. Brooks, American businessman, founder of Hooters and Naturally Fresh, Inc. b. 1937
  • 1940 – Eugen Bleuler, Swiss psychiatrist and physician b. 1857
  • 1991 – Bert Convy, American actor, singer, and game show host b. 1933
  • 2017 – Martin Landau, American film and television actor b. 1928
  • 998 – Abū al-Wafā Būzjānī, Persian mathematician and astronomer b. 940
  • 1544 – Rene of Chalon b. 1519
  • 1828 – Jean-Antoine Houdon, French sculptor b. 1741
  • 1942 – Wenceslao Vinzons, Filipino lawyer and politician b. 1910
  • 2008 – Gyorgy Kolonics, Hungarian canoe racer b. 1972
                                     

3. Holidays and observances

  • Donald of Ogilvy
  • Plechelm
  • Vladimir the Great Eastern Orthodox; Catholic Church
  • Edith of Wilton
  • Edith of Polesworth
  • Quriaqos and Julietta
  • Christian feast day
  • Bonaventure
  • Swithun
  • Bernhard II, Margrave of Baden-Baden
  • Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor
  • Bon Festival Kantō region, Japan
  • Dispersion of the Apostles No longer officially celebrated by the Catholic Church
  • July 15 Eastern Orthodox liturgics
  • Abhai Syriac Orthodox Church
  • Anne-Marie Javouhey
  • Elderly Men Day Kiribati
  • Earliest day on which Galla Bayramy can fall, while July 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Sunday of July. Turkmenistan
  • Festival of Santa Rosalia Palermo, Sicily
  • Earliest day on which Presidents Day Botswana can fall, while July 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Monday of July.
  • Earliest day on which Marine Day can fall, while July 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Monday of July. Japan
  • Earliest day on which Birthday of Don Luis Muñoz Rivera can fall, while July 21 is the latest; celebrated on the third Monday of July. Puerto Rico
  • Sultans Birthday Brunei Darussalam

Encyclopedic dictionary

Translation
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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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