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ⓘ Herrlisheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. The town dates from the 8th century. Herrlisheim was the scene of very ..



Herrlisheim
                                     

ⓘ Herrlisheim

Herrlisheim is a commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. The town dates from the 8th century. Herrlisheim was the scene of very heavy fighting during Operation Nordwind, an offensive launched by the German Army during World War II that inflicted considerable damage to the town.

                                     

1. Geography

Herrlisheim is positioned on the rich alluvial farmland to the west of the River Rhine, north of Strasbourg. The town is part of the canton of Bischwiller and the district of Haguenau and is located on the road from Strasbourg to Lauterbourg along the A35 motorway.

Herrlisheim is bordered by the towns of Rohrwiller to the northwest, Drusenheim to the northeast, Gambsheim to the southwest and Offendorf to the southeast. The area is crossed by the Zorn, Moder and Kleinebach Rivers.

                                     

2. History

Herrlisheim Herlesheim was first mentioned in a deed dated 15 February 743, gifting a village called Hariolfesvilla Hariolf’s Farm to the Weissenburg Abbey, Alsace. The village may owe its name to Hariolf, an Alsatian who signed as a witness to a document dated 780. Another charter dated 1 March 775 mentioned the land of Hariolueshaim, also referring to Herlesheim, as being owned by the Abbey.

In 1251, the village known now as Herlosvesheim was owned by the Counts of Oettingen, Landgraves of lower Alsace. In 1332, control of the town was passed to the Barony of Lichtenberg, then in 1480 to the Count of Deux-Ponts German: Zweibrucken-Bitsch. The Lichtenberg line passed to the Hanau family, who became the Counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg in 1570. From 1736 until the French Revolution, the town was controlled by the House of Hess-Darmstadt, and after 1803 due to territorial reforms following the revolution, the former county of Hanau-Lichtenberg was divided and Herrlisheim was attached to the Bailiwick of Offendorf. In 1871, it was annexed to the German imperial province of Elsass-Lothringen German: Reichsland ElsaS-Lothringen after its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.

                                     

2.1. History Jewish community

The earliest mention of a Jewish community in Herrlisheim dates from 1349 when persecutions occurred during the Black Plague. A 1752 inventory notes thirteen Jewish families living there since 1693. Records mention "the Jew Lawel" who had to pay two florins of tax for protection in 1714. Village census records from 1821 and 1842 showed 198 Jewish residents, and in 1890, 202 Jewish residents. By 1936, the Jewish community in Herrlisheim numbered only 80 people. In 1940 under the German occupation, the remaining Jewish population in Herrlisheim were deported to the south of France. At least eleven of them were murdered. A monument with the names of the victims was erected in the Jewish cemetery of the town. After 1945, some of the former Jewish inhabitants returned; in 1953 there were 36 Jewish residents and 27 in 1956.

The community had a synagogue prior to the 18th century, which was demolished in 1805 and replaced with another building, which was then replaced with a new building in 1850. This synagogue was vandalized during World War II; only walls remained. The adjacent small prayer house was entirely destroyed. The synagogue and prayer house were rebuilt in the 1950s. The synagogue was closed in 1969.

Until 1870, Jewish residents of Herrlisheim were buried in the cemetery of Haguenau, along with Jewish residents of Hattstatt. After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the towns of Herrlisheim and Offendorf opened a Jewish cemetery in 1886 on the Rue dOffendorf, directly at the end of the village of Herrlisheim. The cemetery now contains about 250 burials. Several times in the past decades since the end of World War II, the graves were vandalized. In 2004, on the anniversary of Adolf Hitlers birthday, pro-Nazi and anti-Semitic slogans were discovered on 127 graves of the burying ground, and cemetery signs were defaced.



                                     

2.2. History World War II

Herrlisheim was the scene of intense fighting in January 1945 between the 553rd Volksgrenadier Regiment, the 35th, 119th and 2nd Panzer Grenadier Regiments, 10th SS Division and elements of the United States 12th Armored Division of the Seventh Army. The fighting began as part of Operation Nordwind which was the last offensive by German troops on the Western front in the war and was focused on the recapture of Strasbourg. The 553rd Volksgrenadier crossed the Rhine River and established a bridgehead around Gambsheim on January 5. Three days later, the 12th Armored Division started to attempt the reduction of the bridgehead and attacked Herrlisheim directly on January 16.

In the second day of fighting, elements of 10th SS Panzer Division joined in the attack and inflicted very heavy casualties, virtually wiping out the 714th Tank Battalion and the 56th Armored Infantry Battalion of the 12th Armored Division, who suffered 1.250 casualties out of a Division strength of 10.000 men and lost 70 combat vehicles. The next day as 10th SS Panzer attempted to exploit its victory to the west of the town, it was their turn to take heavy losses as the US forces slowly withdrew. The badly battered town was finally liberated on January 31 by the United States Army as the Germans retired after the overall failure of their offensive.

  • 50th Anniversary of World War II Memorial, Herrlisheim, France
                                     
  • Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar German: Herrlisheim is a commune in the Haut - Rhin department in Grand Est in north - eastern France. Communes of the Haut - Rhin
  • Gresswiller Gundershoffen Haguenau Heiligenberg - Mollkirch Herbitzheim Herrlisheim Hochfelden Hoenheim Hoelschloch Hoert Hoffen Holtzheim Hunspach Ingwiller
  • following communes: Bischwiller Dalhunden Drusenheim Forstfeld Fort - Louis Herrlisheim Kaltenhouse Kauffenheim Leutenheim Neuhaeusel Oberhoffen - sur - Moder Offendorf
  • mother Emilie Graeff was born in 1831 in Selestat and died in 1879 in Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar. 17 Oktober 1893: Leutnant 28 Juli 1892: Oberleutnant 27 Januar
  • Eschbach - au - Val Griesbach - au - Val Gueberschwihr Gundolsheim Gunsbach Hattstatt Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar Hohrod Husseren - les - Chateaux Luttenbach - pres - Munster Metzeral
  • his position and ordered the evacuation of Herrlisheim The 12th Armored Division again attacked Herrlisheim directly on January 16. On the following day
  • Freland Geiswasser Griesbach - au - Val Grussenheim Guemar Gunsbach Heiteren Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar Hettenschlag Hirtzfelden Hohrod Horbourg - Wihr Houssen Hunawihr
  • Gries Gumbrechtshoffen Gundershoffen Gunstett Haguenau Hatten Hegeney Herrlisheim Hochstett Hoerdt Hoffen Hunspach Huttendorf Ingolsheim Kaltenhouse Kauffenheim
  • rehabilitation and maintenance, the 12th rolled against the Rhine bridgehead at Herrlisheim that the Germans had established as part of their Operation Nordwind
  • the Germans were able to quickly extend their bridgehead to Kilstett, Herrlisheim and Offendorf. General Alexander Patch, commander of the 7th US Army
  • January 5, 1945 and soon occupied a bridgehead including the towns of Herrlisheim Drusenheim, and Offendorf north of Strasbourg. South of Strasbourg
  • entered the village of Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar 48 01 12 N 07 19 12 E 48.02000 N 7.32000 E 48.02000 7.32000 Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar and so
                                     
  • station is located in the west of Drusenheim. Herrlisheim station is located in the southeast of Herrlisheim The halt of Gambsheim is located on the northwestern
  • attacked at 0745. The 232nd held the towns of Gambsheim, Offendorf, Herrlisheim and Kilstett. In the town of Gambsheim, enemy tanks and infantry were
  • communes Auenheim Bischwiller Dalhunden Drusenheim Forstfeld Fort - Louis Herrlisheim Kauffenheim Leutenheim Neuhaeusel Oberhoffen - sur - Moder Offendorf Roeschwoog
  • branch of Oberkirch and Gaisbach Jean - Rene founded the branches of Herrlisheim and Moravia Christophe founded the Alsatian branches of Jungholz and
  • March 1940, also known as the Strasbourg Division. At this time the Herrlisheim sub - sector passed to the control of the neighboring Fortified Sector
  • easily destroyed by German artillery on the other side of the Rhine. The Herrlisheim sub - sector of the neighboring Fortified Sector of the Lower Rhine was
  • corps took especially heavy losses in and around the Bas - Rhin towns of Herrlisheim and Drusenheim. The U.S. Seventh Army counter - attacked in the last week
  • Saint - Medard - des - Pres on September 30, 2013. Fontenay - sous - Bois April, 2019 Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar April, 2019 La Brede August, 2015. Le Grand - Village - Plage
  • Heidolsheim Heiligenberg Heiligenstein Hengwiller Herbitzheim Herbsheim Herrlisheim Hessenheim Hilsenheim Hindisheim Hinsbourg Hinsingen Hipsheim Hirschland
  • Heidwiller Heimersdorf Heimsbrunn Heiteren Heiwiller Helfrantzkirch Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar Hesingue Hettenschlag Hindlingen Hirsingue Hirtzbach Hirtzfelden


                                     
  • Heidolsheim Heiligenberg Heiligenstein Hengwiller Herbitzheim Herbsheim Herrlisheim Hessenheim Hilsenheim Hindisheim Hinsbourg Hinsingen Hipsheim Hirschland
  • Heidwiller Heimersdorf Heimsbrunn Heiteren Heiwiller Helfrantzkirch Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar Hesingue Hettenschlag Hindlingen Hirsingue Hirtzbach Hirtzfelden
  • Givet Granville, Manche Grenoble Guemar, Haut - Rhin Guerande Hennebont Herrlisheim - pres - Colmar Hesdin Hiers - Brouage Honfleur Ile - d Aix Illfurth Issoudun
  • Heidolsheim Heiligenberg Heiligenstein Hengwiller Herbitzheim Herbsheim Herrlisheim Hessenheim Hilsenheim Hindisheim Hinsbourg Hinsingen Hipsheim Hirschland
  • Heidolsheim Heiligenberg Heiligenstein Hengwiller Herbitzheim Herbsheim Herrlisheim Hessenheim Hilsenheim Hindisheim Hinsbourg Hinsingen Hipsheim Hirschland
  • Heidolsheim Heiligenberg Heiligenstein Hengwiller Herbitzheim Herbsheim Herrlisheim Hessenheim Hilsenheim Hindisheim Hinsbourg Hinsingen Hipsheim Hirschland
  • Heidolsheim Heiligenberg Heiligenstein Hengwiller Herbitzheim Herbsheim Herrlisheim Hessenheim Hilsenheim Hindisheim Hinsbourg Hinsingen Hipsheim Hirschland
  • Heidolsheim Heiligenberg Heiligenstein Hengwiller Herbitzheim Herbsheim Herrlisheim Hessenheim Hilsenheim Hindisheim Hinsbourg Hinsingen Hipsheim Hirschland

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