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Jewish military history
                                     

★ Jewish military history

While complete details in the Biblical account of a system of fighting forms are not extant, the Midrashic, Talmudic, and Rabbinic accounts testify to fighting and combat strategies used by the ancient Israelites as well as legendary depictions of Israelite combatants.

In July 587 BC, Zedekiah rebelled against Babylonia, making an Alliance with Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar besieged Jerusalem again, starving people. The siege led to the destruction of Jerusalem and fall of Judah.

                                     

1. Classic era. (Классической эпохи)

Revolt against Gallus. (Восстание против Галлус)

In the middle of the 4th century the Jews of Galilee began a rebellion against the suspenders to defeat Roman troops in Galilee.

                                     

1.1. Classic era. Jewish–Roman wars. (Еврейско–римской войны)

The Jewish–Roman war followed the Roman annexation of about nine thousand slaves carried out originating from 66 to 135 CE. It was the first Jewish–Roman war, KITOS War, and finally the Bar Kochba.

                                     

1.2. Classic era. Himyarite Kingdom. (Химьяритского Царства)

In contemporary Yemen, ancient Himyarite Kingdom, seem to have abandoned polytheism and converted to Judaism around the year 380. Accompanied by a strong military power, they were appropriate strength for the Christian Empire of Byzantium and Axum in over 200 years. After conquering much of the Arabian Peninsula, the Himyarite Empire was annexed to the Kingdom of Axum.

                                     

1.3. Classic era. Revolt against Gallus. (Восстание против Галлус)

In the middle of the 4th century the Jews of Galilee began a rebellion against the suspenders to defeat Roman troops in Galilee.

                                     

1.4. Classic era. Exilarch revolt in Persia. (Эксилархи восстание в Персии)

Company Mar zutra II, who came into Exilarchy office at the age of fifteen, took advantage of the confusion to which Mazdaks Communist attempts threw Sasanian Persia, to obtain by force of arms in a short time a kind of political independence of the Jews from Babylon. King Kobad, however, punished him by crucifying him on the bridge with Mahuza. 502.

                                     

1.5. Classic era. Byzantine period. (Византийский период)

At the beginning of the 7th century middle Eastern Jews started the Jewish revolt against Heraclius, in the hope of gaining autonomy in Jerusalem with the support of the Persian Sassanid.

                                     

1.6. Classic era. Khazar Khaganate. (Хазарский Каганат)

The Khazars, a Turkic nomadic people, around the 7th century converted to Judaism. They built a prosperous Empire, and maintained it for several hundred years, until the defeat of the Kievan Rus in the 9th century.

                                     

2. Later communities. (Позже общин)

According a number of accounts various middle Eastern and Asian Jewish communities, who were known for their fighting prowess,

Piracy against Spanish vessels. (Пиратство против испанских судов)

In response to the Spanish Inquisition, and the number of Spanish Jews who left turned to piracy against Spanish ships.

                                     

2.1. Later communities. Samuel ibn Adiya Arabian warrior poet. (Самуил ибн Адия персидский воин поэт)

The warrior poet, lived in Arabia in the first half of the 6th century B. C. His mother was from the Royal tribe of Ghassan, while his father, according to some, was descended from Aaron, or, according to others, from Kahina, the son of Harun and progenitor of the Jewish tribes Kuraitza and Nathir. Samuel owned a castle about half, eight hours North of Medina, which was built by his grandfather Adiya and called, from its mixed color, al-Ablak. It was located on a high hill and was uneven place in Syria.

More than for his poetic talents Samuel Ibn Adiya is famous for his connection with the warrior-poet and Prince Amru al-Kais, which won for him the epithet "faithful," and gave rise to the saying, still common among the Arabs, "more faithful than Samuel." The reputation of Samuel Ibn Adiyas as a poet is based on one of the first poems in the collection called "Hamas". It is full of warlike vigor and courage, and shows a high ideal of honor. Another poem attributed to him was published in Arabic and Hebrew, with English translation, by G. Hirschfeld "I. V. R." XVII. 431-440.



                                     

2.2. Later communities. Habbani Jews of Southern Yemen. (Habbani евреев Южного Йемена)

In 1912 Zionist emissary Shmuel Yavnieli came into contact with Habbani Jews who ransomed him when he was captured and robbed by eight Bedouin in southern Yemen. Yavnieli wrote about the Jews of Habban describing them in the following way.

The Jews in these lands held in high esteem all in Yemen and Aden. They are said to be courageous, always with weapons and wild long hair, and the names of their towns are mentioned by the Jews of Yemen with great admiration.

There are several legends about the origin of the Jews of Habban. The most prominent is that they descend from Judean soldiers who were stationed in southern Arabia by king Herod of Jerusalem in the Second Temple period. Herod dispatched a unit of Jews in the region to help the Romans with the war in the area. Unlike the Jews of Northern Yemen the Habbani Jews wore: Jambiyya curved knife, Matznaph turban and Avne not sash.

Benjamin Modelski the twelfth century found an independent Jewish warrior tribe living in the mountains of Khurasan near Nishapur, numbering many thousands of families who consider themselves descendants of Dan, Zebulun, Asher, and of Naphtali, under a Jewish Prince of the name Joseph Amarkala Ha-Levi. Another independent Jewish tribe bent upon warlike expeditions is mentioned Benjamin how to live in the district of Tehama in Yemen.



                                     

2.3. Later communities. Mountain Jews of Daghestan. (Горские евреи Дагестана)

And we, the Tats We, Samson warriors, Bar Kochbas heirs. we went into battles and bitterly, heroically struggled for our freedom The Song of the Mountain Jews

The Jews of Daghestan lived isolated, and one of the most remote, impenetrable areas in the world for many centuries. They were historically known for their fierce war and nature. In dress and custom they hardly differ from other Caucasian fighting people in the region. Though they are considered dhimmi by their surrounding Muslim population, the mountain Jews owned land and were known to be cruel, not hesitating to defend, by sword or the rifle, their family, religion, personal dignity.

The Jews of Daghestan greatly resemble the other warlike inhabitants of this mountainous region, and they acquired both advantages and disadvantages of the latter. There is a tradition of the Jews of Dagestan, that they are descendants of the lost ten tribes, but the story of their travels have already forgotten, the written documents which they once possessed during the time were either lost or destroyed. They differ from their Christian and Mohammedan neighbors in speech, using the tat language, which is a combination of Persian and Hebrew. Their writing is a mixture of square characters and rush. They wear Circassian clothes, and always go heavily armed, even sleeping without having removed their weapons.

It is possible that the mountain Jews are descendants of Persian-Jewish soldiers who were stationed in the Caucasus, the Sasanian kings in the fifth or sixth century to protect from the attacks of the Huns and other nomadic invaders from the East. Influenced by the invasion of the Turkish hordes, later generations of Jewish inhabitants of the Caucasian lowlands were forced to migrate further North, in Dagestan.



                                     

2.4. Later communities. Jews of Tirdirma, Mali. (Евреи Tirdirma, Мали)

According to a West African Arabic record called the Tarikh al-fattash, in 1402 in Tiridirma near the Niger river lived a community of Jews known as the Bani Israeel, who is said to have seven rulers, 333 wells, and a well-trained army. The record suggests that their presence in the area preceded the rise of Islam.

                                     

2.5. Later communities. Jewish soldiers of Islamic Spain. (Еврейские солдаты исламской Испании)

Jewish soldiers assisted Childeric in his war against Wamba. The Moors were entrusted to the Jews the custody of the conquered cities of Spain. Under Alfonso VI of Castile in 1086, 40.000 Jews fought against Yusuf Ibn Teshufin in the Zalakaros, the battle, with such heroism that the battle field was covered with bodies. When Alfonso VIII of Castile. 1166-1214 there were many warriors among the wealthy and cultured Jews of Toledo that fought bravely against the Moors. Alfonso X., called "the wise", and Infante, there were many Jews in his army, and the capture of Seville 1298 the Jewish warriors distinguished themselves so highly that, in compensation for their services, Alfonso allotted to them lands for the formation of a Jewish community. He also gave them three mosques, which they turned into synagogues. The cruel fanaticism of the Moors became the enemy of the Jews, who now were subdued Christians tolerant rule of the latter. The Jews fought bravely on the side of Pedro the Cruel in defense of the city of Toledo, briviesca, and Burgos, against Henry de Trastamara, his brother, and had to pay for their loyalty to their king either with their lives and the lives of their undefended wives and children, or, as the Jews of Burgos had to do, with a heavy ransom relentless Victor.

                                     

2.6. Later communities. Jewish defenders during the First Crusade. (Еврейские правозащитники во время первого крестового похода)

The Jews fought side by side with the Egyptian Fatimid soldiers to defend Jerusalem against the crusaders during the first crusade. Saint Louis University Professor Thomas Madden, author of a Brief history of the Crusades, claims the "Jewish defenders" of the city knew the rules of warfare and retreated to their synagogue to "prepare for death" since the crusaders had breached the outer walls. However, another source says a joint Jewish-Egyptian troops withdrew from the walls and made their last stand against the crusaders, the Temple mount, only then will their houses of worship when they were suppressed. According to the Muslim chronicle of Ibn al-Qalanisi, "the Jews gathered in their synagogue and the Franks burned it over their head."

                                     

2.7. Later communities. Piracy against Spanish vessels. (Пиратство против испанских судов)

In response to the Spanish Inquisition, and the number of Spanish Jews who left turned to piracy against Spanish ships.

                                     

3. Modern times. (Современности)

The Beardlings. (В Beardlings)

In 1794 Colonel Berek Joselewicz raised a cavalry regiment of 500 Jewish volunteers who fought against the Russian army during the kościuszko uprising in Poland.

                                     

3.1. Modern times. The Beardlings. (В Beardlings)

In 1794 Colonel Berek Joselewicz raised a cavalry regiment of 500 Jewish volunteers who fought against the Russian army during the kościuszko uprising in Poland.

                                     

3.2. Modern times. Nili. (Нили)

Nili Hebrew language: ניל"י, an acronym of a phrase נצח ישראל לא ישקר Samuel 15:29, transliteration: Netzakh Yisrael Lo Yishaker, literal translation: "the eternity of Israel does not lie" was a Jewish spy network that helped Britain during the First world war of 1914-1918 in its struggle with the Ottoman Empire that occupied Palestine from 1516 to 1918.

                                     

3.3. Modern times. Jewish Legion British. (Еврейский Легион Британской)

The Jewish Legion was the name for five battalions of Jewish volunteers established in the British armys 38th through 42nd battalions of the Royal Fusiliers service. The initial unit, known as the Zion Mule corps, was formed in 1914-1915 during world war I, when Britain was at war against the Ottoman Turks and the Zionists around the world saw the opportunity to promote the idea of a Jewish national homeland.

                                     

3.4. Modern times. Jewish regiment Russian Civil War. (Еврейский русский полк Гражданской войны)

The Jewish regiment was an infantry regiment formed in February 1919 during the Russian civil war 1917-1922 part of the troops of ataman Grigory Semyonov which acted in the Transbaikal territory.

In the early 20th century, Russian Jews were active in various political movements. Many have joined the revolutionary movement, such as the social revolutionaries, the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks. Many Jews served in Makhnos "Black" army. Others turned to counter-revolution.

The regiment was formed in Chita Jewish community. Officers and soldiers of the regiment were Jews from various social classes, artisans merchants sons. Some Jews are reluctant to accept the Soviet regime after the witness of the red terror, instability and rising crime in 1918. Soldiers and staff celebrated all the Jewish holidays and fought on Shabbat. There were 170 soldiers, 7 sergeants, officers, 4 low grade and 2 captains. Most of the soldiers were from Chita and Nerchinsk.

The Jewish regiment took part in many actions against local partisans. The most significant achievement of the regiment was participation in the defeat of the guerrilla battalion, 150 strong international is located in the North-East of the village a dead end. The partisans, mostly Hungarians, former prisoners of war POWs who were sent to Transbaikalia during the First world war.

                                     

4.1. World War II Jewish Military Union Polish. (Еврейский Военный Союз Поляков На Беларуси)

in Zydowski G. ZZW Wojskowy, Polish for Jewish military Union was an underground resistance organization operating during world war II in the area of Warsaw ghetto and fighting during Warsaw ghetto uprising. It was formed mainly of former officers of the Polish army in late 1939, shortly after the German occupation of Poland.

                                     

4.2. World War II Anti-Fascist Military Organisation Polish. (Анти-Фашистская Военная Организация Польской)

Antyfaszystowska Organizacja Bojowa in Polish for anti-fascist military organization was an underground organization formed in 1942 in the ghetto in białystok by former officers of the Polish Land forces. He took part in the Uprising in the Bialystok ghetto.

                                     

4.3. World War II Jewish Combat Organization Polish. (Еврейская Боевая Организация Польской)

In the Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa goiter, Polish for the Jewish fighting organization, called in Yiddish יידישע קאמף ארגאניזאציע) – the Second world war, the resistance movement, which was instrumental in engineering the Warsaw ghetto uprising, although the ZZW Jewish resistance organization claimed otherwise. The organization also participated in other events of resistance.

                                     

4.4. World War II Jewish Brigade British. (Еврейская Бригада Британской)

The Jewish infantry brigade was a military formation of the British army who served in Europe during world war II. Although the brigade was formed in 1944, some of its experienced staff worked against the Axis powers in Greece, the Middle East and East Africa. More than 30.000 Palestinian Jews volunteered to serve in the British armed forces, 734 of whom died during the war.

                                     

4.5. World War II Special Interrogation Group British. (Особую Группу Допроса Британского)

A special interrogation team SIG some sources interpretiruya this acronym as special identification group or special intelligence group was a British army unit organized from German-speaking Jewish volunteers from the British mandate in Palestine. SIG carried out commando and sabotage operations against the Nazis behind enemy lines in the Western desert campaign during the Second world war.

                                     

5.1. Palestine Yishuv. The Jewish Resistance Movement. (Еврейское Движение Сопротивления)

The Jewish Resistance movement is an umbrella group for militant Jewish underground movements in the British mandate of Palestine. The group existed in the period between 1945 and 1946, and coordinated armed attacks against the British military. The group was founded after the Second world war, disappointment in British policy towards the movement.

                                     

5.2. Palestine Yishuv. Haganah. (Хагана)

Hagana in Hebrew: "defense", ההגנה was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British mandate of Palestine from 1920 to 1948.

The predecessor of Haganah was Ha-Shomer השומר, the Guild of watchman founded in 1909 founded out of Bar-Giora, which began two years ago. It was a small group of Jewish immigrants who guarded settlements for an annual fee. No group has more than 100 members.

After the 1920 Arab riots and 1921 Jaffa riots, the Jewish leadership in Palestine believed that the British, whom the League of Nations gave the mandate over Palestine in 1920 with the aim of creating a Jewish national home had no desire to confront local Arab gangs over their attacks on Palestinian Jews. Realizing that they could not rely on the British administration for protection from these gangs, the Jewish leadership created the Haganah to protect their farms and kibbutzim. In addition to the protection of Jewish communities, the role of the Haganah was to warn the residents of and repel attacks by Palestinian Arabs. In the period between 1920-1929, the Haganah lacked a strong Central authority or coordination. Haganah "units" were very localized and poorly armed: they consisted mainly of Jewish farmers, who take turns guarding their farms or their kibbutzim. After the Arab riots of 1929, the role of Haganahs has changed dramatically. It became a much larger organization encompassing nearly all the youth and adults in the Jewish settlements, as well as thousands of participants from cities. It also acquired foreign arms and began to develop workshops to create hand grenades and simple military equipment, have evolved from inexperienced militia capable underground army.

                                     

5.3. Palestine Yishuv. Palmach. (Пальмахим)

The PALMACH Hebrew: פלמ"þ, acronym for Plugot Mahatz in Hebrew: פלוגות מחץ, blow responsibility) was the regular fighting force of the Haganah, the unofficial army of the Jewish community of the Yishuv during the British mandate in Palestine. It was established may 15, 1941, and the war in 1948 has increased to three combat brigades and auxiliary aerial, naval and intelligence units. As a member of the Palmachnik of the Palmach was considered not only as the fulfillment of military duties, but also as a way of life. Significant leaders of the Palmach include Moshe Dayan, Yitzhak Sadeh, Yigal Allon and future Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.

Of the Palmach significant contribution to Israeli culture and ethos, and its undoubted military contributions. Its members formed the backbone of the high command of the Israel defense forces for many years, and a prominent role in Israeli politics, literature and culture.

The Palmach was created by British military and Haganah on may 15, 1941 to help the British protect Palestine from the Nazi threat. They also had to help the allied forces with the planned invasion of Syria and Lebanon, then held by the French forces of Vichy. British experts trained the Palmach special soldiers, and are also equipped with small arms and explosives. However, after the victory of the allies in the second battle of El-Alamein in 1943, the British ordered the dismantling of Palmach. Instead, the whole organization went underground.

                                     

5.4. Palestine Yishuv. Lehi. (Легия)

Lehi, also known as the "stern group" or "stern", was an armed underground Zionist faction in mandatory Palestine that aims at ousting the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of the Jewish state. The name of the group became "Lehi" only after the death of its founder, Avraham stern.

                                     

5.5. Palestine Yishuv. Irgun. (Иргун)

Irgun was a clandestine Zionist group that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948, as a militant offshoot of the earlier and more Hagana in Hebrew: "defense", ההגנה Jewish paramilitary organization. In Israel, Irgun is typically called Etzel אצ״ל, an acronym of the Hebrew initials. For reasons of secrecy, people often referred to the Irgun, in the time in which it operated, as Haganah bet Hebrew: literally "defense B" or "second defense" הגנה ב, Haleumit Haganah ההגנה הלאומית or Hamaamad המעמד.

The group has carried out attacks against Arab and Palestinian factions in the Central part of their initial efforts. It was armed expression of the nascent ideology of revisionist Zionism, expressed by zeev Jabotinsky that "every Jew has the right to enter Palestine: only active retaliation would deter the Arabs and the British, only Jewish armed force would ensure the Jewish state". This organization was a political predecessor movement to the Israeli right-wing Herut party, or "Freedom", which led to todays Likud party.

The most well-known attacks by Irgun were the explosion of the hotel "king David" in Jerusalem on 22 July 1946. British authorities condemned Irgun as terrorists already in the 1930-ies.

                                     

6.1. Israel. Israeli Security Forces. (Израильские Силы Безопасности)

Israeli security forces used to describe a group of organizations that are responsible for the preservation of Israel and civil society. These organizations are independent but cooperate with each other, some voluntarily, some professional, and others at the same time. The list includes military institutions, government agencies, law enforcement organizations and first aid organizations:

  • Israel Police. (Израильская Полиция)
  • Yamam. (Yamām)
  • Civil Guard Israel. (Гражданская Гвардия Израиль)
  • Israel Border Police. (Израильской Пограничной Службы)
  • Shabak. (ШАБАК)
  • Mossad. (Моссад)
  • Aman. (Аман)
  • Israeli Intelligence Community. (Израильского Разведывательного Сообщества)
                                     

6.2. Israel. Israel Defense Forces. (Армия Обороны Израиля)

The Israel defense forces, the IDF, is the name of the Israeli armed forces, comprising:

  • Israeli Army. (Израильская Армия)
  • Israeli Air Force. (Израильские ВВС)
  • Israeli Sea Corps. (Израильский Морской Пехоты)
                                     
  • American Jewish Military History NMAJMH was founded September 2, 1958, in Washington, D.C., to document and preserve the contributions of Jewish Americans
  • colonial era, when Jews had served in militias of the Thirteen Colonies. Jewish military personnel have served in all branches of the armed forces and in every
  • American Jewish Military Heritage Project is an internet educational project sponsored by the National Museum of American Jewish Military History providing
  • Richmond, VA. The JWV manages the National Museum of American Jewish Military History NMAJMH in Washington, D.C., close to its headquarters. Annually
  • Jewish history is the history of the Jews, and their nation, religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures
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  • Zydowski Zwiazek Wojskowy ZZW, Polish for Jewish Military Union was an underground resistance organization operating during World War II in the area
  • The Jewish Infantry Brigade Group, more commonly known as the Jewish Brigade Group or Jewish Brigade, was a military formation of the British Army in World
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  • leadership as the site for the Jewish region. The choice of this area was a surprise to Komzet the area had been chosen for military and economic reasons. This
  • Solution militarily Nevertheless, there are many cases of attempts at resistance in one form or another including over a hundred armed Jewish uprisings
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