Biological immortality is the state in which death from aging is stable or declining, while disconnecting it from the chronological age. Various unicellular and multicellular species, including some vertebrates, to achieve this state either throughout their existence or after living long enough. A biologically immortal living being can still die from other means, in addition to aging, such as injury, illness or lack of necessary resources.
This definition of immortality was challenged in the Handbook of the biology of aging, because the increase in mortality as a function of chronological age may be negligible at extremely old age, the idea of a plateau is called senile mortality. The rate of mortality may cease to increase in old age, but in most cases this ratio is usually very high.
This term is also used by biologists to describe cells that are not subject to the Hayflick limit on how many times they can divide.
1. Cell lines. (Клеточные линии)
Biologists chose the word "Immortal" to designate cells that are not subject to the Hayflick limit, the point at which cells can no longer share in the result of DNA damage or telomere shortening. Before Leonard Hayflicks theory, Alexis Carrel hypothesized that all normal somatic cells were immortal.
The term "immortalization" was first applied to cancer cells that expressed the telomere-lengthening enzyme telomerase, and thereby avoided apoptosis, i.e. cell death caused by intracellular mechanisms. Among the most frequently used cell lines are HeLa and Jurkat, both of which are immortalized cancer cell lines. HeLa cells obtained from samples of cervical cancer taken from Henrietta lacks in 1951. The cells were and still are widely used in biological research, such as the creation of the polio vaccine, sex hormones, the study of steroid and the metabolism. Normal stem cells and stem cells also it can be said that to be immortal when people refer to cell lines.
Immortal cell lines of cancer cells can be created by induction of oncogenes or loss of suppressor genes of tumours. One way to induce immortality is through viral-mediated induction of the large T‑antigen, which is commonly introduced through simian virus 40 SV-40.
2. Organisms. (Организмов)
According to the animal aging and longevity database, the list of organisms with negligible aging, along with the assessment of life expectancy in the wild includes:
- Proteus anguinus – 102 years.
- Blandings turtle Emydoidea blandingii – 77 years.
- Eastern box turtle Terrapene Carolina 138 years.
- Rougheye rockfish Sebastes aleutianus – 205 years.
- The red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus – 200 years.
- Clam islandica the ocean Quahog Arctica – 507 years old.
In 2018, scientists working on the calico, a company owned by alphabet, published an article in the journal eLife, which presents possible evidence that naked mole rat Heterocephalus Glaber does not face increased risk of mortality due to aging.
2.1. Organisms. Bacteria and some yeast. (Бактерии и некоторые дрожжи)
Many unicellular organisms age: over time they divide more slowly and ultimately die. The asymmetrically dividing bacteria and yeast age. However, symmetrically dividing bacteria and yeast can be biologically immortal under ideal growing conditions. In these conditions, when the cell splits symmetrically to produce two daughter cells, the process of cell division can repair cells in the young state. However, if the parent is asymmetric kidneys with the daughter, only the daughter is reset to the youth of the state of the parent is not restored and are old and die. Likewise, stem cells and gametes can be regarded as "Immortal".
2.2. Organisms. Hydra. (Гидра)
Hydra are a genus of the phylum Cnidaria. All coelenterates are capable of regeneration, allowing them to recover from injury and to reproduce asexually. Hydras are simple freshwater animal possessing radial symmetry and no post-mitotic cells. All of the Hydra cells constantly divide. It has been suggested that Hydras do not undergo senescence, and, as such, are biologically immortal. In four years of study, 3 groups of Hydra do not show increased mortality with age. It is possible that these animals live much longer, given that they reach maturity in 5 to 10 days. However, this does not explain how Hydras are thus able to maintain telomere length.
2.3. Organisms. Jellyfish. (Медузы)
Turritopsis dohrnii or Turritopsis nutricula, is a small 5 mm 0.20 in) species of jellyfish which are used to replenish the transdifferentiation of cells after sexual reproduction. This cycle can repeat indefinitely, which may make it biologically immortal. This organism originated in the Caribbean sea, but now it has spread around the world. Such cases include hydrozoan Laodicea undulata and the scyphozoan Aurelia SP.1.
2.4. Organisms. Lobster. (Лобстер)
Studies show that lobsters may not slow down, weaken, or lose fertility with age, and that older lobsters may be more fertile than younger lobsters. However, this does not make them immortal in the traditional sense, as they are more likely to die in the molting of the old shell, which they receive as described below.
Their longevity may be due to telomerase, an enzyme which repairs long repetitive sections of DNA sequences at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomerase is expressed in most vertebrate during embryonic stages but is generally absent from adult stages of life. However, unlike vertebrates, lobsters Express telomerase as adults through most tissue, which has been proposed to be due to their durability. Contrary to popular belief, lobsters are not immortal. Lobsters will grow by molting, which requires a lot of energy, and the larger the projectile, the more energy required. In the end, the lobster will die of starvation during molting. Old Cancers are known to stop the molting period, which means that the shell will eventually corrupted, infected, or fall apart and they die. The European lobster has a life expectancy of 31 years for men and 54 years for women.
2.5. Organisms. Planarian flat worms. (Плоские черви планарии)
Planarian flatworms have both sexually and asexually reproduction types. Studies on the genus Schmidtea mediterranea could assume that these planaria appear to regenerate, i.e. to treat indefinitely, and asexual people ", apparently limitless regenerative capacity fueled by a population of high proliferative stem cells". "As asexual and sexual animals display age-related decrease in telomere length, however, asexual animals are able to maintain telomere length somatically, i.e. reproduction by fission or when regeneration is induced by amputation, whereas sexual animals restore telomeres by extending the process of sexual reproduction or in the period of embryogenesis, and other forms of sexual. Homeostatic telomerase activity is observed both asexual and sexual animals is not sufficient to maintain telomere length, while the increased activity in regenerating asexuals is sufficient to extend telomere length.
Life expectancy: for sexually reproducing planaria: "the life expectancy of individual planarian can be up to 3 years, probably due to the ability of neoblasts to constantly replace aging cells." And for playback planarian asexual way: "the individual animals in clonal lines of some planarian species replication by fission remained for 15 years." They "literally immortal."
3. Attempts to engineer biological immortality of man. (Попытки инженера биологическое бессмертие человека)
Although the premise that biological aging can be stopped or canceled by foreseeable technology remains controversial, studies of the development of possible therapeutic interventions is underway. Among the main factors of international collaboration in such research is the scientific and the SENS research Foundation, a nonprofit organization, which stands for the number of what it claims are plausible research pathways that might lead to engineered negligible senescence in humans.
In 2015, Elizabeth Parrish, CEO BioViva, treat yourself using gene therapy with the aim not just to halt but to reverse aging. She said, feeling more energetic, and no obvious side effects were seen.
For several decades, researchers have applied various forms of suspended animation as a means by which to indefinitely extend the lifespan of mammals. Some scientists have supported the feasibility of cryopreservation of people known as cryonics. Cryonics is based on the fact that some people considered clinically dead by todays forensic standards, in fact, not dead, according to information-theoretical death and can, in principle, be resuscitated given sufficient technological advances. The aim of the current procedures of cryonics is vitrification of tissues, the method first used to reversibly cryopreserve a viable authority in 2005.
Similar proposals concerning the stasis include chemical preservation of the brain. Non-profit Foundation for the preservation of the brain offers a cash prize worth more than 100.000 $to demonstrate methods that will enable high-precision, long-term storage of mammalian brain.
In 2016 scientists at the Buck Institute for research on aging and the Mayo clinic, the employed genetic and pharmacological approaches to ablate Pro-aging of cells, prolonging its healthy lifespan of mice by more than 25%. The start-up of biotechnology unity is the further development of this strategy in clinical trials.
At the beginning of 2017, Harvard scientists headed by biologist David Sinclair announced that they were proven metabolic precursor, which increases the level ABOVE in mice successfully reversed the aging process and protects DNA from damage in the future. "The old mouse and young mouse cells indistinguishable," said David, quoted. Human trials are scheduled to begin in the near future that the team was expecting 6 months at Brigham and Womens hospital in Boston.
In the article of September 2019, a group of scientists reported successfully reversing epigenetic aging in the human body.
3.1. Attempts to engineer biological immortality of man. Criticism. (Критика)
To achieve a more limited goal-to stop the growth of mortality with age, a solution must be found to ensure that any intervention to remove aging cells, which creates competition among the cells will increase the age of cancer.
4. Immortalism and immortality as a movement. (Иммортализм и бессмертие как движение)
In 2012 in Russia and then in the United States, Israel and the Netherlands were started about immortality transhumanist political parties. They are designed to ensure political support for anti-aging and radical life extension research and technologies and want to ensure fastest possible and at the same time, the least disruptive, companies transition to radical life extension, life without aging, and ultimately, immortality. Their goal is to make it possible to provide access to such technologies to most living people today.
5. The future of medicine, life-extension and "swallowing the doctor". (Будущее медицины, продления жизни и "глотанием доктор")
Future achievements in nanomedicine could lead to life extension through the repair of many processes, which are responsible for aging. K. Eric Drexler, one of the founders of nanotechnology, postulated device repair cells, including those working in cells and using the yet hypothetical molecular machines in his 1986 book engines of creation. Raymond Kurzweil, a futurist and transhumanist, stated in his 2005 book the singularity is near that he believes that advanced medical nanorobotics could completely remedy the effects of aging by 2030. According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him in 1959, the idea of a medical use for Feynmans theoretical micromachines see a biological machine. Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might be reduced in size to such an extent that it would, in theory, as Feynman put it, "Swallow the doctor". The idea was included in Feynmans 1959 essay theres plenty of room at the bottom.
6. Bibliography. (Библиография)
- Rose, Michael Rauser, Cassandra L., Mueller, Lawrence D. In The Spring Of 2011. To Completely Stop The Aging Process?. Oxford University Press.
- James L. Halperin. The First Immortal, Del Rey, 1998. ISBN 0-345-42092-6.
- Martinez, D. E. 1998 "mortality patterns suggest lack of senescence of Hydra". Experimental Gerontology May 1998.333:217-225. Full text.
- Robert Ettinger. The prospect of immortality, RIA University press, 2005. ISBN 0-9743472-3-X.
- R. Dr. Michael Perry. Forever for all: moral philosophy, cryonics, and the scientific prospects for immortality, universal publishers, 2001. ISBN 1-58112-724-3.
- Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death unending existence. Some modern species may possess biological immortality Certain scientists, futurists
- Digital immortality or virtual immortality is the hypothetical concept of storing or transferring a person s personality in more durable media, i
- science fiction TV series Ad Vitam explored the social impact of biological immortality The undead are fictional people who have died and still maintain
- Incarnations of Immortality is the name of an eight - book fantasy series by Piers Anthony. The first seven books each focus on one of seven supernatural
- form. The capability of biological immortality with no maximum lifespan makes T. dohrnii an important target of basic biological aging and pharmaceutical
- Immortality is the 13th episode of the third season of the American science fiction drama television series Fringe, and the 56th episode overall. In
- medicine, experimental gerontology, and biomedical gerontology. Biological immortality Indefinite lifespan Longevity Rejuvenation Centenarian Supercentenarian
- same name Immortalized by HammerFall from the album Infected Biological immortality where death occurs from injury or disease rather than deterioration
- Invisibility Life extension, Biological immortality Universal immortalism and immortality Cryonics Digital immortality Mind uploading Organ transplantation
- total. Aging Aging - associated diseases Biological immortality Eternal youth Genetics of aging Geroprotector Immortality Indefinite lifespan Longevity Maximum
- The Future of Humanity: Terraforming Mars, Interstellar Travel, Immortality and Our Destiny Beyond Earth is a popular science book by the futurist and
- under a decisive level of medical control paving the way for biological immortality in humans. It is estimated that by the year 2036, there will be
- personality to a more advanced non - biological carrier, and extending life, including to the point of immortality We devote particular attention to enabling
- hypoxic metabolism. In plants, aspen trees are one example of biological immortality Each individual tree can live for 40 150 years above ground, but
- adaptation to solar - and lunar - related rhythms. These cycles are known as biological rhythms. Chronobiology comes from the ancient Greek χρόνος chronos, meaning
- Rossi and Antonella Canonico, who advocate the scenario known as Semi - Immortality an elaborate vision of an era of quasi - immortal individuals intelligent
- the public on the Cypriot Medical History. Anti - aging movement Biological Immortality Llewellyn - Smith, Julia 2011 - 10 - 25 Has the fountain of youth
- Biodemography Biodemography of human longevity Bioethics Biological clock Biogerontology Biological immortality Biomarkers of aging Biotechnology Brain - computer
- selves. This symbolic self - focus takes the form of an individual s immortality project or causa sui project which is essentially a symbolic belief - system
- and Metacrine. Deming believes that science can be used to create biological immortality in humans, and has said that ending aging is a lot closer than
- be grown for prolonged periods in vitro. The mutations required for immortality can occur naturally or be intentionally induced for experimental purposes
- enzymes available to most members of the society instead induces true biological immortality The Optimen exercise absolute dictatorial control over Earth from
- Eternal youth is the concept of human physical immortality free of ageing. The youth referred to is usually meant to be in contrast to the depredations
- Anti - Aging Medicine Biological immortality DNA damage theory of aging Eternal youth Genetics of aging Geroprotector Immortality Indefinite lifespan Longevity
- mechanism. These results disproved Carrel s immortality claims and established the Hayflick limit as a credible biological theory. Unlike Carrel s experiment
- FAQ. It was also listed on Max More s reading list for extropians, the Immortality Institute s reading list in The Scientific Conquest of Death, and other
- His immortality completely drained, he is still able to survive otherwise fatal wounds, but a brain tumor and a strong decay of his biological function
- Brian Hanley biohacker Senescence Negligible senescence Biological immortality Immortality Indefinite lifespan Longevity Transhumanism Extropianism Biogerontology
- ISBN 978 - 0 - 306 - 46304 - 4. Retrieved 25 November 2010. Algae gives professor a taste of immortality Seattle Times. June 13, 2005. Retrieved 2011 - 02 - 25.
- precise beginning or an end. Agelessness can be used as a synonym for immortality more specifically it refers to eternal youth. Agelessness can be attributed
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