Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 68

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 68

                                               

Faroese krona

The krona is the currency of the Faroe Islands. It is issued by Danmarks Nationalbank, the central bank of Denmark. It is not a separate currency, but is a local issue of banknotes denominated in the Danish krone. However, Danish-issued coins are ...

                                               

Philippine peso

The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso, is the official currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos or sentimos in Filipino. As a former colony of the United States, the country used English on its cur ...

                                               

Hungarian forint

The forint is the currency of Hungary. It was formerly divided into 100 filler, but filler coins are no longer in circulation. The introduction of the forint on 1 August 1946 was a crucial step in the post-World War II stabilisation of the Hungar ...

                                               

Rwandan franc

The franc became the currency of Rwanda in 1916, when Belgium occupied the previously German colony and the Belgian Congo franc replaced the German East African rupie. Rwanda used the currency of Belgian Congo until 1960, when the Rwanda and Buru ...

                                               

French franc

The franc, also commonly distinguished as the French franc, was a currency of France. Between 1360 and 1641, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it remained in common parlance as a term for this amount of money. It was reintroduce ...

                                               

Alderney pound

The island of Alderney has its own currency, which by law must be pegged to that of the United Kingdom. Schedule 2 of the Government of Alderney Law provides that the States of Alderney may, by Ordinance, prescribe "the legal currency and denomin ...

                                               

Saint Helena pound

The Saint Helena pound is the currency of the Atlantic islands of Saint Helena and Ascension, which are constituent parts of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. It is fixed at parity with the British po ...

                                               

Hyderabadi rupee

The Hyderabadi Rupee was the currency of the Hyderabad State from 1918 to 1959. It coexisted with the Indian rupee from 1950. Like the Indian rupee, it was divided into 16 annas, each of 12 pai. Coins were issued in copper for denominations of 1 ...

                                               

Croatian dinar

The Croatian dinar replaced the 1990 version of Yugoslav dinar at par. It was a transitional currency introduced following Croatias declaration of independence. During its existence the dinar declined in value by a factor of about 70. The dinar w ...

                                               

Private currency

A private currency is a currency issued by a private entity, be it an individual, a commercial business, a nonprofit or decentralized common enterprise. It is often contrasted with fiat currency issued by governments or central banks. In many cou ...

                                               

Montenegrin perper

The perper was the currency of Montenegro between 1906 and 1916. It was divided into 100 para. At the end of the 20th century, Montenegro contemplated issuing the perper again. However, it decided to adopt the Deutsche mark instead, and later fol ...

                                               

Chechen naxar

The naxar is the currency that Chechen separatists planned for the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. In 1994, in the UK, banknotes were printed in denominations of 1-, 3-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 50-, 100-, 500, and 1000 nahar, dated 1995. This currency was no ...

                                               

Chilean peso

The peso is the currency of Chile. The current peso has circulated since 1975, with a previous version circulating between 1817 and 1960. Its symbol is defined as a letter S with either one or two vertical bars superimposed prefixing the amount, ...

                                               

Swedish krona

The krona ; plural: kronor ; sign: kr ; code: SEK) is the official currency of Sweden. Both the ISO code "SEK" and currency sign "kr" are in common use; the former precedes or follows the value, the latter usually follows it but, especially in th ...

                                               

Ecuadorian sucre

The Sucre was the currency of Ecuador between 1884 and 2000. Its ISO code was ECS and it was subdivided into 10 Decimos or 100 Centavos. The sucre was named after Latin American political leader Antonio Jose de Sucre. The currency was replaced by ...

                                               

Eritrean nakfa

The nakfa is the currency of Eritrea and was introduced on 8 November 1997 to replace the Ethiopian birr at par. The currency takes its name from the Eritrean town of Nakfa, site of the first major victory of the Eritrean War of Independence. The ...

                                               

Escudo

The escudo is a unit of currency historically used in Portugal and its colonies in South America, Asia, and Africa. It was originally worth 16 silver reais. The Cape Verdean escudo and the former Portuguese escudo, each subdivided into 100 centav ...

                                               

Estonian kroon

The kroon was the official currency of Estonia for two periods in history: 1928–1940 and 1992–2011. Between 1 January and 14 January 2011, the kroon circulated together with the euro, after which the euro became the sole legal tender in Estonia. ...

                                               

Estonian mark

The Estonian mark was the currency of Estonia between 1918 and 1927. It was initially equivalent to the German ostmark, which had been circulating alongside the Russian ruble since the German occupation. It was divided into 100 penns. It was repl ...

                                               

South African rand

The rand is the official currency of South Africa. The rand is subdivided into 100 cents. The ISO 4217 code is ZAR, from Zuid-Afrikaanse rand ; the ZA is a historical relic from Dutch and is not used in any current context except the country abbr ...

                                               

South Korean won

The South Korean won or Korean won is the official currency of South Korea. A single won is divided into 100 jeon, the monetary subunit. The jeon is no longer used for everyday transactions, and appears only in foreign exchange rates. The won is ...

                                               

South Sudanese pound

The South Sudanese pound is the official currency of the Republic of South Sudan. It is subdivided into 100 piasters. It was approved by the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly before secession on 9 July 2011 from Sudan. It was introduced on 18 J ...

                                               

Currency substitution

Currency substitution or dollarization is the use of a foreign currency in parallel to or instead of the domestic currency. Currency substitution can be full or partial. Most, if not all, full currency substitution has taken place after a major e ...

                                               

Disney dollar

Disney Dollars are a form of corporate scrip sold by The Walt Disney Company and redeemable for goods or services at many Disney facilities. Similar in size, shape and design to the paper currency of the United States, most bills bear the image o ...

                                               

Solomon Islands dollar

The Solomon Islands dollar is the currency of Solomon Islands since 1977. Its symbol is "$", with "SI$" used to differentiate it from other currencies also using the dollar sign. It is subdivided into 100 cents.

                                               

Fijian dollar

The Fijian dollar has been the currency of Fiji since 1969 and was also the currency between 1867 and 1873. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively FJ$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. It is ...

                                               

New Zealand dollar

The New Zealand dollar is the official currency and legal tender of New Zealand, the Cook Islands, Niue, the Ross Dependency, Tokelau, and a British territory, the Pitcairn Islands. Within New Zealand, it is almost always abbreviated with the dol ...

                                               

Singapore dollar

The Singapore dollar is the official currency of Singapore. It is divided into 100 cents. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or S$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies. The Monetary Authority of Singapore iss ...

                                               

Virtual currency

Virtual currency, or virtual money, is a type of unregulated digital currency, which is issued and usually controlled by its developers and used and accepted among the members of a specific virtual community. The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Co ...

                                               

Fictional currency

A fictional currency is some form of currency defined, or alluded to, in works of fiction. The names of units of such currency are sometimes based on extant or historic currencies while other names, such as "Kalganids" in Asimovs Foundation serie ...

                                               

Complementary currency

A complementary currency is a currency or medium of exchange that is not a national currency, but that is thought of as supplementing or complementing national currencies.: 3: 2 Complementary currencies are usually not legal tender and their use ...

                                               

Local currency

In economics, a local currency is a currency that can be spent in a particular geographical locality at participating organisations. A regional currency is a form of local currency encompassing a larger geographical area. A local currency acts as ...

                                               

Reserve currency

A reserve currency is a foreign currency that is held in significant quantities by central banks or other monetary authorities as part of their foreign exchange reserves. The reserve currency can be used in international transactions, internation ...

                                               

SUCRE

The SUCRE is a regional currency proposed for commercial exchanges between members of the regional trade bloc Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, which was created as an alternative to the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas. The SUCRE is inte ...

                                               

Hard currency

Hard currency, safe-haven currency or strong currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value. Factors contributing to a currencys hard status might include the stability and reliability of the respecti ...

                                               

Commodity currency

A commodity currency is a name given to some currencies that co-move with the world prices of primary commodity products, due to these countries heavy dependency on the export of certain raw materials for income. Commodity currencies are most pre ...

                                               

Eco (currency)

The Eco is the proposed name for the common currency that the West African Monetary Zone plans to introduce in the framework of the Economic Community of West African States. After its introduction, the goal is to merge the new currency with the ...

                                               

God's Angry Man

Gods Angry Man is a 1981 documentary film, directed by Werner Herzog about Gene Scott, a U.S. pastor and Stanford PhD who served for almost fifty years as an ordained minister and religious broadcaster in Los Angeles. The film was produced for te ...

                                               

Ora (currency)

The Ora is the local currency of Orania, an Afrikaner enclave in South Africa first issued in April 2004. It is pegged at par with the South African rand. The name, recalling that of the town where it circulates, derives from Latin aurum, meaning ...

                                               

Currency symbol

When writing currency amounts, the location of the symbol varies by language. Many currencies in the English-speaking world and Latin America place it before the amount e.g., R$50.00. The Cape Verdean escudo like the Portuguese escudo, to which i ...

                                               

Asian Monetary Unit

The Asian Monetary Unit is a basket of currencies proposed by the Japanese governments Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry. It is similar to and modeled on the European Currency Unit, predecessor to the euro. The Asian Monetary Unit ...

                                               

Currency basket

A currency basket is a portfolio of selected currencies with different weightings. A currency basket is commonly used to minimize the risk of currency fluctuations. An example of a currency basket is the European Currency Unit that was used by th ...

                                               

Currency pair

A currency pair is the quotation of the relative value of a currency unit against the unit of another currency in the foreign exchange market. The currency that is used as the reference is called the counter currency, quote currency or currency a ...

                                               

Bilateral trade

Bilateral trade or clearing trade is trade exclusively between two states, particularly, barter trade based on bilateral deals between governments, and without using hard currency for payment. Bilateral trade agreements often aim to keep trade de ...

                                               

Exchange rate

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another. It is also regarded as the value of one countrys currency in relation to another currency. For example, an interbank exchange rate of 114 Japanese yen t ...

                                               

Foreign exchange risk

Foreign exchange risk is a financial risk that exists when a financial transaction is denominated in a currency other than the domestic currency of the company. The exchange risk arises when there is a risk of an unfavourable change in exchange r ...

                                               

Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange market is a global decentralized or over-the-counter market for the trading of currencies. This market determines foreign exchange rates for every currency. It includes all aspects of buying, selling and exchanging currencies ...

                                               

Currency board

A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain a fixed exchange rate with a foreign currency. This policy objective requires the conventional objectives of a central bank to be subordinated to the exchange rate target.

                                               

Currency union

A currency union is an intergovernmental agreement that involves two or more states sharing the same currency. These states may not necessarily have any further integration. There are three types of currency unions: Informal – unilateral adoption ...

                                               

List of currencies

A list of all currencies, current and historic. The local name of the currency is used in this list, with the adjectival form of the country or region.

                                               

Currency Wars

Currency Wars by Song Hongbing, also known as The Currency War, is a bestseller in China, reportedly selling over 200.000 copies in addition to an estimated 400.000 unlicensed copies in circulation and is reportedly being read by many senior leve ...

                                               

Snake in the tunnel

The snake in the tunnel was the first attempt at European monetary cooperation in the 1970s, aiming at limiting fluctuations between different European currencies. It was an attempt at creating a single currency band for the European Economic Com ...

                                               

European Monetary System

European Monetary System was an adjustable exchange rate arrangement to establish closer monetary cooperation leading to a zone of Monetary stability. EMS was established in 1979 under the Jenkins European Commission where most nations of the Eur ...

                                               

European Exchange Rate Mechanism

The European Exchange Rate Mechanism was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System, to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparatio ...

                                               

Foreign exchange reserves

Foreign exchange reserves are cash and other reserve assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority that are primarily available to balance payments of the country, influence the foreign exchange rate of its currency, and to maintain c ...

                                               

Convertibility

Convertibility is the quality that allows money or other financial instruments to be converted into other liquid stores of value. Convertibility is an important factor in international trade, where instruments valued in different currencies must ...

                                               

Russian financial crisis (2014–2017)

The financial crisis in Russia in 2014–2015 was the result of the sharp devaluation of the Russian ruble beginning in the second half of 2014. A decline in confidence in the Russian economy caused investors to sell off their Russian assets, which ...

                                               

International monetary systems

An international monetary system is a set of internationally agreed rules, conventions and supporting institutions that facilitate international trade, cross border investment and generally the reallocation of capital between nation states. It sh ...

                                               

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of 189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote hig ...

                                               

Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange

The Moscow Interbank Currency Exchange) or MICEX was one of the largest universal stock exchanges in the Russian Federation and Eastern Europe. MICEX opened in 1992 and was the leading Russian stock exchange. About 239 Russian companies were list ...

                                               

Floating exchange rate

A floating exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime in which a currencys value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign exchange market events. A currency that uses a floating exchange rate is known as a floating currency. A floating ...

                                               

Effective exchange rate

The effective exchange rate is an index that describes the strength of a currency relative to a basket of other currencies. Suppose a country has N {\displaystyle N} trading partners and denote T r a d e i {\displaystyle Trade_{i}} and E i {\disp ...

                                               

Exchange rate regime

An exchange rate regime is the way a monetary authority of a country or currency union manages the currency in relation to other currencies and the foreign exchange market. It is closely related to monetary policy and the two are generally depend ...

                                               

Currency sign (typography)

The currency sign is a character used to denote an unspecified currency. It can be described as a circle the size of a lowercase character with four short radiating arms at 45°, 135°, 225°, and 315°. It is raised slightly above the baseline. The ...

                                               

List of circulating currencies

There are 180 currencies recognized as legal tender in United Nations member states, UN observer states, partially recognized or unrecognized states, and their dependencies. However excluding the pegged currencies, there are only 130 currencies. ...

                                               

Fixed exchange rate system

A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime in which a currencys value is fixed or pegged by a monetary authority against the value of another currency, a basket of other currencies, or anothe ...

                                               

List of central banks of Africa

There are two African currency unions associated with multinational central banks; the West African Banque Centrale des Etats de lAfrique de lOuest and the Central African Banque des Etats de lAfrique Centrale. Members of both currency unions use ...

                                               

Central banks and currencies of Europe

                                               

Central banks and currencies of the Caribbean

This is a list of the central banks and currencies of the Caribbean. There are a number of currencies serving multiple territories; the most widespread are the East Caribbean dollar 8 countries and territories, the United States dollar 5 and the ...

                                               

Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union

The Economic and Monetary Union is an umbrella term for the group of policies aimed at converging the economies of member states of the European Union at three stages. The policies cover the 19 eurozone states, as well as non-euro European Union ...

                                               

Jamaica Accords

The Jamaica Accords were a set of international agreements that ratified the end of the Bretton Woods monetary system. They took the form of recommendations to change the "articles of agreement" that the International Monetary Fund was founded up ...

                                               

Monetary system

A monetary system is the set of institutions by which a government provides money in a countrys economy. Modern monetary systems usually consist of the national treasury, the mint, the central banks and commercial banks.

                                               

Monetary base

In economics, the monetary base in a country is the total amount of bank notes and coins. This includes: the total currency circulating in the public, plus the currency that is physically held in the vaults of commercial banks, plus the commercia ...

                                               

Popcorn (1991 film)

Popcorn is a 1991 American slasher film directed by Mark Herrier and written by Alan Ormsby. It stars Jill Schoelen, Tom Villard, Dee Wallace, and Derek Rydall.

                                               

The Devil's Advocate (1997 film)

The Devils Advocate is a 1997 American supernatural horror film directed by Taylor Hackford, written by Jonathan Lemkin and Tony Gilroy, and starring Keanu Reeves, Al Pacino, and Charlize Theron. Based on Andrew Neidermans novel of the same name, ...

                                               

Anaconda (film)

Anaconda is a 1997 American adventure horror thriller film directed by Luis Llosa and starring Jennifer Lopez, Ice Cube, Jon Voight, Eric Stoltz, Jonathan Hyde and Owen Wilson. It focuses on a documentary film crew in the Amazon rainforest that i ...

                                               

Antropophagus

Antropophagus, also known as Anthropophagous: The Beast is a 1980 Italian horror film directed by Joe DAmato and co-written by DAmato and George Eastman, who starred in the film as a cannibal. The film also starred Tisa Farrow, Zora Kerova, Saver ...

                                               

Insidious (film)

Insidious is a 2010 supernatural horror film directed by James Wan, written by Leigh Whannell, and starring Patrick Wilson, Rose Byrne, and Barbara Hershey. It is the first installment in the Insidious franchise, and the third in terms of the ser ...

                                               

Rabid (1977 film)

Rabid is a 1977 Canadian-American body horror film written and directed by David Cronenberg. It features Marilyn Chambers in the lead role, supported by Frank Moore, Joe Silver and Howard Ryshpan. Chambers plays a woman who, after being injured i ...

                                               

Vamp (film)

Vamp is a 1986 American comedy horror film directed by Richard Wenk, co-written by Wenk and Donald P. Borchers, and starring Grace Jones and Chris Makepeace.

                                               

Witchery (film)

Witchery) is a 1988 Italian horror film directed by Fabrizio Laurenti and starring David Hasselhoff, Catherine Hickland, Hildegard Knef, Linda Blair, and Annie Ross.

                                               

Witchfinder General (film)

Witchfinder General is a 1968 British-American historical horror film directed by Michael Reeves and starring Vincent Price, Ian Ogilvy, Hilary Dwyer, Robert Russell and Rupert Davies. The screenplay by Reeves and Tom Baker was based on Ronald Ba ...

                                               

Victor Frankenstein (film)

Victor Frankenstein is a 2015 American science fantasy horror film based on contemporary adaptations of Mary Shelleys 1818 novel Frankenstein. It is directed by Paul McGuigan and written by Max Landis, and stars James McAvoy as Victor Frankenstei ...

                                               

The Vineyard (film)

The Vineyard is a 1989 American horror film written by James Marlowe and Douglas Kondo, directed by James Hong and William Rice, and starring James Hong, Michael Wong, Sherri Ball and Playboy Playmate Karen Witter.

                                               

Stage Fright (1987 film)

Stage Fright is a 1987 Italian slasher film directed by Michael Soavi, and starring Barbara Cupisti, David Brandon, and Giovanni Lombardo Radice. The plot tells about a group of stage actors and crew locking themselves inside a theater for rehear ...

                                               

Playback (film)

Playback is a 2012 horror film directed and written by Michael A. Nickles. Pre-production of the film started in June 2010 in Grand Rapids, Michigan. John M. Bennett and Lawrence Robbins are the producers of the film. The film stars Alessandra To ...

                                               

The Devil Rides Out (film)

The Devil Rides Out, known as The Devils Bride in the United States, is a 1968 British horror film, based on the 1934 novel of the same name by Dennis Wheatley. It was written by Richard Matheson and directed by Terence Fisher. The film stars Chr ...

                                               

Hannibal Rising (film)

Hannibal Rising is a 2007 horror film and the fifth film of the Hannibal Lecter franchise. It is a prequel to The Silence of the Lambs, Hannibal, and Red Dragon. The film is an adaptation of Thomas Harris 2006 novel of the same name and tells the ...

                                               

The Mangler (film)

The Mangler is a 1995 horror film directed by Tobe Hooper and written by Hooper and Harry Alan Towers. The film is based upon the Stephen King short story of the same name, which appeared in his inaugural short story collection Night Shift. It st ...

                                               

Dagon (film)

Dagon is a 2001 Spanish horror film directed by Stuart Gordon and written by Dennis Paoli. Despite the title, it is based on H. P. Lovecrafts novella The Shadow Over Innsmouth rather than his earlier short story "Dagon". The film takes place in " ...

                                               

Shadow People (film)

Shadow People is a 2013 American supernatural thriller written and directed by Matthew Arnold. It stars Dallas Roberts and Alison Eastwood.

                                               

Doctor Sleep (2019 film)

Doctor Sleep is a 2019 American supernatural horror film based on the 2013 novel of the same title by Stephen King, a sequel to Kings 1977 novel The Shining. The film, which also serves as a direct sequel to the film adaptation of The Shining, di ...

                                               

The Reaping

The Reaping is a 2007 American psychological horror thriller film, starring Hilary Swank. The film was directed by Stephen Hopkins for Warner Bros., Village Roadshow Pictures and Dark Castle Entertainment. The music for the film was scored by Joh ...

                                               

Life (2017 film)

Life is a 2017 American sci-fi horror film directed by Daniel Espinosa, written by Rhett Reese and Paul Wernick and starring Jake Gyllenhaal, Rebecca Ferguson, and Ryan Reynolds. The film follows a six-member crew of the International Space Stati ...

                                               

The Bay (film)

The Bay is a 2012 American found footage horror film directed by Barry Levinson and written by Michael Wallach. It premiered at the 2012 Toronto International Film Festival and was released in theaters on November 2, 2012.

                                               

The Green Inferno (film)

The Green Inferno is a 2013 American cannibal horror film directed by Eli Roth. The film was inspired by and is an homage to Italian cannibal films of the late 1970s and early 80s "cannibal boom", particularly Cannibal Holocaust, which features a ...

                                               

The Evil Dead

The Evil Dead is a 1981 American supernatural horror film written and directed by Sam Raimi and executive produced by Raimi and Bruce Campbell, who also starred alongside Ellen Sandweiss and Betsy Baker. The film focuses on five college students ...

                                               

Critters (film)

Critters is a 1986 American science fiction comedy horror film directed by Stephen Herek in his directorial debut, and co-written with Domonic Muir and Don Keith Opper. It stars Dee Wallace, M. Emmet Walsh, Billy "Green" Bush and Scott Grimes in ...

                                               

Incubus (1966 film)

Incubus is a 1966 American horror film directed by Leslie Stevens. Filmed entirely in the constructed language Esperanto, the film stars William Shatner, shortly before he would begin his work on Star Trek. The films cinematography was by Conrad ...

                                               

Sometimes They Come Back (film)

Sometimes They Come Back is a 1991 made-for-TV horror film based on the short story of the same title by Stephen King. Originally optioned as a segment of the feature film Stephen Kings Cats Eye, it was developed into a separate feature by produc ...

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