Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 384

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 384

                                               

Bank Transfer Day

Bank Transfer Day was a consumer activism initiative calling for a voluntary switch from commercial banks to not-for-profit credit unions by November 5, 2011. As of October 15, 2011, a Facebook page devoted to the effort had drawn more than 54.90 ...

                                               

Capitalism without growth

                                               

Declining-state economy

                                               

Deindustrialisation by country

Deindustrialisation refers to the process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry. It is the opposite of indus ...

                                               

Deindustrialization

De-industrialization is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially of heavy industry or manufacturing industry. It is the opposite of industrial ...

                                               

Economic calculation problem

The economic calculation problem is a criticism of using economic planning as a substitute for market-based allocation of the factors of production. It was first proposed by Ludwig von Mises in his 1920 article "Economic Calculation in the Social ...

                                               

Economic impact of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital. Without proper prevention, nutrition, health care and medicine that is available in developing countries, large numbers of people are falling victim to AIDS. People l ...

                                               

Economic mobility

Economic mobility is the ability of an individual, family or some other group to improve their economic status - usually measured in income. Economic mobility is often measured by movement between income quintiles. Economic mobility may be consid ...

                                               

Escape from Affluenza

Escape from Affluenza is a 1998 PBS 56-minute documentary film produced as a sequel to the 1997 documentary Affluenza. While the original concentrates on affluenza--consumerism and materialism in modern society, the sequel focuses on how to avoid ...

                                               

Government failure

Government failure, in the context of public economics, is an economic inefficiency caused by a government intervention, if the inefficiency would not exist in a true free market. It can be viewed in contrast to a market failure, which is an econ ...

                                               

Innovation butterfly

The innovation butterfly is a metaphor that describes how seemingly minor perturbations to project plans in a system connecting markets, demand, product features, and a firms capabilities can steer the project, or an entire portfolio of projects, ...

                                               

Involuntary unemployment

Involuntary unemployment occurs when a person is willing to work at the prevailing wage yet is unemployed. Involuntary unemployment is distinguished from voluntary unemployment, where workers choose not to work because their reservation wage is h ...

                                               

Market fundamentalism

Market fundamentalism, also known as free-market fundamentalism, is a term applied to a strong belief in the ability of unregulated laissez-faire or free-market capitalist policies to solve most economic and social problems. The expression was po ...

                                               

Medical debt

Medical debt refers to debt incurred by individuals due to health care costs and related expenses. Medical debt is different from other forms of debt, because it is usually incurred accidentally or faultlessly. People do not plan to fall ill or h ...

                                               

Middle-class squeeze

The middle-class squeeze is the situation where increases in wages fail to keep up with inflation for middle-income earners leading to a relative decline in real wages, while at the same time, the phenomenon fails to have a similar effect on the ...

                                               

Economic oppression

Economic oppression may take several forms, including the practice of bonded labour in some parts of India; serfdom; forced labour; low wages; denial of equal opportunity; practicing employment discrimination; and economic discrimination based on ...

                                               

Pandemic

A pandemic is a disease epidemic that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents, or worldwide. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclu ...

                                               

Retail apocalypse

The retail apocalypse is the closing of numerous North American brick-and-mortar retail stores, especially those of large chains, starting around 2010 and continuing onward. In 2019, US retailers announced 9.302 store closings, a 59% jump from 20 ...

                                               

Sacrifice zone

A sacrifice zone or sacrifice area is a geographic area that has been permanently impaired by environmental damage or economic disinvestment, often through locally unwanted land use. These zones are most commonly found in low-income and minority ...

                                               

Social stratification

Social stratification refers to societys categorization of its people into groups based on socioeconomic factors like wealth, income, race, education, gender, occupation, and social status, or derived power. As such, stratification is the relativ ...

                                               

Socialism for the rich and capitalism for the poor

Socialism for the rich and capitalism for the poor is a classical political-economic argument, stating that in the advanced capitalist societies state policies assure that more resources flow to the rich than to the poor, for example in the form ...

                                               

Socialist calculation debate

The socialist calculation debate, sometimes known as the economic calculation debate, was a discourse on the subject of how a socialist economy would perform economic calculation given the absence of the law of value, money, financial prices for ...

                                               

Societal collapse

Societal collapse is the fall of a complex human society. Such a disintegration may be relatively abrupt, as in the case of Maya civilization, or gradual, as in the case of the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The subject of societal collapse is ...

                                               

Sunshine tax

Sunshine tax or "Paradise tax" is an ironic term used in the United States and Canada to describe the phenomenon that salaries are often lower than the national average, and costs of living higher than the national average, in places that have a ...

                                               

Trail commission

                                               

Uneconomic growth

Uneconomic growth, in human development theory, welfare economics, and some forms of ecological economics, is economic growth that reflects or creates a decline in the quality of life. The concept is attributed to leading ecological economist and ...

                                               

Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential

The Encyclopedia of World Problems and Human Potential is published by the Union of International Associations. It is available online since 2000, and was previously available as a CD-ROM and as a three-volume book. The online Encyclopedia is cur ...

                                               

Economics of religion

The economics of religion concerns both the application of economic techniques to the study of religion and the relationship between economic and religious behaviours. The relationship between religion and economic behaviour was first identified ...

                                               

Buddhist economics

Buddhist economics is a spiritual and philosophical approach to the study of economics. It examines the psychology of the human mind and the emotions that direct economic activity, in particular concepts such as anxiety, aspirations and self-actu ...

                                               

Religious views on capitalism

Religious views on capitalism have been philosophically diverse, with numerous religious philosophers defending the natural right to property while simultaneously expressing criticism at the negative social effects of materialism and greed.

                                               

Laurence Iannaccone

Laurence Robert Iannaccone is a Professor of Economics at Chapman University, Argyros School of Business and Economics, Orange County, California. Before moving to Chapman in 2009 he was a Koch Professor of Economics at George Mason University. H ...

                                               

Jewish views of poverty, wealth and charity

Over the course of Jewish history, different attitudes have been held towards poverty and wealth. Unlike Christianity, in which some strands have viewed poverty as virtuous and desirable, Jews have generally viewed poverty negatively. Jacobs and ...

                                               

Tithe

A tithe is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a contribution to a religious organization or compulsory tax to government. Today, tithes are normally voluntary and paid in cash or cheques, whereas historically tithes were required and paid in ...

                                               

Economic sector

One classical breakdown of economic activity distinguishes three sectors: Tertiary: involves the supplying of services to consumers and businesses, such as baby-sitting, cinema and banking. A shopkeeper and an accountant would be workers in the t ...

                                               

Primary sector of the economy

The primary sector of the economy includes any industry involved in primary production, that is the extraction and collection of natural resources; such as farming, forestry, hunting, fishing and mining. The primary sector tends to make up a larg ...

                                               

Secondary sector of the economy

The secondary sector of the economy including industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction. This sector generally takes the output of the primary sector and manufactures finished goods or where they are suita ...

                                               

Tertiary sector of the economy

The service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, and the primary sector. The service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services als ...

                                               

Quaternary sector of the economy

The quaternary sector is the label used to describe a knowledge-based part of the economy, which typically includes knowledge-oriented economic sectors such as information technology, media, research and development; information-based services su ...

                                               

Health sector

                                               

Informal economy

An informal economy is the part of any economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government. Although the informal sector makes up a significant portion of the economies in developing countries, it is sometimes stigmatized as tro ...

                                               

Private sector

The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is owned by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, rather than being owned by the State.

                                               

Three-sector model

The three-sector model in economics divides economies into three sectors of activity: extraction of raw materials, manufacturing, and services. According to the model, the main focus of an economys activity shifts from the primary, through the se ...

                                               

Unorganised sector (India)

The term unorganised sector when used in the Indian contexts defined by National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganised Sector, in their Report on Conditions of Work and Promotion of Livelihoods in the Unorganised Sector as ". consisting o ...

                                               

Voluntary sector

The voluntary sector or civic sector is the duty of social activity undertaken by organizations that are non-governmental nonprofit organizations. This sector is also called the third sector, community sector, and nonprofit sector, in contrast to ...

                                               

Economic system

An economic system, or economic order, is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area. It includes the combination of the various institutions, agencies, entities, ...

                                               

Anarchy

Anarchy is the state of a society being freely constituted without authorities or a governing body. It may also refer to a society or group of people that totally rejects a set hierarchy. The word anarchy was first used in 1539, meaning "an absen ...

                                               

Authoritarian capitalism

Authoritarian capitalism, or illiberal capitalism, is an economic system in which a capitalist market economy exists alongside an authoritarian government. Related to and overlapping with state capitalism, a system in which the state undertakes c ...

                                               

Breadwinner model

The breadwinner model is a paradigm of family centered on a breadwinner, "the member of a family who earns the money to support the others". Traditionally, the earner works outside the home to provide the family with income and benefits such as h ...

                                               

Collective ownership

Collective ownership is the ownership of means of production by all members of a group for the benefit of all its members. The breadth or narrowness of the group can range from a whole society to a set of coworkers in a particular enterprise. In ...

                                               

Common ownership

Common ownership refers to holding the assets of an organization, enterprise or community indivisibly rather than in the names of the individual members or groups of members as common property. Forms of common ownership exist in every economic sy ...

                                               

Commons-based peer production

Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Harvard Law School professor Yochai Benkler. It describes a model of socio-economic production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively; usually over the Internet. Commons-based project ...

                                               

Comparative economic systems

Comparative Economic Systems is the sub-field of economics dealing with the comparative study of different systems of economic organization, such as capitalism, socialism, feudalism and the mixed economy. It is widely held have been founded by th ...

                                               

Creative economy (economic system)

A creative economy is based on peoples use of their creative imagination to increase an ideas value. John Howkins developed the concept in 2001 to describe economic systems where value is based on novel imaginative qualities rather than the tradi ...

                                               

Decentralized planning (economics)

A decentralized-planned economy or decentrally-planned economy is a type of planned economy in which the investment and allocation of consumer and capital goods is explicated accordingly to an economy-wide plan built and operatively coordinated t ...

                                               

Deep state in Turkey

The deep state is alleged to be a group of influential anti-democratic coalitions within the Turkish political system, composed of high-level elements within the intelligence services, the Turkish military, security agencies, the judiciary, and m ...

                                               

Digital economy

Digital economy refers to an economy that is based on digital computing technologies, although we increasingly perceive this as conducting business through markets based on the internet and the World Wide Web. The digital economy is also referred ...

                                               

Dirigisme

Dirigisme or dirigism is an economic doctrine in which the state plays a strong directive role, as opposed to a merely regulatory or non-interventionist role, over a capitalist market economy. As an economic doctrine, dirigisme is the opposite to ...

                                               

Distributed economy

There is no official definition for DE, but it could be described as a regional approach to promote innovation by small and medium-sized enterprises, as well as sustainable development. The concept is illustrated in the figure below, that shows c ...

                                               

Dragon kill points

Dragon kill points or DKP are a semi-formal score-keeping system used by guilds in massively multiplayer online games. Players in these games are faced with large scale challenges, or raids, which may only be surmounted through the concerted effo ...

                                               

Dual economy

A dual economy is the existence of two separate economic sectors within one country, divided by different levels of development, technology, and different patterns of demand. The concept was originally created by Julius Herman Boeke to describe t ...

                                               

Dual-track economy

A dual-track system is an economic system in which the government controls key sectors of the economy, while allowing private enterprise limited control over the other sectors. In China, the government followed dual-track pricing until abolished ...

                                               

E2M

E2M is a free market, economic model community capitalism, which aims to help local communities create sustainable citizen controlled wealth to address their socioeconomic and environmental problems and create opportunities for people. The models ...

                                               

Economic democracy

Economic democracy is a socioeconomic philosophy that proposes to shift decision-making power from corporate managers and corporate shareholders to a larger group of public stakeholders that includes workers, customers, suppliers, neighbours and ...

                                               

Economic ideology

An economic ideology distinguishes itself from economic theory in being normative rather than just explanatory in its approach. Economic ideologies express perspectives on the way an economy should run and to what end, whereas the aim of economic ...

                                               

Economic planning

Economic planning is a mechanism for the allocation of resources between and within organizations which is held in contrast to the market mechanism. As an allocation mechanism for some forms of socialism, economic planning replaces factor markets ...

                                               

Economy for the Common Good

Economy for the Common Good is a social movement advocating for an alternative economic model. It calls for working towards the common good and cooperation as value above profit-orientation and competition which leads to greed and uncontrolled gr ...

                                               

Economy of the Iroquois

The economy of the Iroquois historically was based on communal production and combined elements of both horticulture and hunter-gatherer systems. Some have described the Iroquois economy as primitive communism. The tribes of the Iroquois Confeder ...

                                               

Empowerment Experiment

The Empowerment Experiment, was co-founded by John and Maggie Anderson of Oak Park, Illinois. Steven S. Rogers, director of the Kellogg Entrepreneurial Practice Center at Northwestern Universitys Graduate School of Management, serves as an Execut ...

                                               

Enclave economy

An enclave economy is defined as an economic system in which an export based industry dominated by international or non-local capital extracts resources or products from another country. It was widely employed as a term to describe post-colonial ...

                                               

Energy Systems Language

The Energy Systems Language, also referred to as Energese, Energy Circuit Language, or Generic Systems Symbols, was developed by the ecologist Howard T. Odum and colleagues in the 1950s during studies of the tropical forests funded by the United ...

                                               

Family economy

The term Family Economy can be used to describe the family as an economic unit. The early stages of development in many economies are characterized by family based production. In the early, pre-industrial stage, technology was limited and unchang ...

                                               

Fei–Ranis model of economic growth

The Fei–Ranis model of economic growth is a dualism model in developmental economics or welfare economics that has been developed by John C. H. Fei and Gustav Ranis and can be understood as an extension of the Lewis model. It is also known as the ...

                                               

FIRE economy

A FIRE economy is any economy based primarily on the finance, insurance, and real estate sectors. Finance, insurance, and real estate are United States Census Bureau classifications. Barry Popik describes some early uses as far back as 1982. Sinc ...

                                               

Fiscal-military state

A fiscal-military state is a state that bases its economic model on the sustainment of its armed forces, usually in times of prolonged or severe conflict. Characteristically, fiscal-military states will subject citizens to high taxation for this ...

                                               

Folkhemmet

Folkhemmet is a political concept that played an important role in the history of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Swedish welfare state. It is also sometimes used to refer to the long period between 1932 and 1976 when the Social Democ ...

                                               

Free price system

A free price system or free price mechanism is a mechanism of resource allocation that relies upon monetary prices set by the interchange of supply and demand. The resulting prices serve as signals communicated between producers and consumers whi ...

                                               

Gatekeeper state

The concept of a gatekeeper state was introduced by the Historian of Africa Frederick Cooper in his book Africa Since 1940: The Past of the Present. It is used to describe African nations whose main function is balancing the instability of intern ...

                                               

Gift economy

A gift economy or gift culture is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards. Social norms and customs govern gifting in a gift culture, gifts are not ...

                                               

Hourglass economy

Hourglass Economy is an economy that produces more upper and lower classes, causing a decline in the middle class. An example would be during the Industrial Revolution when the introduction of efficient machinery created stratification of the cla ...

                                               

Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging. Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humani ...

                                               

Inclusive Democracy

Inclusive Democracy is a project that aims for direct democracy; economic democracy in a stateless, moneyless and marketless economy; self-management ; and ecological democracy. The theoretical project of Inclusive Democracy - as distinguished fr ...

                                               

Indicative planning

Indicative planning is a form of economic planning implemented by a state in an effort to solve the problem of imperfect information in market and mixed economies in order to increase economic performance. However, indicative planning takes only ...

                                               

International political economy

International political economy, also known as global political economy, refers to either economics or an interdisciplinary academic discipline that analyzes economics, politics and international relations. When it is used to refer to the latter, ...

                                               

Labor market segmentation

Labor market segmentation is the division of the labor market according to a principle such as occupation, geography and industry. One type of segmentation is to define groups "with little or no crossover capability", such that members of one seg ...

                                               

Lange model

The Lange model is a neoclassical economic model for a hypothetical socialist economy based on public ownership of the means of production and a trial-and-error approach to determining output targets and achieving economic equilibrium and Pareto ...

                                               

Loan closet

A loan closet is a program that allows people to borrow durable medical equipment and home medical equipment at no cost or at low cost. The loan closet may be offered through an organization, an individual, or some other entity, often a non-profi ...

                                               

Manorialism

Manorialism or seignorialism was an organizing principle of rural economies which vested legal and economic power in a Lord of the Manor. He was supported economically from his own direct landholding in a manor, and from the obligatory contributi ...

                                               

Market economy

A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand. The major characteristic of a market economy is the existe ...

                                               

Market system

A market system is any systematic process enabling many market players to bid and ask: helping bidders and sellers interact and make deals. It is not just the price mechanism but the entire system of regulation, qualification, credentials, reputa ...

                                               

Material balance planning

Material balances are a method of economic planning where material supplies are accounted for in natural units and used to balance the supply of available inputs with targeted outputs. Material balancing involves taking a survey of the available ...

                                               

Memetic institutionalism

Memetic institutionalism is a term created by Mikael Sandberg in Social Capital and Democratisation. Roots of Trust in Post-Communist Poland and Ukraine. Memetic institutionalism proposes the interpretation of institutions as evolving in a Darwin ...

                                               

Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise. As such, there is no singl ...

                                               

Natural economy

Natural economy - is a type of economy in which money is not used in the transfer of resources among people. It is a system of allocating resources through direct bartering, entitlement by law, or sharing out according to traditional custom. In t ...

                                               

Network economics

Network economics refers to business economics that benefit from the network effect. It is also known as Netromix. This is when the value of a good or service increases when others buy the same good or service. Examples are website such as EBay, ...

                                               

Network economy

The network economy is the emerging economic order within the information society. The name stems from a key attribute - products and services are created and value is added through social networks operating on large or global scales. This is in ...

                                               

Non-monetary economy

The non-monetary economy represents work such as household labor, care giving, civic activity or even friends doing something for each other that does not have a monetary value but remains a vitally important part of the economy. While labor that ...

                                               

Non-property system

A non-property system is the name of an economic system appearing in the futuristic fictional books and short stories by Iain Banks called the Culture series, in which there is no concept of property. No individual or group is given superior righ ...

                                               

Nordic model

The Nordic model comprises the economic and social policies as well as typical cultural practices common to the Nordic countries. This includes a comprehensive welfare state and multi-level collective bargaining, with a high percentage of the wor ...

                                               

Nulle terre sans seigneur

In feudal law, nulle terre sans seigneur is the principle that one provides services to the sovereign for the right to receive land from the sovereign. Originally a maxim of feudal law, it applies in modern form to paying rates or land tax for la ...

                                               

One Village One Product movement

The One village one product movement is a Japanese regional development program. It began in Ōita Prefecture in 1979 when the then-governor Morihiko Hiramatsu advocated the program. Implementation started in 1980. Communities selectively produce ...

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