Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 382

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 382

                                               

Consumer network

The notion of consumer networks expresses the idea that peoples embeddedness in social networks affects their behavior as consumers. Interactions within consumer networks such as information exchange and imitation can affect demand and market out ...

                                               

SixWeeks

SixWeeks was a consumer experiment in 2009 in which Paul McCrudden was paid by companies for being their customer. Using his own personal data about the time and money he spent as a consumer during a six-week period, he invoiced over 50 UK and in ...

                                               

Consumer unit (economics)

In economics, a consumer unit is defined as either all members of a particular household who are related by blood, marriage, adoption, or other legal arrangements; a person living alone or sharing a household with others or living as a roomer in ...

                                               

User (computing)

A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service. Users of computer systems and software products generally lack the technical expertise required to fully understand how they work. Power users use advanced features of programs, thoug ...

                                               

Want

The idea of want can be examined from many perspectives. In secular societies want might be considered similar to the emotion desire, which can be studied scientifically through the disciplines of psychology or sociology. Want might also be exami ...

                                               

Economic development

Economic development, as a public sector term, is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region or local community are improved according to targeted goals and objectives. The term has been used frequently i ...

                                               

Australian settlement

The Australian settlement is a set of nation-building policies adopted in Australia at the beginning of the 20th century. Those policies profoundly influenced the way Australia developed over the coming decades and were only dismantled towards th ...

                                               

Average is Over

Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation is a 2013 book by economist Tyler Cowen laying out his vision for the future trajectory of the global economy. It is a sequel to Cowens 2011 pamphlet The Great Stagnation, w ...

                                               

Banana republic

In political science, the term banana republic describes a politically unstable country with an economy dependent upon the exportation of a limited-resource product, such as bananas or minerals. In 1901, the American author O. Henry coined the te ...

                                               

Brazilian Development Bank

The National Bank for Economic and Social Development is a development bank structured as a federal public company associated with the Ministry of Development, Industry, and Trade of Brazil. The stated goal is to provide long-term financing for e ...

                                               

Community economic development

Community economic development is a field of study that actively elicits community involvement when working with government, and private sectors to build strong communities, industries, and markets. Community economic development encourages using ...

                                               

Developing country

A developing country, less developed country, less economically developed country, or underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index relative to other countries. However, this definiti ...

                                               

Data culture

Data culture is the principle established in the process of social practice in both public and private sectors which requires all staffs and decision-makers to focus on the information conveyed by the existing data, and make decisions and changes ...

                                               

Economic catalyst

An economic catalyst is an entrepreneur or company that precipitates a fundamental change in business or technology. A more precise definition of a catalyst is based on the new economics of multi-sided platforms. In this literature an "economic c ...

                                               

Economic development incentive

An economic development incentive can be strictly defined as" cash or near-cash assistance provided on a discretionary basis to attract or retain business operations. In practice, however, it is a broadly used term denoting an array of benefits d ...

                                               

Economic development organization

An economic development organization is an organization dedicated to the economic development of a region, be it a subnational area such as a town, city, county, province, or state; a whole nation; or transnational regions unified through economi ...

                                               

Economic reconstruction

Economic reconstruction refers to a process for creating a proactive vision of economic change. The most basic idea is that problems in the economy such as deindustrialization, environmental decay, outsourcing, industrial incompetence, poverty an ...

                                               

Economic spin-off

The term economic spin-off is widely used in popular media to describe the potential secondary economic effects of project or development. This may reflect a real phenomenon, especially when used looking back into the past, where the results are ...

                                               

Economic transformation

In economics, economic transformation refers to the continuous process of moving labour and other resources from lower- to higher-productivity sectors and raising within-sector productivity growth. As such, economic transformation emphasises the ...

                                               

Development ethics

Development ethics is a field of enquiry that reflects on both the ends and the means of economic development. It typically takes a normative stance, asking and answering questions about the nature of ethically desirable development and what ethi ...

                                               

Gender and development

Gender and development is an interdisciplinary field of research and applied study that implements a feminist approach to understanding and addressing the disparate impact that economic development and globalization have on people based upon thei ...

                                               

Economic growth

Economic growth can be defined as the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or rea ...

                                               

Human rights and development

Global human rights and development Human rights and development aims converge in many instances and are beneficial only to the government and not the people although there can be conflict between their different approaches. Today, a human rights ...

                                               

Inclusive business

An inclusive business is a sustainable business that benefits low-income communities. It is a business initiative that, keeping its for-profit nature, contributes to poverty reduction through the inclusion of low income communities in its value c ...

                                               

Indigenous development

Indigenous Development refers to a variety of coordinated efforts, usually by first world organizations, to support progress in modernizing or bettering life for specific third world and fourth world populations. Indigenous Development is general ...

                                               

Industrialisation

Industrialisation is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society. This involves an extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing. As industr ...

                                               

Information-led development

Information-led development is a development strategy whereby a developing country makes as a primary economic policy focus the creation and development of a national information technology sector with the express aim of relying on this sector as ...

                                               

Infrastructure and economics

An interesting comparison between privatisation versus government-sponsored public works involves high-speed rail HSR projects in East Asia. In 1998, the Taiwan government awarded the Taiwan High Speed Rail Corporation, a private organisation, to ...

                                               

Infrastructure debt

Infrastructure debt is the fixed income component of infrastructure assets. It provides yield enhancements, especially those dealing with capital preservation. It is a complex investment category reserved for sophisticated institutional investors ...

                                               

Internal colonialism

Internal colonialism is the uneven effects of economic development on a regional basis, otherwise known as "uneven development" as a result of the exploitation of minority groups within a wider society and leading to political and economic inequa ...

                                               

Law and development

Law and development is an interdisciplinary study of law and economic and social development. It examines the relation between law and development and analyzes how to use law as an instrument to promote economic and social development. In the 196 ...

                                               

Least Developed Countries

The Least Developed Countries is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. The ...

                                               

M4P

The term M4P, now more commonly known as Market Systems Development, refers to an approach in aid and development known as Making Markets Work for the Poor. It seeks to change the way that markets work, so that poor people are included in the ben ...

                                               

Marginal budgeting for bottlenecks

The marginal budgeting for bottlenecks tool is an analytical costing and budgeting tool that helps countries develop their health plans by taking into account the most effective interventions, cost and budget marginal allocations of their impleme ...

                                               

Meso finance

Meso-finance is a relatively new concept in the financing world. Meso-finance loans start from an amount of 1000 euro and are specifically meant for small-and medium-sized enterprises. SMEs that are in need of extra capital are often too large fo ...

                                               

Micro-retailing

Micro-retailing, or microretailing, has two distinct meanings. The first describes how some businesses are moving from having giant superstores to smaller, demographically targeted stores that focus on a small selection of popular products. The s ...

                                               

Microfinance

Microfinance is a category of financial services targeting individuals and small businesses who lack access to conventional banking and related services. Microfinance includes microcredit, the provision of small loans to poor clients; savings and ...

                                               

Nation branding

Nation branding aims to measure, build and manage the reputation of countries. In the book Diplomacy in a Globalizing World: Theories and Practices, the authors define nation branding as" the application of corporate marketing concepts and techni ...

                                               

National development bank

A national development bank is a development bank created by a countrys government that provides financing for the purposes of economic development of the country.

                                               

Neglected and underutilized crop

Neglected and underused crops are domesticated plant species that have been used for centuries or more for their food, fibre, fodder, oil or medicinal properties, but have been reduced in importance over time. A wide range of terminology is used ...

                                               

Official development assistance

Official development assistance is a term coined by the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development to measure aid. The DAC first used the term in 1969. It is widely used as an indicator of inter ...

                                               

Smart city

A Smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic Internet of Things sensors to collect data and then use insights gained from that data to manage assets, resources and services efficiently. This includes data collected from c ...

                                               

Social business

Social business was defined by Nobel Peace Prize laureate Professor Muhammad Yunus and is described in his books. In these books, Yunus defined a social business as a business: Created and designed to address a social problem A non-loss, non-divi ...

                                               

Socioeconomic development and the Baha'i Faith

Since its inception the Bahai Faith has had involvement in socioeconomic development beginning by giving greater freedom to women, promulgating the promotion of female education as a priority concern, and that involvement was given practical expr ...

                                               

Socioeconomic impact of female education

The socioeconomic impact of female education constitutes a significant area of research within international development. Increases in the amount of female education in regions tends to correlate with high levels of development. Some of the effec ...

                                               

Staples thesis

In economic development, the staples thesis is a theory of export-led growth based on Canadian experience. The theory "has its origins in research into Canadian social, political, and economic history carried out in Canadian universities.by membe ...

                                               

Stock exchanges of small economies

A Stock exchange is a corporation or mutual organization which provides facilities for stockbrokers and traders to trade stocks and other securities. It may be a physical trading room where the traders gather, or a formalised communications netwo ...

                                               

Sweatshop

Sweatshop is a term for a workplace with very poor, socially unacceptable or illegal working conditions. The work may be difficult, dangerous, climatically challenging or underpaid. Workers in sweatshops may work long hours with low pay, regardle ...

                                               

Technology governance

Technology governance means the governance, i.e., the steering between the different sectors - state, business, and NGOs - of the development of technology. The concept is based on the notion of innovation and of techno-economic paradigm shifts a ...

                                               

Third World

During the Cold War, the term Third World referred to the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, the nations not aligned with either the First World or the Second World. The three-world model arose during the Cold War to define ...

                                               

Trade and development

Trade can be a key factor in economic development. The prudent use of trade can boost a countrys development and create absolute gains for the trading partners involved. Trade has been touted as an important tool in the path to development by pro ...

                                               

Trade in services statistics

Trade in services statistics are economic statistics which detail international trade in services. They received a great deal of focus at the advent of services negotiations which took place under the Uruguay Round, which became part of the Gener ...

                                               

Transition town

The terms transition town, transition initiative and transition model refer to grassroot community projects that aim to increase self-sufficiency to reduce the potential effects of peak oil, climate destruction, and economic instability. In 2006, ...

                                               

Trillion dollar club

The Trillion dollar club is an unofficial classification of the worlds major economies with a gross domestic product of more than US The Trillion dollar club is an unofficial classification of the worlds major economies with a gross domestic prod ...

                                               

United Nations Development Programme

The United Nations Development Programme is the United Nations global development network. It advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life for themselves. It provides expert ...

                                               

Volunteers for Economic Growth Alliance

Volunteers for Economic Growth Alliance is an umbrella group consisting of 23 economic development organizations that integrate highly skilled volunteers into programs. VEGA is usually contracted by United States Agency for International Developm ...

                                               

Waves of economic development

Economic development research has currently identified five phases, or waves of economic development practice. The differences between these waves are shaped by historical factors, the economic climate during historical periods, and leaders respo ...

                                               

When Helping Hurts

When Helping Hurts: Alleviating Poverty Without Hurting the Poor. and Yourself is a 2009 non-fiction book by Steve Corbett and Brian Fikkert. The book was first published on June 24, 2009 through Moody Publishers and explores and dissects common ...

                                               

Wikiprogress

Wikiprogress is an online platform for sharing information on the measurement of social, economic and environmental progress. It is thought to facilitate sharing on ideas, initiatives and knowledge on "measuring the progress of societies". It is, ...

                                               

Workforce development

Workforce development, an American approach to economic development, attempts to enhance a regions economic stability and prosperity by focusing on people rather than businesses. It essentially develops a human-resources strategy. Work-force deve ...

                                               

Alternative Bank Switzerland

Alternative Bank Switzerland is a sustainability-oriented bank based in Olten, Canton of Solothurn, in Switzerland. It is situated at the former location of the Walter Verlag.

                                               

Buy Quiet

Buy Quiet is an American health and safety initiative to select and purchase the lowest noise emitting power tools and machinery in order to reduce occupational and community noise exposure. Buy Quiet Programs are examples of noise control strate ...

                                               

Calvert Social Index

The Calvert Social Index is a stock market index created by Calvert Investments as a benchmark of large companies that are considered socially responsible or ethical. It currently consists of 680 companies, weighted by market capitalization, sele ...

                                               

Chief green officer

A Chief green officer, or Chief environmental commitment officer, is a corporate officer responsible for implementing and managing the corporations commitment to reducing its carbon footprint and protecting the environment. Typically, these funct ...

                                               

Chief sustainability officer

The chief sustainability officer, sometimes known by other titles, is the corporate title of an executive position within a corporation that is in charge of the corporations "environmental" programmes. Several companies have created such environm ...

                                               

Conservation development

Conservation development, also known as conservation design, is a controlled-growth land use development that adopts the principle for allowing limited sustainable development while protecting the areas natural environmental features in perpetuit ...

                                               

Conservation economy

A conservation economy is an ideal, imagined economy in which economic wealth is harvested from a bioregions local natural resources in a way that meets local communities needs yet restores rather than depletes natural and social capital "In a co ...

                                               

Deposit-refund system

A deposit-refund system, also known as deposit-return system, advance deposit fee or deposit-return scheme, is a surcharge on a product when purchased and a rebate when it is returned. A well-known example is when container deposit legislation ma ...

                                               

Ecopreneurship

Ecopreneurship is a term coined to represent the process of principles of entrepreneurship being applied to create businesses that solve environmental problems or operate sustainably. The term began to be widely used in the 1990s, and it is other ...

                                               

Ecosystem Marketplace

Ecosystem Marketplace, an initiative of Forest Trends, is a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC that focuses on increasing transparency and providing reliable information for ecosystem services and payment schemes. The idea of launchi ...

                                               

Envirofit International

Envirofit International is an American non-profit organization that develops technology for reducing air pollution and enhancing energy efficiency in developing nations. Envirofits most significant products have been affordable clean burning stov ...

                                               

Environmental enterprise

An environmental enterprise is an environmentally friendly/compatible business. Specifically, an environmental enterprise is a business that produces value in the same manner which an ecosystem does, neither producing waste nor consuming unsustai ...

                                               

Environmental impacts of tourism in the Caribbean

The economy in the Caribbean region is highly dependent on its tourism industry; in 2013, this industry constituted 14% of their total GDP. This region is largely appealing for the sun, sand, and sea scene. Despite the fact that tourism is very r ...

                                               

Environmental management system

An environmental management system is "a system and database which integrates procedures and processes for training of personnel, monitoring, summarizing, and reporting of specialized environmental performance information to internal and external ...

                                               

Environmental mitigation

Environmental mitigation, compensatory mitigation, or mitigation banking, are terms used primarily by the United States government and the related environmental industry to describe projects or programs intended to offset known impacts to an exis ...

                                               

Environmental pricing reform

Environmental pricing reform is the process of adjusting market prices to include environmental costs and benefits. An externality a type of market failure exists where a market price omits environmental costs and/or benefits. In such a situation ...

                                               

Ethical job

In 2005, The Guardian newspaper polled 2.000 undergraduates in the UK, and found that "over 70% of students said that a companys ethical track record is a crucial factor when choosing their employer". A 2005 poll by High Fliers Research of 6.227 ...

                                               

Fair trade

Fair trade is an institutional arrangement designed to help producers in developing countries achieve better trading conditions. Members of the fair trade movement advocate the payment of higher prices to exporters, as well as improved social and ...

                                               

Green Investment Group

Green Investment Group Limited is a specialist in green infrastructure principal investment, project delivery and the management of portfolio assets, and related services. The business was launched initially by the UK government in 2012 as the fi ...

                                               

Green-collar worker

A green-collar worker is a worker who is employed in the environmental sectors of the economy. Environmental green-collar workers satisfy the demand for green development. Generally, they implement environmentally conscious design, policy, and te ...

                                               

Impact investing

Impact investing refers to investments "made into companies, organizations, and funds with the intention to generate a measurable, beneficial social or environmental impact alongside a financial return". Impact investments provide capital to addr ...

                                               

ISO 14031

The ISO 14031:2013 Environmental management - Environmental Performance Evaluation – Guidelines gives guidance on the design and use of environmental performance evaluation, and on identification and selection of environmental performance indicat ...

                                               

The Lacassane Company

The Lacassane Company is a land management company, with a goal of sustainable land management using an environmental management scheme that involves a host of tools including holistic management. Located primarily in Jefferson Davis and Cameron ...

                                               

Malaysia LED Champions

Malaysia LED Champions is a part of a Malaysian Government initiative on "Green Economy" toward eco-friendly green products. This Malaysian LED Champions programs consist of 7 major LED lighting manufacturing companies at Malaysia to lead in inno ...

                                               

Socially responsible investing

Socially responsible investing, or social investment, also known as sustainable, socially conscious, green or ethical investing, is any investment strategy which seeks to consider both financial return and social/environmental good to bring about ...

                                               

Sustainable tourism

Sustainable tourism is the concept of visiting somewhere as a tourist and trying to make a positive impact on the environment, society, and economy. Tourism can involve primary transportation to the general location, local transportation, accommo ...

                                               

History of advertising

The history of advertising can be traced to ancient civilizations. It became a major force in capitalist economies in the mid-19th century, based primarily on newspapers and magazines. In the 20th century, advertising grew rapidly with new techno ...

                                               

African-American businesses

African-American businesses, also known as Black-owned businesses or Black businesses, originated in the days of slavery before 1865. Emancipation and civil rights permitted businessmen to operate inside the American legal structure starting in t ...

                                               

Economic antisemitism

Economic antisemitism is a form of antisemitism that consists of stereotypes and canards that are based on the economic status, occupations or economic behavior of Jews. It also includes economic behavior and laws as well as governmental policies ...

                                               

Economic history of the Arab world

Economic history of the Arab world addresses the history of economic activity in the Arabic-speaking countries and the stretching of my Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the ...

                                               

Economic conversion

Economic conversion, defence conversion, or arms conversion, is a technical, economic and political process for moving from military to civilian markets. Economic conversion takes place on several levels and can be applied to different organizati ...

                                               

The Economists' Hour

The Economists Hour: False Prophets, Free Markets, and the Fracture of Society is a book on economic history written by Binyamin Appelbaum and published by Little, Brown and Company in September 2019.

                                               

Engels' pause

Engels pause is a term coined by economic historian Robert C. Allen to describe the period from 1790 to 1840, when British working-class wages stagnated and per-capita gross domestic product expanded rapidly during a technological upheaval. Allen ...

                                               

List of regions by past GDP (PPP)

These are lists of regions and countries by their estimated real gross domestic product in terms of purchasing power parity, the value of all final goods and services produced within a country/region in a given year. GDP dollar estimates here are ...

                                               

History of capitalism

The history of capitalism is diverse and has many debated roots, but fully fledged capitalism is generally thought by scholars to have emerged in Northwestern Europe, especially in Great Britain and the Netherlands, in the sixteenth to seventeent ...

                                               

Industrialization in the Soviet Union

Industrialization in the Soviet Union was a process of accelerated building-up of the industrial potential of the Soviet Union to reduce the economys lag behind the developed capitalist states, which was carried out from May 1929 to June 1941. Th ...

                                               

International scientific committee on price history

The International scientific committee on price history was created in 1929 by William Beveridge and Edwin Francis Gay thanks to a five-years grant of the Rockefeller Foundation. The national representatives were William Beveridge for Great Brita ...

                                               

List of regions by past GDP (PPP) per capita

These are lists of regions and countries by their estimated real gross domestic product per capita in terms of purchasing power parity, the value of all final goods and services produced within a country/region in a given year divided by populati ...

                                               

Merdiban

The word "Merdiban" is derived from "merdiven", a word of Persian origin, meaning staircase or ladder ". The Ottomans themselves generally called this method "muhasebe usulu" method of accounting.

                                               

Palace economy

A palace economy or redistribution economy is a system of economic organization in which a substantial share of the wealth flows into the control of a centralized administration, the palace, and out from there to the general population, which may ...

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