Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 377

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 377

                                               

Cambridge Ritualists

The Cambridge Ritualists were a recognised group of classical scholars, mostly in Cambridge, England, including Jane Ellen Harrison, F.M. Cornford, Gilbert Murray, A. B. Cook, and others. They earned this title because of their shared interest in ...

                                               

Ceremonial use of lights

The ceremonial use of lights in the Christian Church probably has a double origin: in a very non-natural symbolism, and in the adaptation of certain pagan and Jewish rites and customs of which the symbolic meaning was Christianized. Light is ever ...

                                               

Chu (Taoism)

Chu is a Daoist name used for various religious practices including communal chu banquet rituals in Way of the Celestial Masters liturgy, the legendary xingchu associated with Daoist xian, and wuchu representing the wuzang in neidan meditation te ...

                                               

Circumambulation

Circumambulation is the act of moving around a sacred object or idol. Circumambulation of temples or deity images is an integral part of Hindu and Buddhist devotional practice known in Sanskrit as pradaksinā. It is also present in other religions ...

                                               

Evocation

Evocation is the act of calling upon or summoning a spirit, demon, deity or other supernatural agent, in the Western mystery tradition. Comparable practices exist in many religions and magical traditions and may employ the use of mind-altering su ...

                                               

House blessing

House blessings are rites intended to protect the inhabitants of a house or apartment from misfortune, whether before moving into it or to "heal" it after an occurrence. Many religions have house blessings of one form or another.

                                               

Invocation

An invocation may take the form of: Self-identification with certain spirits. Command or conjuration. Supplication, prayer or spell. A form of possession. These forms are described below, but are not mutually exclusive. See also Theurgy.

                                               

Jia (vessel)

A jia is a ritual vessel type found in both pottery and bronze forms; it was used to hold libations of wine for the veneration of ancestors. It was made either with four legs or in the form of a tripod and included two pillar-like protrusions on ...

                                               

Kalpa (Vedanga)

Kalpa means "proper, fit" and is one of the six disciplines of the Vedānga, or ancillary science connected with the Vedas – the scriptures of Hinduism. This field of study is focused on the procedures and ceremonies associated with Vedic ritual p ...

                                               

Last offices

The last offices, or laying out, is the procedures performed, usually by a nurse, to the body of a dead person shortly after death has been confirmed. They can vary between hospitals and between cultures.

                                               

Life cycle ritual

A life cycle ritual is a ceremony to mark a change in a persons biological or social status at various phases throughout life. Such practices are found in many societies and are often based on traditions of a community. Life cycle rituals may als ...

                                               

Mīmāmsā

Mīmāmsā is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation" and thus refers to a tradition of contemplation which reflected on the meanings of certain Vedic texts. This tradition is also known as Pūrva-Mīmāmsā because of its fo ...

                                               

Mos Teutonicus

Mos Teutonicus was a postmortem funerary custom used in Europe in the Middle Ages as a means of transporting, and solemnly disposing of, the bodies of high status individuals. The process involved the removal of the flesh from the body, so that t ...

                                               

Mysophobia

Mysophobia, also known as verminophobia, germophobia, germaphobia, bacillophobia and bacteriophobia, is a pathological fear of contamination and germs. The term was coined by William A. Hammond in 1879 when describing a case of obsessive–compulsi ...

                                               

Myth and ritual

Myth and ritual are two central components of religious practice. Although myth and ritual are commonly united as parts of religion, the exact relationship between them has been a matter of controversy among scholars. One of the approaches to thi ...

                                               

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

Obsessive–compulsive disorder is a mental disorder in which a person feels the need to perform certain routines repeatedly, or has certain thoughts repeatedly. The person is unable to control either the thoughts or activities for more than a shor ...

                                               

Orthopraxy

In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc. This contrasts with orthodoxy, which emphasizes correct belief, and ritualism, the practice of rituals. The word is a neoclass ...

                                               

Paranymph

A paranymph is a ceremonial assistant or coach in a ceremony. In ancient Greek weddings, the bride and bridegroom were attended by paranymphs and, from this use, it has been generalized to refer to attendants of doctoral students, best men and br ...

                                               

Potlatch

A potlatch is a gift-giving feast practiced by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada and the United States, among whom it is traditionally the primary governmental institution, legislative body, and economic system. This inc ...

                                               

Paul Rebillot

Paul Rebillot was a member of the human potential movement. He is the author of The Call to Adventure: Bringing the Hero’s Journey to Daily Life.

                                               

Reverence (emotion)

Reverence is "a feeling or attitude of deep respect tinged with awe; veneration". The word "reverence" in the modern day is often used in relationship with religion. This is because religion often stimulates the emotion through recognition of God ...

                                               

Rite

A rite is an established, ceremonial, usually religious, act. Rites in this sense fall into three major categories: rites of passage, generally changing an individuals social status, such as marriage, adoption, baptism, coming of age, graduation, ...

                                               

Riteless

                                               

Ritology

Ritology, also called ritual studies or ritualistics, is the study of rites and rituals. The ritology focuses most directly on enactment and performance, that is, it gives priority to the acts and actions of people. A secondary focus is on the wo ...

                                               

Ritualism in the Church of England

Ritualism, in the history of Christianity, refers to an emphasis on the rituals and liturgical ceremony of the church, in particular of Holy Communion. In the Anglican church in the 19th century, the role of ritual became a contentious matter. Th ...

                                               

Ritual slaughter

Ritual slaughter is the practice of slaughtering livestock for meat in the context of a ritual. Ritual slaughter involves a prescribed practice of slaughtering an animal for food production purposes. This differs from animal sacrifices that invol ...

                                               

Song

A song is a musical composition intended to be vocally performed by the human voice. This is often done at distinct and fixed pitches using patterns of sound and silence. Songs contain various forms, such as those including the repetition and var ...

                                               

Tarka sastra

Tarka Sastra is a science of dialectics, logic and reasoning, and art of debate that analyzes the nature and source of knowledge and its validity. Sastra in Sanskrit means that which gives teaching, instruction or command. Tarka means debate or a ...

                                               

Administratium

Administratium is a well-known in-joke in scientific circles and is a parody both on the bureaucracy of scientific establishments and on descriptions of newly discovered chemical elements. In 1991, Thomas Kyle the supposed discoverer of this elem ...

                                               

Cultural environmentalism

Cultural environmentalism is the movement that seeks to protect the public domain. The term was coined by James Boyle, professor at Duke University and contributor to the Financial Times. The term stems from Boyles argument that those who seek to ...

                                               

Independent scientist

An independent scientist is a financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a public institution such as a university or government-run research and development body. The expression "gentleman scient ...

                                               

Institute For Figuring

The Institute For Figuring is an organization based in Los Angeles, California that promotes the public understanding of the poetic and aesthetic dimensions of science, mathematics and the technical arts. Founded by Margaret Wertheim and Christin ...

                                               

Science in newly industrialized countries

Scientific research is concentrated in the developed world, with only a marginal contribution from the rest of the world. Most Nobel Laureates are either from United States, Europe, or Japan. Many newly industrialized countries have been trying t ...

                                               

Science Week Ireland

Science Week Ireland is an annual week-long event in Ireland each November, celebrating science in our everyday lives. Science Week is an initiative of Science Foundation Ireland It is the largest science festival in the country, engaging tens of ...

                                               

The NeuroGenderings Network

The NeuroGenderings Network is an international group of researchers in neuroscience and gender studies. Members of the network study how the complexities of social norms, varied life experiences, details of laboratory conditions and biology inte ...

                                               

William Phelps Ornithological Collection

The William Phelps Ornithological Collection, also known as the Phelps Ornithological Museum, is a museum of natural sciences dedicated to the study, exhibition and preservation of the birds of Venezuela and the rest of Latin America. The collect ...

                                               

World-Information.Org

World-Information Institute is an independent cultural institution located in Vienna, Austria linking research and public discourse in the realms of innovation, digital culture technologies, and society. Its vast documentation and processing of d ...

                                               

Serial (publishing)

In publishing and library and information science, the term serial is applied to materials "in any medium issued under the same title in a succession of discrete parts, usually numbered and appearing at regular or irregular intervals with no pred ...

                                               

Besa (TV series)

By the original idea of Srdjan Saper and inspired by true story, Besa was filmed in the international co-production of Adrenalin and Red Planet pictures. The series follows a family man who accidentally kills the daughter of a mafia boss in a roa ...

                                               

Sharing

Sharing is the joint use of a resource or space. It is also the process of dividing and distributing. In its narrow sense, it refers to joint or alternating use of inherently finite goods, such as a common pasture or a shared residence. Still mor ...

                                               

AddToAny

AddToAny is a universal sharing platform founded by Pat Diven II that can be integrated into a website by use of a web widget or plugin. Once installed, visitors to the website can share or save an item using a variety of services, such as Facebo ...

                                               

Data sharing

Data sharing is the practice of making data used for scholarly research available to other investigators. Many funding agencies, institutions, and publication venues have policies regarding data sharing because transparency and openness are consi ...

                                               

Dream sharing

Dream sharing is the process of documenting or discussing both night and day dreams with others. One of the primary purposes of sharing dreams is dream interpretation. The sharing of dreams dates back at least as far as 4000-3000 BC in permanent ...

                                               

Information exchange

Information exchange or information sharing is the act of certain entities passing information from one to another. This could be done electronically or through certain systems. These are terms that can either refer to bidirectional information t ...

                                               

Sharism

Sharism is a philosophy on sharing content and ideas, developed by Isaac Mao. Inspired by user-generated content, sharism states that the act of sharing something within a community produces a proper value for each of its participants: "the more ...

                                               

Social sharing of emotions

The social sharing of emotions is a phenomenon in the field of psychology that concerns the tendency to recount and share emotional experiences with others. According to this area of research, emotional experiences are not uniquely fleeting and i ...

                                               

Sociology of culture

The sociology of culture, and the related cultural sociology, concerns the systematic analysis of culture, usually understood as the ensemble of symbolic codes used by a member of a society, as it is manifested in the society. For Georg Simmel, c ...

                                               

Art cluster

Art Cluster, in global contemporary art scene, refers a group of artists that work through Internet to promote the free culture and many artistic values. The emerging telecommunications have developed a new form of communication, much faster and ...

                                               

Robert N. Bellah

Robert Neelly Bellah was an American sociologist and the Elliott Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. He was internationally known for his work related to the sociology of religion.

                                               

Bicultural identity

Bicultural identity is the condition of being oneself regarding the combination of two cultures. The term can also be defined as biculturalism, which is the presence of two different cultures in the same country or region. As a general term, cult ...

                                               

Biculturalism

Biculturalism in sociology describes the co-existence, to varying degrees, of two originally distinct cultures. Official policy recognizing, fostering, or encouraging biculturalism typically emerges in countries that have emerged from a history o ...

                                               

Bourgeoisie

Bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean: a sociologically-defined social class, especially in contemporary times, referring to people with a certain cultural and financial capital belonging to the middle or upper middle class: the u ...

                                               

Corporate group (sociology)

A corporate group is two or more individuals, usually in the form of a family, clan, organization, or company. A major distinction between different political cultures is whether they believe the individual is the basic unit of their society, in ...

                                               

Cultural identity theory

Cultural identity refers to a persons sense of belonging to a particular culture or group. This process involves learning about and accepting traditions, heritage, language, religion, ancestry, aesthetics, thinking patterns, and social structures ...

                                               

Cultural jet lag

The expression cultural jet lag was first coined by Marc Perraud during his research into cross-cultural psychology. He describes the expression as the phenomenon of partial socialization in adults born from bi-cultural/national unions and whose ...

                                               

Cultural sustainability

Cultural sustainability as it relates to sustainable development, has to do with the maintaining of cultural beliefs, cultural practices, heritage conservation, culture as its own entity, and attempts to answer the question of whether or not any ...

                                               

Culture gap

A culture gap is any systematic difference between two cultures which hinders mutual understanding or relations. Such differences include the values, behavior, education, and customs of the respective cultures. As international communications, tr ...

                                               

Culture of capitalism

The culture of capitalism or capitalist culture is the set of social practices, social norms, values and patterns of behavior that are attributed to the capitalist economic system in a capitalist society. Capitalist culture promotes the accumulat ...

                                               

Culture shock

Culture shock is an experience a person may have when one moves to a cultural environment which is different from ones own; it is also the personal disorientation a person may feel when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life due to immigration or ...

                                               

Diffusion of innovations

Diffusion of innovations is a theory that seeks to explain how, why, and at what rate new ideas and technology spread. Everett Rogers, a professor of communication studies, popularized the theory in his book Diffusion of Innovations ; the book wa ...

                                               

Mustafa Emirbayer

Mustafa Emirbayer is an American sociologist and professor of sociology at University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is known for his theoretical contributions to social network analysis, and is "one of the most vocal advocates of the relational approa ...

                                               

Korean ethnic nationalism

Korean ethnic nationalism, or racial nationalism, is a political ideology and a form of ethnic identity that is widely prevalent in modern North and South Korea. It is based on the belief that Koreans form a nation, a race, and an ethnic group th ...

                                               

Feminization (sociology)

In sociology, feminization is the shift in gender roles and sex roles in a society, group, or organization towards a focus upon the feminine. It can also mean the incorporation of women into a group or a profession that was once dominated by men.

                                               

Hybridity

Hybridity, in its most basic sense, refers to mixture. The term originates from biology and was subsequently employed in linguistics and in racial theory in the nineteenth century. Its contemporary uses are scattered across numerous academic disc ...

                                               

Intellectual

An intellectual is a person who engages in critical thinking and reading, research, and human self-reflection about society; they may propose solutions for its problems and gain authority as a public figure. Coming from the world of culture, eith ...

                                               

Lifestyle enclave

Lifestyle enclave is a sociological term first used by Robert N. Bellah et al. in their 1985 book, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. In the glossary of the book, they provide the following definition: "A lifestyl ...

                                               

Omar Lizardo

Omar Lizardo is a sociologist, LeRoy Neiman Term Chair Professor of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, formerly Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame, and the co-editor, with Rory McVeigh and Sarah Mustillo, ...

                                               

Magical Negro

In the cinema of the United States, the Magical Negro is a supporting stock character who comes to the aid of white protagonists in a film. Magical Negro characters, who often possess special insight or mystical powers, have long been a tradition ...

                                               

Multiculturalism

The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, and of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms often used intercha ...

                                               

Multiracism

Multiracism is the conflict between the different ethnic communities that meet a state based on the belief that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race. This term focuses on the social and economic life of peoples, ...

                                               

Nouvelles Mythologies

Nouvelles Mythologies is a collection of 57 texts written by authors, journalists and editorialists under the direction of Jerome Garcin and published in 2007 at Editions du Seuil to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the essay ...

                                               

Pluriculturalism

Pluriculturalism is an approach to the self and others as complex rich beings which act and react from the perspective of multiple identifications. In this case, identity or identities are the by-products of experiences in different cultures. As ...

                                               

Resistance to diversity efforts in organizations

Resistance to diversity efforts in organizations is a well-established and ubiquitous phenomenon that may be characterized by thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that undermine the success of diversity-related organizational change initiatives to re ...

                                               

Roseto effect

The Roseto effect is the phenomenon by which a close-knit community experiences a reduced rate of heart disease. The effect is named for Roseto, Pennsylvania. The Roseto effect was first noticed in 1961 when the local Roseto doctor encountered Dr ...

                                               

Sanankuya

Sanankuya ya, sinankun, senenkun, senankuya) refers to a social characteristic present especially among the Manding peoples as well as many West African societies in general, often described in English with terms such as "cousinage" or "joking re ...

                                               

Christian Smith (sociologist)

Christian Stephen Smith is an American sociologist, currently the William R. Kenan Jr. Professor of Sociology at the University of Notre Dame. Smiths research focuses primarily on religion in modernity, adolescents and emerging adults, sociologic ...

                                               

Social osmosis

Social osmosis is the indirect infusion of social or cultural knowledge. Effectively, social content is diffused, and by happenstance authentic experience is displaced by degrees of mediated separation before a subject acquires knowledge of a soc ...

                                               

Sociological art

Sociological Art is an artistic movement and approach to aesthetics that emerged in France in the early 1970s and became the basis for the Sociological Art Collective formed by Herve Fischer, Fred Forest, and Jean-Paul Thenot in 1974.

                                               

Superdiversity

Superdiversity, or super-diversity, is a social science term and concept often said to have been coined by sociologist Steven Vertovec in a 2007 article in Ethnic and Racial Studies, but which he first used in a BBC article in 2005.

                                               

Ann Swidler

Ann Swidler is an American sociologist and professor of sociology at the University of California, Berkeley. Swidler is most commonly known as a cultural sociologist and authored one of the most-cited articles in sociology, "Culture in Action: Sy ...

                                               

Symbolic boundaries

Symbolic boundaries are a theory of how people form social groups proposed by cultural sociologists. Symbolic boundaries are" conceptual distinctions made by social actors…that separate people into groups and generate feelings of similarity and g ...

                                               

Tick-box culture

Tick-box culture or in U.S. English check-box culture, is described as bureaucratic and external impositions on professional working conditions, which can be found in many organizations around the world. Another related term is the culture of per ...

                                               

Volksgeist

                                               

White savior

The term white savior, sometimes combined with savior complex to write white savior complex, refers to a white person who acts to help non-white people, with the help in some contexts perceived to be self-serving. The role is considered a modern- ...

                                               

White savior narrative in film

The white savior is a cinematic trope in which a white character rescues non-white characters from unfortunate circumstances. This trope appears in an array of genres of films in American cinema, wherein a white protagonist is portrayed as a mess ...

                                               

Acculturation

Acculturation is a process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from the balancing of two cultures while adapting to the prevailing culture of the society. Acculturation is a process in which an individual adopts, acquires and ...

                                               

Acculturation gap

The acculturation gap is the changing set of values and culture between a child and parent or guardian. The gap is usually revealed after a family immigrates from one country to another and assimilates into a culture. After immigration, a child a ...

                                               

Amazons

In Greek mythology, the Amazons were a tribe of warrior women believed to live in Asia Minor. Apollonius Rhodius, in his Argonautica, mentions that the Amazons were the daughters of Ares and Harmonia, that they were brutal and aggressive, and the ...

                                               

Antillanite

Antillanite is a literary and political movement developed in the 1960s that stresses the creation of a specific West Indian identity out of a multiplicity of ethnic and cultural elements.

                                               

Anxiety/uncertainty management

Anxiety/Uncertainty Management theory was introduced by William B. Gudykunst to define how humans effectively communicate based on their anxiety and uncertainty in social situations. Gudykunst believed that in order for successful intercultural c ...

                                               

Aramaic studies

Aramaic studies is the study of the Aramaic language and Syriac Christianity. A specialist in Aramaic studies is known as a Aramaicist. British, French, and German scholars of the 18th and 19th centuries who were involved in the study of Syriac/A ...

                                               

Besharmi Morcha

Besharmi Morcha, also known as "Slutwalk arthaat Besharmi Morcha", is the Indian equivalent of SlutWalk. This was an organization started in 2011 by Canadian women who protested Torontos police public statements suggesting that women could avoid ...

                                               

Budapest School (Lukacs)

The Budapest School was a school of thought, originally of Marxist humanism, but later of post-Marxism and dissident liberalism that emerged in Hungary in the early 1960s, belonging to so called Hungarian New Left. Its members were students or co ...

                                               

Buffy studies

Buffy studies is the study of Joss Whedons popular television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer and, to a lesser extent, its spin-off program Angel. It explores issues related to gender and other philosophical issues as expressed through the conten ...

                                               

Burg Schonburg

Schonburg Castle is in the municipality of Schonburg 4.5 kilometers east of Naumburg at the heart of Federal Republic of Germany in the State of Saxony-Anhalt. It has been proposed by Germany for inscription in the List of World Heritage.

                                               

Suzanne Cesaire

Suzanne Cesaire, born in Martinique, an overseas department of France, was a French writer, teacher, scholar, anti-colonial and feminist activist, and Surrealist. She was the wife of poet and politician Aime Cesaire.

                                               

Children's literature criticism

The term childrens literature criticism includes both generalist discussions of the relationship between childrens literature and literary theory and literary analyses of a specific works of childrens literature. Some academics consider young adu ...

                                               

Circuit of culture

The circuit of culture is a theory or framework used in the area of cultural studies. It was devised in 1997 by a group of theorists when studying the Walkman cassette player. The theory suggests that in studying a cultural text or artifact you m ...

                                               

Co-cultural communication theory

Co-cultural communication theory was built upon the frameworks of muted group theory and standpoint theory. The cornerstone of co-cultural communication theory is muted group theory as proposed in the mid 1970s by Shirley and Edwin Ardener. The A ...

                                               

Discrimination based on skin color

Discrimination based on skin color, also known as colorism or shadeism, is a form of prejudice or discrimination usually from members of the same race in which people are treated differently based on the social implications from cultural meanings ...

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