Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 374

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 374


                                               

Thyroid disease

Thyroid disease is a medical condition that affects the function of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck and produces thyroid hormones that travel through the blood to help regulate many other organs, meaning t ...

                                               

Thyroid disease in women

Thyroid disease in women is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid in women. This condition can have a profound effect during pregnancy and on the child. It also is called Hashimotos thyroiditis. During pregnancy, the infant may be seriou ...

                                               

Thyroid nodule

Thyroid nodules are nodules which commonly arise within an otherwise normal thyroid gland. They may be hyperplastic or tumorous, but only a small percentage of thyroid tumors are malignant. Small, asymptomatic nodules are common, and often go unn ...

                                               

Toxic multinodular goitre

Toxic multinodular goiter is an active multinodular goiter associated with hyperthyroidism. It is a common cause of hyperthyroidism in which there is excess production of thyroid hormones from functionally autonomous thyroid nodules, which do not ...

                                               

Thyroid tumor

                                               

Endocrine surgery

Endocrine surgery is a surgical sub-speciality focusing on surgery of the endocrine glands, including the thyroid gland, the parathyroid glands, the adrenal glands, glands of the endocrine pancreas, and some neuroendocrine glands.

                                               

Parathyroidectomy

Parathyroidectomy is the surgical removal of one or more of the four parathyroid glands. This procedure is used to remove an adenoma or hyperplasia of these glands when they are producing excessive parathyroid hormone: hyperparathyroidism. The gl ...

                                               

Dogiel cells

Dogiel cells, also known as cells of Dogiel, refers to a type of multipolar neuronal cells within the prevertebral sympathetic ganglia. They are named after the Russian anatomist and physiologist Alexandre Dogiel. They play a role in the enteric ...

                                               

Descending colon

The descending colon is the part of the large intestine from the splenic flexure to the beginning of the sigmoid colon. The function of the descending colon in the digestive system is to store the remains of digested food that will be emptied int ...

                                               

Haustrum (anatomy)

The haustra of the colon are the small pouches caused by sacculation, which give the colon its segmented appearance. The teniae coli run the length of the colon. Because the taenia coli are shorter than the colon, the colon becomes sacculated bet ...

                                               

Marginal artery of the colon

In human anatomy, the marginal artery of the colon, also known as the marginal artery of Drummond and artery of Drummond is an artery that connects the inferior mesenteric artery with the superior mesenteric artery. It is sometimes absent, as an ...

                                               

Taenia coli

The taeniae coli are three separate longitudinal ribbons of smooth muscle on the outside of the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colons. They are visible and can be seen just below the serosa or fibrosa. There are three teniae coli: ...

                                               

Toxic megacolon

Toxic megacolon is an acute form of colonic distension. It is characterized by a very dilated colon, accompanied by abdominal distension, and sometimes fever, abdominal pain, or shock. Toxic megacolon is usually a complication of inflammatory bow ...

                                               

Abdominoperineal resection

An abdominoperineal resection, formally known as abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum is a surgery for rectal cancer or anal cancer. It is frequently abbreviated as AP resection, APR and APER.

                                               

Anal sphincterotomy

Anal sphincterotomy is a surgical procedure that involves treating mucosal fissures from the anal canal/sphincter. The word is formed from sphincter + otomy.

                                               

Billroth I

Billroth I, more formally Billroths operation I, is an operation in which the pylorus is removed and the distal stomach is anastomosed directly to the duodenum. The operation is most closely associated with Theodor Billroth, but was first describ ...

                                               

Billroth II

Billroth II, more formally Billroths operation II, is an operation in which a partial gastrectomy is performed and the cut end of the stomach is closed. The greater curvature of the stomach is then connected to the first part of the jejunum in en ...

                                               

Colostomy

A colostomy is an opening in the large intestine, or the surgical procedure that creates one. The opening is formed by drawing the healthy end of the colon through an incision in the anterior abdominal wall and suturing it into place. This openin ...

                                               

Cystogastrostomy

Cystogastrostomy is a surgery to create an opening between a pancreatic pseudocyst and the stomach when the cyst is in a suitable position to be drained into the stomach. This conserves pancreatic juices that would otherwise be lost. This surgery ...

                                               

Gastrectomy

Gastrectomies are performed to treat stomach cancer and perforations of the stomach wall. In severe duodenal ulcers it may be necessary to remove the lower portion of the stomach called the pylorus and the upper portion of the small intestine cal ...

                                               

Gastroenterostomy

A gastroenterostomy is the surgical creation of a connection between the stomach and the jejunum. The operation can sometimes be performed at the same time as a partial gastrectomy. Gastroenterostomy was in the past typically performed to treat p ...

                                               

Hassabs decongestion operation

Hassabs decongestion operation is an elective surgical procedure to treat esophageal varices in patients with portal hypertension as a result of cirrhosis of the liver. It was created by Dr. Mohammed Aboul-Fotouh Hassab, a professor of surgery at ...

                                               

Heller myotomy

Heller myotomy is a surgical procedure in which the muscles of the cardia are cut, allowing food and liquids to pass to the stomach. It is used to treat achalasia, a disorder in which the lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax properly, making ...

                                               

Ileo-anal pouch

In medicine, the ileal pouch–anal anastomosis, also known as an ileo-anal pouch, restorative proctocolectomy, ileal-anal pullthrough, or sometimes referred to as a j-pouch, s-pouch, w-pouch or an internal pouch, is an anastomosis of the ileum to ...

                                               

Ileostomy

Ileostomy is a stoma constructed by bringing the end or loop of small intestine out onto the surface of the skin, or the surgical procedure which creates this opening. Intestinal waste passes out of the ileostomy and is collected in an artificial ...

                                               

Inguinal hernia surgery

Inguinal hernia surgery is an operation to repair a weakness in the abdominal wall that abnormally allows abdominal contents to slip into a narrow tube called the inguinal canal in the groin region. Surgery remains the ultimate treatment for all ...

                                               

Laparotomy

A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity. It is also known as a celiotomy.

                                               

Lateral internal sphincterotomy

Lateral internal sphincterotomy is an operation performed on the internal anal sphincter muscle for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. The internal anal sphincter is one of two muscles that comprise the anal sphincter which controls the passa ...

                                               

Lower anterior resection

A lower anterior resection, formally known as anterior resection of the rectum and colon and anterior excision of the rectum or simply anterior resection, is a common surgery for rectal cancer and occasionally is performed to remove a diseased or ...

                                               

Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery

Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery is an experimental surgical technique whereby "scarless" abdominal operations can be performed with an endoscope passed through a natural orifice then through an internal incision in the stomach, va ...

                                               

Nissen fundoplication

A Nissen fundoplication, or laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication when performed via laparoscopic surgery, is a surgical procedure to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and hiatal hernia. In GERD, it is usually performed when medical therapy has ...

                                               

Partial ileal bypass surgery

Partial ileal bypass surgery is a surgical procedure which involves shortening the ileum to shorten the total small intestinal length. First introduced in 1962 by Professor Henry Buchwald of the University of Minnesota, the procedure is used to t ...

                                               

Rubber band ligation

Rubber band ligation is an outpatient treatment for internal hemorrhoids of any grade. There are several different devices a physician may use to perform the procedure, including the traditional metal devices, endoscopic banding, and the CRH OReg ...

                                               

Serial transverse enteroplasty

Serial transverse enteroplasty is a surgical procedure used primarily in the treatment of short bowel syndrome. In STEP, by making cuts in the intestine and creating a zigzag pattern, surgeons lengthen the amount of bowel available to absorb nutr ...

                                               

Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization

In 1995, Morinaga et al. developed a non-excisional surgical technique for the treatment of internal hemorrhoids. Dal Monte et al. further refined this technique, introducing transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization THD. THD belongs to the catego ...

                                               

Accessory digestive gland surgery

                                               

Mouth and oropharynx surgery

                                               

CD5

CD5 or CD-5 may be: Compact disc, 5-inch CD, usually music CD CD5 protein, cluster of differentiation 5 molecule, type I transmembrane protein CD single, a music single on a 5-inch CD

                                               

CD15

                                               

CD78

CD78 is a protein expressed on the surface of some immature and all mature B-cells. It is considered a pan-B cell antigen. Other names include Cdw78, Ba antigen, Leu21 and LO-panB-a.

                                               

Alternative complement pathway

The alternative pathway of the complement system is an innate component of the immune systems natural defense against infections. The alternative pathway is one of three complement pathways that opsonize and kill pathogens. The pathway is trigger ...

                                               

C1 complex

The C1 complex is a protein complex involved in the complement system. It is the first component of the classical complement pathway and is composed of the subcomponents C1q, C1r and C1s.

                                               

C3-convertase

C3 convertase belongs to family of serine proteases and is necessary in innate immunity as a part of the complement system which eventuate in opsonisation of particles, release of inflammatory peptides, C5 convertase formation and cell lysis. C3 ...

                                               

C3a (complement)

C3a is one of the proteins formed by the cleavage of complement component 3; the other is C3b. C3a is a 77 residue anaphylatoxin that binds to the C3a receptor, a class A G protein-coupled receptor. It plays a large role in the immune response. C ...

                                               

C3b

C3b is the larger of two elements formed by the cleavage of complement component 3, and is considered an important part of the innate immune system. C3b is potent in opsonization: tagging pathogens, immune complexes, and apoptotic cells for phago ...

                                               

C5-convertase

C5 convertase is an enzyme belonging to a family of serine proteases that play key role in the innate immunity. It participates in the complement system ending with cell death. There are four different C5 convertases able to specifically convert ...

                                               

Cell-bound complement activation products

Cell-Bound Complement Activation Products or complement split products, refers to complement activation fragments, C4d, that are bound covalently to somatic cells, as a result of activation of the classical complement pathway. They appear potenti ...

                                               

Classical complement pathway

The classical complement pathway is one of three pathways which activate the complement system, which is part of the immune system. The classical complement pathway is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes with the antibody isotypes IgG and IgM ...

                                               

Complement membrane attack complex

The membrane attack complex or terminal complement complex is a structure typically formed on the surface of pathogen cell membranes as a result of the activation of the hosts complement system, and as such is one of the effector proteins of the ...

                                               

Complement receptor

A complement receptor is a receptor of the complement system, part of the innate immune system. Complement receptors bind proteins of the complement system, and can thus detect pathogens without mediation by antibodies. Complement activity can be ...

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