Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 370

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 370

                                               

Dodoth Morning

Dodoth Morning is a 1976 film by ethnographic filmmaker Tim Asch. A documentary film that follows a morning in the life of a family of the Dodoth people in northeast Uganda in 1961. This film features a time when too much rain threatened to rot t ...

                                               

Dual inheritance theory

Dual inheritance theory, also known as gene–culture coevolution or biocultural evolution, was developed in the 1960s through early 1980s to explain how human behavior is a product of two different and interacting evolutionary processes: genetic e ...

                                               

Effective group decision-making

Developed in the 1990s by John G. Oetzel it focuses on decision-making within groups integrating also the Vigilant Interaction Theory Hirokawa and Rost as well as the Face Negotiation Theory by Ting-Toomey. It takes the influence of culture on gr ...

                                               

Environmental anthropology

Environmental anthropology is a sub-specialty within the field of anthropology that takes an active role in examining the relationships between humans and their environment across space and time.

                                               

Ethnography

Ethnography is defined as an illuminative account of social life and culture in a particular social system based on multiple detailed observations of what people actually do in the social setting being observed. Ethnographers use both qualitative ...

                                               

Ethnology

Ethnology is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the characteristics of different peoples and the relationships between them.

                                               

"Holy."

Holy.! is an exclamation of surprise used mostly in English-speaking countries. Robin of the Batman TV series is noted for his many catchphrase "Holy." exclamations. The lines in the 1960s TV series were uttered by Burt Ward who played Robin, who ...

                                               

Fieldwork Under Fire

Fieldwork Under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival is a book length collection of recorded experiences ; each of which was contributed by an anthropologist who had to strategize and innovate, while directly living through the emo ...

                                               

Folk process

In the study of folklore, the folk process is the way folk material, especially stories, music, and other art, is transformed and re-adapted in the process of its transmission from person to person and from generation to generation. The folk proc ...

                                               

For Want of a Nail

For Want of a Nail is a proverb, having numerous variations over several centuries, reminding that seemingly unimportant acts or omissions can have grave and unforeseen consequences.

                                               

Gavari

Each year, bhopa shamans from Mewars Bhil communities petition the Goddess to permit their villagers to perform the Gavari ritual and to accompany them for the weeks of touring. The average wait time for her consent is about 4–5 years, and once t ...

                                               

Geophagia

Geophagia, also known as geophagy, is the practice of eating earth or soil-like substrates such as clay or chalk. It occurs in non-human animals where it may be a normal or abnormal behaviour, and also in humans, most often in rural or preindustr ...

                                               

Global nomad

A global nomad, or glomad, is a person who is living a mobile and international lifestyle. Global nomads aim to live location-independently, seeking detachment from particular geographical locations and the idea of territorial belonging.

                                               

Guilt-Shame-Fear spectrum of cultures

In cultural anthropology, the distinction between a guilt society, shame society, and a fear society has been used to categorize different cultures. The differences can apply to how behavior is governed with respect to government laws, business r ...

                                               

Matrilocal residence

In social anthropology, matrilocal residence or matrilocality is the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wifes parents. Thus, the female offspring of a mother remain living in the mothers house, thereby forming larg ...

                                               

Hayandose

Hayandose is a cultural category used to express membership and belonging among Zapotec migrants, described by cultural anthropologist Lourdes Gutierrez-Najera. Hayandose entails a process of creating ethnically-marked spaces among migrants in an ...

                                               

Hellenic studies

Hellenic Studies is an interdisciplinary scholarly field that focuses on the language, literature, history and politics of post-classical Greece. In university, a wide range of courses, expose students to a viewpoints that help them understand th ...

                                               

Hospitality

Hospitality is the relationship between a guest and a host, wherein the host receives the guest with goodwill, including the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers. Louis, chevalier de Jaucourt describes hospitality in the ...

                                               

Human placentophagy

Human placentophagy, or consumption of the placenta, is defined as "the ingestion of a human placenta postpartum, at any time, by any person, either in raw or altered form". Numerous historical occurrences of placentophagy have been recorded thro ...

                                               

Hussaini Brahmin

Hussaini Brahmin is a Mohyal community with links to Hinduism only. The Mohyal community is Hindu by identity, however, as consistent with the Hindu tradition, they have adopted none-Indic traditions. This has led to a small sub-set of the Moyhal ...

                                               

Intangible cultural heritage

An intangible cultural heritage is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill considered by UNESCO to be part of a places cultural heritage; it comprises "nonphysical intellectual property, such as folklore, customs, beliefs, tra ...

                                               

Intercultural competence

Intercultural competence is a range of cognitive, affective, and behavioural skills that lead to effective and appropriate communication with people of other cultures. Effective intercultural communication relates to behaviors that culminate with ...

                                               

Kapu

Kapu is the ancient Hawaiian code of conduct of laws and regulations. The kapu system was universal in lifestyle, gender roles, politics and religion. An offense that was kapu was often a capital offense, but also often denoted a threat to spirit ...

                                               

Kula ring

Kula, also known as the Kula exchange or Kularing, is a ceremonial exchange system conducted in the Milne Bay Province of Papua New Guinea. The Kula ring was made famous by the father of modern anthropology, Bronislaw Malinowski, who used this te ...

                                               

Leveling mechanism

In cultural anthropology, a leveling mechanism is a practice that acts to ensure social equality, usually by shaming or humbling members of a group that attempt to put themselves above other members. One commonly given example of a leveling mecha ...

                                               

Lifeway

The field of sociology also adopted the word lifeway, with one sociologist explaining that "the definition of status differences and the conceptualization of lifeway patterns. reflect the central significant of economic referents;" "each lifeway ...

                                               

Liminality

In anthropology, liminality is the quality of ambiguity or disorientation that occurs in the middle stage of a rite of passage, when participants no longer hold their pre-ritual status but have not yet begun the transition to the status they will ...

                                               

List of matrilineal or matrilocal societies

The following list includes societies that have been identified as matrilineal or matrilocal in ethnographic literature. "Matrilineal" means property is passed down through the maternal line on the death of the mother, not that of the father. The ...

                                               

Makapansgat pebble

The Makapansgat pebble is a 260-gram reddish-brown jasperite cobble with natural chipping and wear patterns that make it look like a crude rendition of a human face. The pebble is interesting in that it was found some distance from any possible n ...

                                               

Mana

Mana is the spiritual life force energy or healing power that permeates the universe, in the culture of the Melanesians and Polynesians. Anyone or thing can have Mana. It is a cultivation or possession of energy and power, rather than being a sou ...

                                               

Meme

A meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads by means of imitation from person to person within a culture - often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme. A meme acts as a unit for carryi ...

                                               

Mentifact

Mentifact is a term coined by Julian Huxley, used together with the related terms "sociofact" and "artifact" to describe how cultural traits, such as "beliefs, values, ideas", take on a life of their own spanning over generations, and are conceiv ...

                                               

Microculture

Microculture refers to the specialised subgroups, marked with their own languages, ethos and rule expectations, that permeate differentiated industrial societies. A microculture depends on the smallest units of organization – dyads, groups, or lo ...

                                               

Multimodal anthropology

Multimodal anthropology is an emerging subfield of social cultural anthropology that encompasses anthropological research and knowledge production across multiple traditional and new media platforms and practices including film, video, photograph ...

                                               

Muringa vila

Muringa vila is an international development project in Kovalam, Kerala, India, for sustainable building and income structures for the local participants. Structured after the concept of creative participation Muringa Vila integrates vital intere ...

                                               

Muted group theory

Muted group theory, created by Edwin Ardener and Shirley Ardener in 1975, is a communication theory that focuses on how marginalized groups are muted and excluded via the use of language. The main idea of MGT is that "Language serves its creators ...

                                               

Myth

Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyda ...

                                               

Nacirema

Nacirema is a term used in anthropology and sociology in relation to aspects of the behavior and society of citizens of the United States of America. The neologism attempts to create a deliberate sense of self-distancing in order that American an ...

                                               

National Centre of Research in Social and Cultural Anthropology

The National centre of research in social and cultural anthropology is an Algerian governmental research organisation in social sciences created in 1992 by the decree 92-215 of May 23. The Centre operates under the aegis of the Ministry of higher ...

                                               

National psychology

National psychology refers to the distinctive psychological make-up of particular nations, ethnic groups or peoples, and to the comparative study of those characteristics in social psychology, sociology, political science and anthropology. The as ...

                                               

Naturalistic disease theories

In medical anthropology, naturalistic disease theories are those theories, present within a culture, which explain diseases and illnesses in impersonal terms. One example of a naturalistic disease theory is the theory expressed in western medicin ...

                                               

Nature–culture divide

The nature–culture divide refers to a theoretical foundation of contemporary anthropology. Early anthropologists sought theoretical insight from the perceived tensions between nature and culture. Later, the argument became framed by the question ...

                                               

Nature, Culture and Gender

Nature, Culture and Gender is a book length social science essay collection that analyzes views that describe "nature" as inferior to "culture". Hence, the authors draw on anthropology and history to critique ideologies that, by equating women wi ...

                                               

Neolocal residence

Neolocal residence is a type of post-marital residence in which a newly married couple resides separately from both the husbands natal household and the wifes natal household. Neolocal residence forms the basis of most developed nations, especial ...

                                               

Nocebo

A nocebo effect is said to occur when negative expectations of the patient regarding a treatment cause the treatment to have a more negative effect than it otherwise would have. For example, when a patient anticipates a side effect of a medicatio ...

                                               

Nomad

A nomad is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads, and tinkers or trader nomads. As of 1995 there were an estimated 30–40 million no ...

                                               

Nomadic pastoralism

Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze. True nomads follow an irregular pattern of movement, in contrast with transhumance where seasonal pastures are fixed. Howeve ...

                                               

Nomads of the Longbow

Nomads of the Longbow is a book by Allan R Holmberg, an anthropologist who studied Peruvian and other South American indigenous peoples. The book concerns itself with the indigenous Bolivians, the Siriono people, whom he determined to be rather b ...

                                               

Oikofobie. De angst voor het eigene

Oikofobie. De angst voor het eigene is a 2013 Dutch book written by Thierry Baudet. In the book Baudet follows Roger Scrutons criticism on cultural relativism and multiculturalism. Baudets comes up with the word Oikophobia and explains this as a ...

                                               

Orality

Orality is thought and verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy are unfamiliar to most of the population. The study of orality is closely allied to the study of oral tradition. The term" orality” has been used in a variet ...

                                               

Origin myth

An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world. One type of origin myth is the cosmogonic myth, which describes the creation of the world. However, many cultures have stories set after ...

                                               

Patriarchy

Patriarchy is a social system in which men hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property. Some patriarchal societies are also patrilineal, meaning that property and ...

                                               

Patrilocal residence

In social anthropology, patrilocal residence or patrilocality, also known as virilocal residence or virilocality, are terms referring to the social system in which a married couple resides with or near the husbands parents. The concept of locatio ...

                                               

Perfect Order

Perfect Order: Recognizing Complexity in Bali is a 2006 book by anthropologist J. Stephen Lansing about Balinese culture. It focuses on the development of Balinese wet-rice agriculture over the last several hundred years, particularly the subak i ...

                                               

Placentophagy

Placentophagy, also known as placentophagia, is the act of consuming part or all of the afterbirth following parturition in mammals. Parturition involves the delivery of the neonate, as well as the placenta and fetal membranes. The placenta is a ...

                                               

Proverb

A proverb is a simple, concrete, traditional saying that expresses a perceived truth based on common sense or experience. Proverbs are often metaphorical and use formulaic language. Collectively, they form a genre of folklore. Some proverbs exist ...

                                               

Proverbial phrase

A proverbial phrase or a proverbial expression is type of a conventional saying similar to proverbs and transmitted by oral tradition. The difference is that a proverb is a fixed expression, while a proverbial phrase permits alterations to fit th ...

                                               

Ranked society

A ranked society in anthropology is one that ranks individuals in terms of their genealogical distance from the chief. Closer relatives of the chief have higher rank or social status than more distant ones. Societies who follow this kind of struc ...

                                               

Raptio

Raptio is a Latin term for the large-scale abduction of women, i.e. kidnapping for marriage or enslavement. The equivalent term Frauenraub, originally from German, is used in English in the field of art history. Bride kidnapping is distinguished ...

                                               

Reciprocity (cultural anthropology)

In cultural anthropology, reciprocity refers to the non-market exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected as in the exchange of birthday gifts. It is thus distinct from t ...

                                               

Redistribution (cultural anthropology)

In cultural anthropology and sociology, redistribution refers to a system of economic exchange involving the centralized collection of goods from members of a group followed by the redivision of those goods among those members. It is a form of re ...

                                               

Seclusion of girls at puberty

The seclusion of girls at puberty has been practised in societies around the world, especially prior to the early 20th century. In such cultures, girls puberty held more significance than boys due to menstruation, the girls potential for giving b ...

                                               

Seeing Anthropology

Seeing Anthropology: Cultural Anthropology Through Film by Karl G. Heider introduces cultural anthropology with the use of both text and audiovisual media. First published in 1997, the work uses the tools of the ethnographic film discipline to in ...

                                               

Settler

A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. It is also used to describe people whose ancestors migrated to a new area, or who were born into an already established set ...

                                               

Shell money

Shell money is a medium of exchange similar to coin money and other forms of commodity money, and was once commonly used in many parts of the world. Shell money usually consisted of whole or partial sea shells, often worked into beads or otherwis ...

                                               

Shetani

Shetani are spirits of East African mythology and popular belief. Mostly malevolent, and found in many different forms and different types with different powers, shetani are a popular subject of carved artwork, especially by the Makonde people of ...

                                               

Sociocultural anthropology

Sociocultural anthropology is a portmanteau used to refer to social anthropology and cultural anthropology together. Some universities, such as Boston University and New York University, link them together into one major of study.

                                               

Sociofact

Sociofact is a term coined by biologist Julian Huxley, used together with the related terms "mentifact" and "artifact" to describe how cultural traits take on a life of their own, spanning over generations. For Huxley, the concept of culture cont ...

                                               

Soul dualism

Soul dualism or multiple souls is a range of beliefs that a person has two or more kinds of souls. In many cases, one of the souls is associated with body functions and the other one can leave the body. Sometimes the plethora of soul types can be ...

                                               

Stratified reproduction

Stratified reproduction is a widely used social scientific concept, created by Shellee Colen, that describes imbalances in the ability of people of different races, ethnicities, nationalities, classes, and genders to reproduce and nurture their c ...

                                               

Strong reciprocity

Strong reciprocity is an area of research in behavioral economics, evolutionary psychology, and evolutionary anthropology on the predisposition to cooperate even when there is no apparent benefit in doing so. This topic is particularly interestin ...

                                               

Taboo

A taboo is an implicit prohibition on something based on a cultural sense that it is excessively repulsive or, perhaps, too sacred for ordinary people. Such prohibitions are present in virtually all societies. On a comparative basis taboos, for e ...

                                               

Taboo (2002 TV series)

Taboo is a documentary television series that premiered in 2002 on the National Geographic Channel. The program is an educational look into "taboo" rituals and traditions practiced in some societies, yet forbidden and/or illegal in others. Each h ...

                                               

Tangible culture

                                               

Teach

Teach is an Irish language term. The following definition of the term has been given by Donall Mac Giolla Easpaig The word teach, a house, is the only widely attested native Irish element to designate a church of monastic site in early placenames ...

                                               

Trash Doves

Trash Doves is an Internet meme which originated from a sticker set designed in 2016, which feature a large-eyed purple pigeon in various situations. The most notable sticker of the set is an animated GIF of the bird vigorously thrashing its head ...

                                               

Tribe (internet)

The term tribe or digital tribe is used as a slang term for an unofficial community of people who share a common interest, and usually who are loosely affiliated with each other through social media or other Internet mechanisms. The term is relat ...

                                               

Tuath

Tuath is the Old Irish term for the basic political and jurisdictional unit of Gaelic Ireland. Tuath can refer to both a geographical territory as well the people who lived in that territory.

                                               

Vanua

The word banua or vanua – meaning "land," "home," or "village" – occurs in several Austronesian languages. It derives from the Proto-Austronesian reconstructed form * banua. The word has particular significance in several countries.

                                               

Vernacular culture

Vernacular culture is the cultural forms made and organised by ordinary, often indigenous people, as distinct from the high culture of an elite. One feature of vernacular culture is that it is informal. Such culture is generally engaged in on a n ...

                                               

Virgin boy egg

Virgin boy eggs are a traditional dish of Dongyang, Zhejiang, China in which eggs are boiled in the urine of young boys who were presumably peasants, preferably under the age of ten. Named "tong zi dan", the dish translates literally to "boy egg" ...

                                               

Edvard Westermarck

Edvard Alexander Westermarck was a Finnish philosopher and sociologist. Among other subjects, he studied exogamy and the incest taboo.

                                               

Western culture

Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is the heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political syste ...

                                               

When the going gets tough, the tough get going

When the going gets tough, the tough get going is a popular witticism in American English. The origin of the phrase has been attributed to various sources. It appears to come from American football parlance, with the earliest published sources in ...

                                               

Witchcraft

Witchcraft is the practice of magical skills and abilities. Witchcraft is a broad term that varies culturally and societally, and thus can be difficult to define with precision; therefore, cross-cultural assumptions about the meaning or significa ...

                                               

Woman, Culture, and Society

Woman, Culture, and Society, first published in 1974, is a book consisting of 16 papers contributed by female authors and an introduction by the editors Michelle Zimbalist Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere. On the heels of the 1960s feminist movement, ...

                                               

Yaylak

Yaylak is a Turkic term meaning "summer highland pasture". The converse term is gishlag, a winter pasture. The latter one gave rise to the term kishlak for rural settlements in Central Asia. Transcriptions of the term include yaylak, yaylaq, یایل ...

                                               

Engineering biology

Engineering biology is the set of methods for designing, building, and testing engineered biological systems which have been used to manipulate information, construct materials, process chemicals, produce energy, provide food, and help maintain o ...

                                               

Lists of artificial objects sent into space

The term artificial objects is closely associated with man made or not naturally occurring items that have been sent into space. This is a list of lists of artificial objects in space found on Wikipedia. List of artificial objects on Mars List of ...

                                               

Vantablack

Vantablack is a material developed by Surrey NanoSystems in the United Kingdom and is one of the darkest substances known, absorbing up to 99.965% of visible light. The name is a compound of the acronym VANTA vertically aligned nanotube arrays an ...

                                               

Animal print

Animal print is a clothing and fashion style in which the garment is made to resemble the pattern of the skin and fur of an animal such as a leopard, cheetah, snow leopard, jaguar, zebra, tiger, clouded leopard, margay, ocelot, spotted hyena, str ...

                                               

Ballerina neckline

In fashion, a ballerina neckline refers to the classic necklines styles on the dance attire, or leotards, worn by the dancers. Popularized especially by designers and fashion icons of the mid-twentieth century, the term ballerina or ballet neckli ...

                                               

Bespoke tailoring

In June 2008, the Advertising Standards Authority ASA, a British advertising regulator, ruled that an advertisement describing a suit "put into a working-frame where it would be cut and sewn by machine" as a "bespoke suit uniquely made according ...

                                               

Changing room

A changing room, locker room, dressing room or changeroom is a room or area designated for changing ones clothes. Changing rooms are provided in a semi-public situation to enable people to change clothes with varying degrees of privacy. Separate ...

                                               

Clothing insulation

Clothing insulation is the thermal insulation provided by clothing. Even if the main role of clothing is to protect from the cold, protective clothing also exists to protect from heat, such as for metallurgical workers or firemen. As regards ther ...

                                               

Clothing material

Historically, clothing is, and has been, made from many clothing materials. These range from grasses and furs to much more elaborate and exotic materials. Some cultures, such as the various people of the Arctic Circle, have made their clothing en ...

                                               

Clothing terminology

Clothing terminology comprises the names of individual garments and classes of garments, as well as the specialized vocabularies of the trades that have designed, manufactured, marketed and sold clothing over hundreds of years. Clothing terminolo ...

                                               

Cord lock

A plastic cord lock attaches to drawstrings and tightens without the use of knots. Cord locks allow mountaineers to fasten clothing and camping equipment quickly in cold conditions when the fingers are encased in heavy gloves. They consist genera ...

                                               

Cosmetic textile

Cosmetic textiles are the functional textiles, including garments, underwear which come in direct contact with the skin through the process of microencapsulation. They concern the treatment of the skin for a cosmetic approach, but can also be a v ...

                                               

Crocodile skin

Crocodile skin either refers to the skin of a live crocodile or a leather made from dead crocodile hide. It has multiple applications across the fashion industry such as use for bags, shoes and upholstery after being farmed and treated in special ...

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