Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 361

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 361

                                               

Unenforced law

An unenforced law is a crime which is illegal, but is usually not penalized by a jurisdiction. It is a law which is usually ignored by law enforcement, therefore such laws have no consequences. Some people have criticized such laws claiming that ...

                                               

Unindicted co-conspirator

                                               

Uninsured employer

Uninsured employer in the United States is a term to identify an employer of workers under circumstances where there is no form of insurance in place to provide certain benefits to those workers. More specifically, it is a term used in workers’ c ...

                                               

Unsolicited goods

In the realm of the United Kingdom unsolicited goods are goods delivered to an individual with a view to the individual acquiring them, but where the individual has no reasonable cause to believe that they were delivered for legitimate business a ...

                                               

Vicarious liability (criminal)

The legal principle of vicarious liability applies to hold one person liable for the actions of another when engaged in some form of joint or collective activity.

                                               

Victims' rights

Victims rights are legal rights afforded to victims of crime. These may include the right to restitution, the right to a victims advocate, the right not to be excluded from criminal justice proceedings, and the right to speak at criminal justice ...

                                               

Violation of law

A violation of law is any act that fails to abide by existing law. Violations generally include both crimes and civil wrongs. Some acts, such as fraud, can violate both civil and criminal laws. Civil law violations usually lead to civil penalties ...

                                               

Vollrausch

Vollrausch is a criminal provision which complements Actio libera in causa in German laws. If a person who voluntarily and deliberately gets drunk but he or she did not intend to commit a crime before dranking but he or she did harmful activity, ...

                                               

Watching brief (lawsuit)

A watching brief is a method normally used in criminal cases by lawyers to represent clients not directly a party to the suit and to function as an observer. The method is normally used to help protect the rights and interests of victims of a cri ...

                                               

Willful blindness

Willful blindness is a term used in law to describe a situation in which a person seeks to avoid civil or criminal liability for a wrongful act by intentionally keeping himself or herself unaware of facts that would render him or her liable or im ...

                                               

Writeprint

Writeprint is a method in forensic linguistics of establishing author identification over the internet, likened to a digital fingerprint. Identity is established through a comparison of distinguishing stylometric characteristics of an unknown wri ...

                                               

Wrongdoing

A wrong is an act that is illegal or immoral. Legal wrongs are usually quite clearly defined in the law of a state and/or jurisdiction. They can be divided into civil wrongs and crimes in common law countries, while civil law countries tend to ha ...

                                               

Year and a day rule

The year and a day rule has been a common length of time for establishing differences in legal status. The phrase "year and a day rule" is associated with the former common law standard that death could not be legally attributed to acts or omissi ...

                                               

Argentine Anticommunist Alliance

The Argentine Anticommunist Alliance was a far-right death squad founded in Argentina in 1973 and particularly active under Isabel Perons rule. Initially associated with the Peronist right, the organisation opposed the Peronist left and other lef ...

                                               

D'Aquila crime family

The DAquila crime family was one of the earliest crime families to be established in the United States and New York City. The DAquilas were based in Manhattans Little Italy, originally a crew of the Morello family prior to breaking off and absorb ...

                                               

UGNazi

UGNazi is a hacker group. The group conducted a series of cyberattacks, including social engineering, data breach, and denial-of-service attacks, on the websites of various organizations in 2012. Two members of UGNazi were arrested in June 2012; ...

                                               

2019 Uruguayan constitutional referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in Uruguay on 27 October 2019, alongside general elections. The proposed amendments to the constitution would create a national guard, forbid early release for some serious crimes, introduce life sentences for ...

                                               

Anti-climb paint

Anti-climb paint is a class of paint consisting of a thick oily coating that is applied with a stiff brush, trowel or by hand using a protective glove. In appearance it is similar to smooth gloss paint when applied but it remains slippery indefin ...

                                               

Anti-hijack system

An anti-hijack system is an electronic system fitted to motor vehicles to deter criminals from hijacking them. Although these types of systems are becoming more common on newer cars, they have not caused a decrease in insurance premiums as they a ...

                                               

Anti-theft system

Anti-theft systems protect valuables such as vehicles and personal property like wallets, phones, and jewelry. They are also used in retail settings to protect merchandise in the form of security tags and labels. Anti-theft systems include device ...

                                               

ATM SafetyPIN software

ATM SafetyPIN software is a software application that would allow users of automated teller machines to alert the police of a forced cash withdrawal by entering their personal identification number in reverse order. The system was patented by Ill ...

                                               

Bouncer (doorman)

A bouncer is a type of security guard, employed at venues such as bars, nightclubs, stripclubs, casinos, hotels, billiard halls, restaurants, sporting events, or concerts. A bouncers duties are to provide security, to check legal age and drinking ...

                                               

Sergio Cabral Filho

Sergio de Oliveira Cabral Santos Filho is a Brazilian politician and a journalist He was elected governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro in the 2006 Brazilian general election and sworn into office on January 1, 2007. Cabral Filho was a represent ...

                                               

Child sexual abuse prevention programmes

Child sexual abuse prevention programs are programs designed to lower the incidence of sexual abuse amongst those that access them. Programs can be provided to children and young people, those employed in childcare, people who would have otherwis ...

                                               

Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television, also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, th ...

                                               

Common Criteria Evaluation and Validation Scheme

Common Criteria Evaluation and Validation Scheme is a United States Government program administered by the National Information Assurance Partnership to evaluate security functionality of an information technology with conformance to the Common C ...

                                               

Community Capacity Development Office

The Community Capacity Development Office is an office of the United States Department of Justice and a component of the Office of Justice Programs. The mission is to work within local communities to reduce crime and improve the quality of life. ...

                                               

Community Justice (Scotland) Act 2016

The Community Justice Act 2016 is an Act of the Scottish Parliament passed in February 2016 to make provision for new community justice arrangements. The Act established a new national body to oversee community justice and it introduced requireme ...

                                               

Crime opportunity theory

Crime opportunity theory suggests that offenders make rational choices and thus choose targets that offer a high reward with little effort and risk. The occurrence of a crime depends on two things: the presence of at least one motivated offender ...

                                               

Crime Pattern Theory

Crime Pattern Theory is a way of explaining why crimes are committed in certain areas. Crime is not random, it is either planned or opportunistic. According to the theory crime happens when the activity space of a victim or target intersects with ...

                                               

Crime Prevention Ottawa

Crime Prevention Ottawa is a city-funded municipal board which upholds the mission to reduce crime and enhance community safety in the city of Ottawa through collaborative and evidence-based crime prevention. CPO maintains the vision that Ottawa ...

                                               

Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History

Criminal Reduction Utilising Statistical History is an IBM predictive analytics system that attempts to predict the location of future crimes. It was developed as part of the Blue CRUSH program in conjunction with Memphis Police Department and th ...

                                               

DNA marking

DNA marking is a type of forensic identification. It is a method to mark items in a way that is undetectable to the naked eye. A unique DNA marker is applied to the item, and can be recovered to identify the item. In suspected thefts, the suspect ...

                                               

Dynamic Intelligent Currency Encryption

Dynamic Intelligent Currency Encryption is an AI-controlled security technology, which devaluates banknotes and assets remotely that have been stolen or are illegal. The cash security system that is based on identifiable banknotes, was invented a ...

                                               

European Electronic Crime Task Force

The European Electronic Crime Task Force is an information sharing initiative, created in 2009 by an agreement between the United States Secret Service, the Italian Ministry of Internal Affairs and Poste Italiane. The EECTFs mission is "to suppor ...

                                               

Eye in the sky (camera)

The eye in the sky is a term given to casino and other commercial security closed circuit cameras. In casinos, they are positioned to monitor seats, tables, hallways, restaurants, and even elevators closely. The functional component is known as a ...

                                               

Financial Transparency Coalition

The Financial Transparency Coalition is a group that brings together civil society and governments around the world to stem illicit financial flows that are costing developing countries nearly a trillion dollars each year. The Coalition was forme ...

                                               

Full body scanner

A full-body scanner is a device that detects objects on a persons body for security screening purposes, without physically removing clothes or making physical contact. Depending on the technology used, the operator may see an alternate-wavelength ...

                                               

Gang Resistance Education and Training

Gang Resistance Education And Training, abbreviated G.R.E.A.T., provides a school-based, police officer instructed program that includes classroom instruction and various learning activities, the use of law enforcement officers having several adv ...

                                               

German Congress on Crime Prevention

The German Congress on Crime Prevention is an international conference for the field of crime prevention that takes place annually since 1995 in different German cities.

                                               

Grievance-based violence

Grievance-Based Violence is a term in security planning that describes violent acts committed by an individual, against another individual, which are specifically motivated by a grievance. Motivation for GBV incidents stands apart from other type ...

                                               

Guard tour patrol system

A guard tour patrol system is a system for logging the rounds of employees in a variety of situations such as security guards patrolling property, technicians monitoring climate-controlled environments, and correctional officers checking prisoner ...

                                               

Gun buyback program

A gun buyback program is one instituted to purchase privately owned firearms. The goal, when purchasing is done by the police, is to reduce the number of firearms owned by civilians, and provide a process whereby civilians can sell their privatel ...

                                               

High Technology Crime Investigation Association

High Technology Crime Investigation Association is an international non-profit professional organization devoted to the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of crimes involving advanced technologies. Author and cybercrime expert, Christophe ...

                                               

Home safety

Home safety refers to the awareness and education of risks and potential dangers in and around a home which may cause bodily harm, injury, or even death to those residing in and around the physical structure of a home. It includes mitigating or p ...

                                               

Home security

Home security is both the security hardware in place on a property as well as personal security practices. Security hardware includes doors, locks, alarm systems, lighting, motion detectors, security camera systems, etc. that are installed on a p ...

                                               

Institute of Counter Fraud Specialists

The Institute of Counter Fraud Specialists {ICFS) was founded as a result of the United Kingdom Governments initiative to professionalise public sector fraud investigation. The Institute exists to further the cause of fraud prevention and detecti ...

                                               

Intelligence-led policing

Intelligence-led policing is a policing model built around the assessment and management of risk. Intelligence officers serve as guides to operations, rather than operations guiding intelligence. Calls for intelligence-led policing originated in ...

                                               

Internet Crimes Against Children

Internet Crimes Against Children is a task force started by the United States Department of Justices Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in 1998. Its primary goals are to provide state and local law enforcement agencies the tool ...

                                               

Internet safety

Internet safety or online safety or cyber safety or E-Safety is trying to be safe on the internet and is the knowledge of maximizing the users personal safety and security risks to private information and property associated with using the intern ...

                                               

Iranian Prevention Police

                                               

Kill chain

The term kill chain was originally used as a military concept related to the structure of an attack; consisting of target identification, force dispatch to target, decision and order to attack the target, and finally the destruction of the target ...

                                               

Lexus Link

Lexus Link, launched October, 2000, is a subscription-based safety and security service from Lexus. It has been offered as a factory-installed option, available on certain Lexus models, offering call-center-based telematics services to owners wit ...

                                               

Local Law Enforcement Block Grant

Local Law Enforcement Block Grants were federal assistance block grant programs provided by the United States Department of Justice to local governments, which would then use the funds to support public safety or crime prevention efforts. It was ...

                                               

MAC address anonymization

MAC address anonymization performs a one-way function on a MAC address so that the result may be used in tracking systems for reporting and the general public, while making it nearly impossible to obtain the original MAC address from the result. ...

                                               

Manhunt (law enforcement)

In law enforcement, a manhunt is an extensive and thorough search for a wanted and dangerous fugitive involving the use of police units, technology, and help from the public. A manhunt is conducted when the suspect believed to be responsible for ...

                                               

Mass surveillance

Mass surveillance is the intricate surveillance of an entire or a substantial fraction of a population in order to monitor that group of citizens. The surveillance is often carried out by local and federal governments or governmental organisation ...

                                               

McGruff the Crime Dog

McGruff the Crime Dog is an anthropomorphic animated bloodhound created by Dancer Fitzgerald Sample through the Ad Council and later the National Crime Prevention Council to increase crime awareness and personal safety in the United States. McGru ...

                                               

Mobile phone tracking

Mobile phone tracking is a process for identifying the location of a mobile phone, whether stationary or moving. Localization may be affected by a number of technologies, such as using multilateration of radio signals between cell towers of the n ...

                                               

Mortsafe

Mortsafes were contraptions designed to protect graves from disturbance. Resurrectionists had supplied the schools of anatomy in Scotland since the early 18th century. This was due to the necessity for medical students to learn anatomy by attendi ...

                                               

MOSAIC threat assessment systems

MOSAIC threat assessment systems is a method developed by Gavin de Becker and Associates in the early 1980s to assess and screen threats and inappropriate communications. Walt Risler of Indiana University assisted in the early development of the ...

                                               

The Mosquito

The Mosquito or Mosquito alarm is a machine used to deter loitering by young people by emitting sound at high frequency, in some versions so it can be heard mostly by younger people. The devices have attracted controversy on the basis of human ri ...

                                               

National Information Assurance Partnership

The National Information Assurance Partnership is a United States government initiative to meet the security testing needs of both information technology consumers and producers that is operated by the National Security Agency, and was originally ...

                                               

Natural surveillance

Natural surveillance is a term used in Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design models for crime prevention. These models rely on the ability to influence offender decisions preceding criminal acts. Research into criminal behavior demonstrat ...

                                               

Neighbourhood policing team

Neighbourhood policing teams sometimes called safer neighbourhood teams are a concept developed by the United Kingdom police. It involves small teams of police officers who are dedicated to policing a certain community or area. There are 3.600 NP ...

                                               

Oakland gang injunctions

Due to escalating gang activity and high crime rates in Oakland, California Mayor Jean Quan proposed gang injunctions in Oakland, which were passed in May, 2011. These highly controversial injunctions were only proposed for 2 areas of Oakland – t ...

                                               

Offender movement

Offender movement can be explained by the crime pattern theory, devised by professors Paul and Patricia Brantingham. It helps explain where offenders go to commit their crime and how crime locations are well within an offenders activity space. No ...

                                               

Operation Virtual Shield

Operation Virtual Shield is a program implemented by Chicago, IL mayor Richard M. Daley, which created the most extensive video surveillance network in the United States by linking more than 3000 surveillance cameras to a centralized monitoring s ...

                                               

Pacifying Police Unit

The Pacifying Police Unit, abbreviated UPP, is a law enforcement and social services program pioneered in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which aims to reclaim territories, most commonly favelas, controlled by gangs of drug dealers. The prog ...

                                               

Parapolice

Parapolice are law enforcement officers considered "beyond", "ancillary" or "subsidiary" to the regular police force.

                                               

Personal alarm

A personal alarm is a small hand-held electronic device with the functionality to emit a loud siren-like alarming sound. It is activated either by a button, or a tag that, when pulled, sets the siren off. It is used to attract attention in order ...

                                               

Physical security

Physical security describes security measures that are designed to deny unauthorized access to facilities, equipment and resources and to protect personnel and property from damage or harm. Physical security involves the use of multiple layers of ...

                                               

Pink lights

Pink Lights a recognized anti-loitering technique from the UK that deters youths from loitering around public building by highlighting acne and skin blemishes with pink light. Since 2012, some towns in the UK have installed pink lighting around s ...

                                               

Police

The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, health and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their lawful powers include arrest and the legitimized use of ...

                                               

Poverty reduction

Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty. Measures, like those promoted by Henry George in his economics classic Progress and Pove ...

                                               

Precobs

Precobs is a predictive policing-software using algorithms and knowledge about crimes committed in the past to predict the commitment of so-called "near repeat"-crimes. Precobs is an abbreviation and stands for Pre Crime Observation System. It is ...

                                               

PredPol

PredPol, Inc is a predictive policing company which uses predictive analytics to support law enforcement. PredPol is also the name of the software product which the company produces. The idea that became PredPol began as a research project by Dr. ...

                                               

Preventive police

Preventive police is that aspect of law enforcement intended to act as a deterrent to the commission of crime. Preventive policing is considered a defining characteristic of the modern police, typically associated with Robert Peels London Metropo ...

                                               

Preventive state

A preventive state is a type of sovereign state or policy enacted by a state in which people deemed potentially dangerous are apprehended, and have their freedom restricted, before being able to commit a crime. Insofar as it differs from passive ...

                                               

Proactive policing

Proactive policing is the practice of deterring criminal activity by showing police presence, the use of police powers by both uniformed and plain clothed officers and engaging the public to learn their concerns, as well as investigating and disc ...

                                               

Problem-oriented policing

Problem-oriented policing, coined by University of Wisconsin–Madison professor Herman Goldstein, is a policing strategy that involves the identification and analysis of specific crime and disorder problems, in order to develop effective response ...

                                               

Project Servator

Project Servator police deployments were originally introduced by the City of London Police in February 2014 as "New policing tactics to deter and detect criminal and terrorist activity, as well as to reassure the general public. Project Servator ...

                                               

Regulatory crime control

The idea of regulatory crime control is to reduce and control crime. Many factors can make a place or area a victim of criminal activity. John and Emily Eck, two primary scholars that work within the area of regulatory crime control, explain how ...

                                               

Rublon

Rublon is a two-factor authentication system that acts as an additional security layer which protects the password-based login process to web applications. A protected account can only be accessed by someone who enters the correct password and sc ...

                                               

SecuriLock

SecuriLock, also known as Passive Anti-Theft System, is Ford Motor Companys immobilizer technology. In 1996 the technology started showing up on select models of Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury vehicles. The keys have a radio frequency transponder emb ...

                                               

Security guard

A security guard is a person employed by a government or private party to protect the employing partys assets from a variety of hazards by enforcing preventative measures. Security guards do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter ...

                                               

Security police

In some countries, security police are those persons employed by for a governmental agency or corporations with large campuses who provide police and security services to those agencies properties. Security police protect their agencys facilities ...

                                               

Security smoke

Security smoke is a thermally generated white fog, aimed at inhibiting intruders from accessing items to steal, much used in the storage of high-value goods, and recommended by police and insurers. It consists of glycol or glycerine mixed with di ...

                                               

Serial offender hunting patterns

Studies have been made of the "hunting patterns" of serial offenders, mainly serial killers and those committing repeated sex crimes. By hunting patterns are meant the interaction of time, space, and activity of a serial offenders criminal behavi ...

                                               

Serious crime prevention order

                                               

Steering-wheel lock

A steering-wheel lock is a visible theft-deterrent system/anti-theft device that, as the name implies, immobilizes the steering wheel of a car. Mayhew et al. suggested that such a device reduced the probability of a car being stolen. Also known a ...

                                               

Surveillance

Surveillance is the monitoring of behavior, activities, or information for the purpose of influencing, managing or directing. This can include observation from a distance by means of electronic equipment, such as closed-circuit television, or int ...

                                               

Surveillance issues in smart cities

Smart cities seek to implement information and communication technologies in order to improve the efficiency and sustainability of urban spaces while reducing costs and resource consumption. In the context of surveillance, smart cities monitor ci ...

                                               

Targeted surveillance

Targeted surveillance is a form of surveillance, such as wiretapping, that is directed towards specific persons of interest, and is distinguishable from mass surveillance. Untargeted surveillance is routinely accused of treating innocent people a ...

                                               

Tattle-Tape

Tattle-Tape is a security system used in libraries to prevent theft of library materials. The tape consists of a magnetic metal strip embedded in a strip of thick, clear adhesive tape. This tape is usually affixed deep between the pages of a pape ...

                                               

Traffic guard

A traffic guard, traffic controller, flagman, or flagger is a person who directs traffic through a construction site or other temporary traffic control zone past an area using gestures, signs or flags. The person directing traffic is responsible ...

                                               

United States Air Force Office of Special Investigations

The U.S. Air Force Office of Special Investigations is a U.S. federal law enforcement agency that reports directly to the Secretary of the Air Force. AFOSI is also a U.S. Air Force field operating agency under the administrative guidance and over ...

                                               

Udny Mort House

Udny Mort House is a category B listed building in the old kirkyard at Udny Green, Aberdeenshire, north-east Scotland, built in 1832. It housed corpses until they started to decompose, so their graves would not be desecrated by resurrectionists a ...

                                               

User activity monitoring

In the field of information security, user activity monitoring is the monitoring and recording of user actions. UAM captures user actions, including the use of applications, windows opened, system commands executed, checkboxes clicked, text enter ...

                                               

Vanish (computer science)

Vanish was a project to "give users control over the lifetime of personal data stored on the web." It was led by Roxana Geambasu at the University of Washington. The project proposes to allow a user to enter information that he or she will send o ...

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