Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 358

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 358

                                               

Horse theft

Horse theft is the crime of stealing horses. A person engaged in stealing horses is known as a horse thief. Horse theft was very common throughout the world prior to widespread car ownership. Punishments were often severe for horse theft, with se ...

                                               

Illegal construction

Illegal construction is construction work without a valid construction permit. Besides the potential technical hazards on uncontrolled construction sites and in finished buildings, illegal building activity can be a major environmental violation ...

                                               

Illegal logging

Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws. The harvesting procedure itself may be illegal, including using corrupt means to gain access to forests; extraction without permission, or from a pro ...

                                               

Illegal mining

Illegal mining is mining activity that is undertaken without state permission, in particular in absence of land rights, mining licenses, and exploration or mineral transportation permits. Illegal mining can be a subsistence activity, as is the ca ...

                                               

Illegal taxicab operation

Illegal taxicabs, sometimes known as pirate taxis or gypsy cabs, are taxicabs and other for-hire vehicles that are not duly licensed or permitted by the jurisdiction in which they operate. Most major cities worldwide require taxicabs to be licens ...

                                               

Ivory trade

The ivory trade is the commercial, often illegal trade in the ivory tusks of the hippopotamus, walrus, narwhal, mammoth, and most commonly, African and Asian elephants. Ivory has been traded for hundreds of years by people in Africa and Asia, res ...

                                               

Mochilero (drug courier)

Mochileros are drug couriers in the Latin American cocaine trade. They move cocaine on foot from areas where it is produced, such as the Valle de los Rios Apurimac, Ene y Mantaro in Peru, to pick-up points from which it can be collected by the ne ...

                                               

Money mule

A money mule, sometimes called a "smurfer," is a person who transfers money acquired illegally in person, through a courier service, or electronically, on behalf of others. Typically, the mule is paid for services with a small part of the money t ...

                                               

Mule (smuggling)

A mule or courier is someone who personally smuggles contraband across a border for a smuggling organization. The organizers employ mules to reduce the risk of getting caught themselves. Methods of smuggling include hiding the goods in vehicles o ...

                                               

Organized crime

Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralized enterprises run by criminals to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are po ...

                                               

Overfishing

Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area. According to a highly contest ...

                                               

Parcel mule scam

The parcel mule scam, also known as the reshipping scam, involves scammers and unsuspecting victims handling goods to other countries. In some ways it is similar to the money mule scam. Scammers use fake advertising to hire mules. Items are bough ...

                                               

Piracy

Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called ...

                                               

Prostitution

Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment. Prostitution is sometimes described as sexual services, commercial sex or, colloquially, hooking. It is sometimes referred to euphemistically as "the ...

                                               

Sturdy beggar

In historical English law, a sturdy beggar was a person who was fit and able to work, but begged or wandered for a living instead. The Statute of Cambridge 1388 was an early law which differentiated between sturdy beggars and the infirm poor. The ...

                                               

Thuggee

Thuggee refers to the acts of Thugs, an organised gang of professional robbers and murderers. The English language word thug traces its roots to the Hindi ठग, which means swindler or deceiver. Related words are the verb thugna, from the Sanskrit ...

                                               

Ticket tout

                                               

Tout

A tout is any person who solicits business or employment in a persistent and annoying manner. According to the American Bar Association, touting occurs when a person advertises, promotes, or otherwise describes a security for sale without disclos ...

                                               

Train robbery

Train robberies were more common in the past when trains were slower, and often occurred in the American Old West. Trains carrying payroll shipments were a major target. These shipments would be guarded by an expressman whose duty it was to prote ...

                                               

Wetwork

Wetwork is a euphemism for murder or assassination, alluding to spilling blood. The expression and the similar wet job, wet affair, or wet operation - all calques of Russian terms for such activities - can be traced to criminal slang from at leas ...

                                               

Criminal justice

Criminal justice is the delivery of justice to those who have committed crimes. The criminal justice system is a series of government agencies and institutions. Goals include the rehabilitation of offenders, preventing other crimes, and moral sup ...

                                               

Bachelor of Criminal Justice

A Bachelor of Criminal Justice is an undergraduate academic degree in the field of criminal justice. Universities that offer a BCJ include University of Colorado Denver, Florida Institute of Technology, New England College, Loyola University in N ...

                                               

Alphonse Bertillon

Alphonse Bertillon was a French police officer and biometrics researcher who applied the anthropological technique of anthropometry to law enforcement creating an identification system based on physical measurements. Anthropometry was the first s ...

                                               

Campbell Collaboration

The Campbell Collaboration is a nonprofit organization that promotes evidence-based decisions and policy through the production of systematic reviews and other types of evidence synthesis. Campbell is composed of coordinating groups that coordina ...

                                               

Capital Jury Project

The Capital Jury Project is a consortium of university-based research studies on the decision-making of jurors in death penalty cases in the United States. It was founded in 1991 and is supported by the National Science Foundation. The goal of th ...

                                               

Carlos Albizu University

Albizu University is a private, non-profit university offering undergraduate and graduate degrees in the fields of psychology, education, speech and language, criminal justice, ESOL, and human services. With the main campus in San Juan, Puerto Ri ...

                                               

Centre for Crime and Justice Studies

The Centre for Crime and Justice Studies is a charity based in the United Kingdom focusing on crime and the criminal justice system. It seeks to bring together people involved in criminal justice through various means, including publications, con ...

                                               

Children First Offenders Second

Children First, Offenders Second is a progressive and positive youth justice model that consists of eight principles. The model is structured to make a child the focus of any responses that are made, in view of their offending behavior.

                                               

Community court

In the United States and several other countries, including the United Kingdom, Canada, and South Africa, a community court is a neighborhood-focused problem-solving court that applies a problem-solving approach to local crime and safety concerns ...

                                               

Comparative contextual analysis

Comparative contextual analysis is a methodology for comparative research where contextual interrogation precedes any analysis of similarity and difference. It is a thematic process directed and designed to explore relationships of agency rather ...

                                               

Comparative criminal justice

Comparative criminal justice is a subfield of the study of Criminal justice that compares justice systems worldwide. Such study can take a descriptive, historical, or political approach. It studies the similarities and differences in structure, g ...

                                               

Consensual crime

A consensual crime is a public-order crime that involves more than one participant, all of whom give their consent as willing participants in an activity that is unlawful. Legislative bodies and interest groups sometimes rationalize the criminali ...

                                               

Coram nobis

The writ of coram nobis is a legal order allowing a court to correct its original judgment upon discovery of a fundamental error that did not appear in the records of the original judgments proceedings and would have prevented the judgment from b ...

                                               

Crime Information Center

A crime information center is a data warehouse and search engine operated by a staff of detectives that assists in providing relevant and timely information to officers conducting an investigation. The computer network stores facts about convicte ...

                                               

Outline of criminal justice

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to criminal justice: Criminal justice – system of practices and institutions of governments directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, or sanctioning ...

                                               

Criminal punishment in Edo-period Japan

In 757 A.D., the Chinese-influenced Yoro Ritsuryo 養老律令 legal system was enacted and introduced Five Judicial Penalties 五刑. Two of the Five Judicial Penalties involved Flogging. Light Flogging provided for 10 to 50 lashes, while Heavy Floggi ...

                                               

Dallas DNA

Dallas DNA is an American television program that premiered on April 28, 2009, on the Investigation Discovery cable channel. It documents the cooperation of the Dallas County, Texas District Attorney Office with several law school innocence progr ...

                                               

Decarcerate PA

Decarcerate PA is a grassroots, all-volunteer coalition seeking to challenge mass incarceration in Pennsylvania. Decarcerate PAs platform has been endorsed by almost 100 organizations. Decarcerate PA is an intentionally democratic organization th ...

                                               

Ding zui

Ding zui is the Chinese practice of hiring impostors or body doubles to stand trial and receive punishment in ones place. The term translates as "substitute criminal," and is reported to be a relatively common practice among Chinas wealthy elite. ...

                                               

Doctor of Criminal Justice

The Doctor of Criminal Justice is a doctoral degree in the field of criminal justice. As a terminal degree, it prepares the holder for administrative, research, academic or professional positions in the criminal justice field at both public and p ...

                                               

Errors of impunity

Errors of impunity is a term used in Brian Forsts book Errors of Justice and in Robert Bohms introduction to a special edition of The Journal of Criminal Justice on miscarriages of justice. They are defined as lapses that result in criminals eith ...

                                               

Eyewitness identification

In eyewitness identification, in criminal law, evidence is received from a witness "who has actually seen an event and can so testify in court". The Innocence Project states that "Eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrong ...

                                               

Fundamental error

Fundamental error is a legal term provided by United State Courts to describe an error which occurs whenever a judgement violates a federal fundamental right. In United States constitutional law, fundamental rights have special significance under ...

                                               

Gender responsive approach for girls in the juvenile justice system

Gender responsive approach for girls in the juvenile justice system represents an emerging trend in communities and courts throughout the United States, Australia and Latin America, as an increasing number of girls are entering the juvenile justi ...

                                               

Girl's court

A girls court is a gender responsive approach for girls in the juvenile justice system that links young "at-risk" females to social service agencies, providing informal sessions on everything from body image, education and counseling with a team ...

                                               

Impartiality

Impartiality is a principle of justice holding that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice, or preferring the benefit to one person over another for improper reasons.

                                               

Incarceration of women

This article discusses the incarceration of women in correctional facilities. According to a study reported in September 2014 by the International Center for Prison Studies, as of August 2014, across the world, 625.000 women and children are bein ...

                                               

Innocence Project New Orleans

Innocence Project New Orleans is a nonprofit legal organization that represents innocent prisoners serving life sentences in Louisiana and south Mississippi. It is the first organization in the Innocence Network to be established in the Deep Sout ...

                                               

Innocence Project of Texas

The Innocence Project of Texas was founded in 2006 as nonprofit to provide free investigative and legal services to indigent Texas citizens who were convicted of crimes they did not commit. ITX is operated with paid staff, law school students, vo ...

                                               

Justice Research and Statistics Association

Justice Research and Statistics Association is a national nonprofit organization of state Statistical Analysis Centers, researchers, and practitioners throughout government, academia, and justice organizations. Justice Research and Statistics Ass ...

                                               

Magistrates' Association

The Magistrates Association is the membership organisation for magistrates in England and Wales. By virtue of its education and training functions it is a charitable organisation and is funded by its members to promote the magistracy.

                                               

Mass arrest

A mass arrest occurs when police apprehend large numbers of suspects at once. This sometimes occurs at protests. Some mass arrests are also used in an effort to combat gang activity. This is sometimes controversial, and lawsuits sometimes result. ...

                                               

Master of Criminal Justice

The Master of Criminal Justice is a postgraduate professional masters degree that is designed as a terminal degree for professionals in the field of criminal justice, criminology, or as preparation for doctoral programs. Areas of concentration in ...

                                               

Mi-Case

Mi-Case is a suite of web-based case management and operations management software provided by CASMACO Ltd. Mi-Case is used in public and commercial sector organisations including criminal justice and behavioural health agencies to underpin a mul ...

                                               

Nacro

Nacro is a national social justice charity operating in England and Wales. It is not formally linked with Sacro in Scotland or NIACRO in Northern Ireland. Nacros services cover education, housing, substance misuse treatment and the prevention of ...

                                               

National Bureau of Investigation (Finland)

The National Bureau of Investigation, Swedish: Centralkriminalpolisen, lit. central criminal police) is a national law enforcement agency of the Finnish Police and the principal criminal investigation and criminal intelligence organization of Fin ...

                                               

National Center for Victims of Crime

The National Center for Victims of Crime is an American 501 nonprofit organization dedicated to providing information, resources and advocacy for victims of all types of crime, as well as the people who serve them. The staff oversees a variety of ...

                                               

National Criminal Justice Association

The National Criminal Justice Association is a Washington, D.C. based organization that represents a variety of local, state, and tribal governments on crime prevention and control issues. The organization primarily works as a public policy liais ...

                                               

National Criminal Justice Reference Service

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service is a federally sponsored program that shares publications and other information including grants and funding opportunities and upcoming trainings and conferences from the United States Department of ...

                                               

National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center

The National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center recently completed a reorganization that will better enable the system to carry out its critical mission to assist state, major city and county, rural, tribal and border, as well as f ...

                                               

Office for Victims of Crime

The Office for Victims of Crime is a part of the Office of Justice Programs, within the U.S. Department of Justice. The OVCs mission is to provide aid and promote justice for crime victims. The office was created in 1988 in an amendment to the Vi ...

                                               

Office of Justice Programs

The Office of Justice Programs is an agency of the United States Department of Justice that focuses on crime prevention through research and development, assistance to state, local, and tribal criminal justice agencies, including law enforcement, ...

                                               

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention is an office of the United States Department of Justice and a component of the Office of Justice Programs. The OJJDP publishes the JRFC Databook on even numbered years for information on y ...

                                               

Una Padel

Una Padel OBE was a British criminal-justice reformer, known for her work in penal reform. She was the director of the Centre for Crime and Justice Studies from 1999 until her death in 2006, after which the centre established the Una Padel Award.

                                               

Participatory justice

Participatory justice, broadly speaking, refers to the direct participation of those affected most by a particular decision, in the decision-making process itself: this could refer to decisions made in a court of law or by policymakers. Popular p ...

                                               

Donna Payant

Donna Payant nee Collins was a New York state corrections officer who was murdered while on duty at Green Haven Correctional Facility. She was one of 50 women serving as guards at Green Haven Correctional Facility. Donna Payant attended the corre ...

                                               

Penal welfarism

                                               

Periodic detention

Periodic detention or weekend detention is a type of custodial sentence under which the offender is held in prison between Friday and Sunday evenings each week, but is at liberty at other times. Promoted by prison reformers as an alternative to i ...

                                               

First Judicial District of Pennsylvania

The First Judicial District is the judicial body governing the county of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. It consists of the Court of Common Pleas of Philadelphia County and the Philadelphia Municipal Court. Although the title of the di ...

                                               

Justice Juanita Kidd Stout Center for Criminal Justice

The Justice Juanita Kidd Stout Center for Criminal Justice, is a courthouse in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is the main criminal courthouse of the First Judicial District of Pennsylvania, housing the Criminal Section of the Philadelphia Court o ...

                                               

Police Tribunal (France)

A police tribunal is a criminal jurisdiction which judges all classes of contraventions committed by adults. More serious offenses are judged by a tribunal correctionnel, correctional tribunal, when they are delits or misdemeanors, or by a cour d ...

                                               

Positive youth justice

The Positive Youth Justice model offers an alternative approach to working with children and young people in conflict with the law. PYJ is both reactionary and progressive. It is reactionary against contemporary risk-based models of youth justice ...

                                               

Post conviction

In law, post-conviction refers to the legal process which takes place after a trial results in conviction of the defendant. After conviction, a court will proceed with sentencing the guilty party. In the American criminal justice system, once a d ...

                                               

Posthumous trial

A posthumous trial or post-mortem trial is a trial held after the defendants death. Posthumous trials can be held for a variety of reasons, including the legal declaration that the defendant was the one who committed the crime, to provide justice ...

                                               

Public defender (Brazil)

Public defender offices in Brazil had its origin in the State of Rio de Janeiro, where on May 5, 1897, a decree established free legal assistance in the Federal District. With its constitutional mission of ensuring the constitutional principles o ...

                                               

Public defender (United States)

In the United States, a public defender is an attorney-at-law appointed by the courts and provided by the state or federal governments to represent and advise those who cannot afford to hire a private attorney. Public defenders are full-time atto ...

                                               

Public Defender Service for the District of Columbia

The Public Defender Service for the District of Columbia provides legal defense to individuals on a court-appointed basis for criminal and delinquency cases indigent adult and juvenile defendants/ respondents. Its Mental Health Division provides ...

                                               

Punishment

Punishment is the imposition of an undesirable or unpleasant outcome upon a group or individual, meted out by an authority - in contexts ranging from child discipline to criminal law - as a response and deterrent to a particular action or behavio ...

                                               

Race in the United States criminal justice system

Race in the United States criminal justice system refers to the unique experiences and disparities in the United States in regard to the policing and prosecuting of various races. There have been different outcomes for different racial groups in ...

                                               

Restorative justice

Restorative justice is an approach to justice in which one of the responses to a crime is to organize a meeting between the victim and the offender, sometimes with representatives of the wider community. The goal is for them to share their experi ...

                                               

Revolving Doors Agency

The Revolving Doors Agency, also known as Revolving Doors, is a charitable organisation in the United Kingdom which works across England and Wales. Through research, policy and campaigning work, the organisation aims to improve services for peopl ...

                                               

The Shipman Inquiry

The Shipman Inquiry was the report produced by a British governmental investigation into the activities of general practitioner and serial killer Harold Shipman. Shipman was arrested in September 1998 and the inquiry commenced shortly after he wa ...

                                               

Theory of criminal justice

The theory of criminal justice is the branch of philosophy of law that deals with criminal justice and in particular punishment. The theory of criminal justice has deep connections to other areas of philosophy, such as political philosophy and et ...

                                               

To Serve and Protect (book)

To Serve and Protect: Privatization and Community in Criminal Justice is a 1998 book by Bruce L. Benson about private policing, private prosecution, and other market-based methods of providing criminal justice. Benson traces the history of govern ...

                                               

United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice

The United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice is a United Nations sponsored congress on the topics of crime, crime prevention and criminal justice, held every five years. It is organized by the United Nations Office on Drug ...

                                               

United States v. Banki

United States v. Banki, 685 F.3d 99 is a case related to the transfer of large amounts of money - totaling some.4 million - from Iran to the United States. Banki was charged with conspiracy to violate the Iranian Transactions Regulations and oper ...

                                               

United States v. Morgan (1954)

United States v. Morgan, 346 U.S. 502, is a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court which provides the writ of coram nobis as the proper application to request federal post-conviction judicial review for those who have completed the ...

                                               

August Vollmer

August Gus Vollmer was the first police chief of Berkeley, California and a leading figure in the development of the field of criminal justice in the United States in the early 20th century.

                                               

Youth justice in England and Wales

Youth justice system in England and Wales comprises the organs and processes that are used to prosecute, convict and punish persons under 18 years of age who commit criminal offences. The principal aim of the youth justice system is to prevent of ...

                                               

Beavis and Butt-Head

Beavis and Butt-Head is an American adult animated sitcom created by Mike Judge. The series originated from Frog Baseball, a 1992 short film by Judge originally aired on Liquid Television. After seeing the short, MTV signed Judge to develop the s ...

                                               

Cambridge Somerville Youth Study

The Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study was the first large-scale randomised experiment in the history of criminology. It was commissioned in 1936 by Dr. Richard Cabot, a Boston physician who proposed an experiment to evaluate the effects of early i ...

                                               

Juvenile court

A juvenile court is a tribunal having special authority to pass judgements for crimes that are committed by children or adolescents who have not attained the age of majority. In most modern legal systems, children or teens who commit a crime are ...

                                               

Gorky Colony

The Gorky colony was a reform school for juvenile delinquents in the 1920s. The colony is the basis of the classic Russian book, The Road to Life, written by the colonys director, Anton Makarenko.

                                               

Rugby boy

Rugby Boys are a collective term for gangs of street children found in the Philippines. They are one of the most well-known poverty-afflicted people found in the slums of the Philippines. They are known for using and being addicted to a contact c ...

                                               

School-to-prison pipeline

In the United States, the school-to-prison pipeline, also known as the school-to-prison link or the schoolhouse-to-jailhouse track, is the disproportionate tendency of minors and young adults from disadvantaged backgrounds to become incarcerated, ...

                                               

Status offense

A status offense is an action that is prohibited only to a certain class of people, and most often applied only to offenses committed by minors. In the United States, the term status offense also refers to an offense such as a traffic violation w ...

                                               

Young offender

A young offender is a young person who has been convicted or cautioned for a criminal offense. Criminal justice systems often deal with young offenders differently from adult offenders, but different countries apply the term "young offender" to d ...

                                               

Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health, safety, and moral welfare of people inclusive of ones self. Most criminal law is est ...

                                               

Abandonment (legal)

In law, abandonment is the relinquishment, giving up or renunciation of an interest, claim, civil proceedings, appeal, privilege, possession, or right, especially with the intent of never again resuming or reasserting it. Such intentional action ...

                                               

Abettor

Abettor, is a legal term implying one who instigates, encourages or assists another to commit an offence. An abettor differs from an accessory in that he must be present at the commission of the crime; in addition they are equally guilty as they ...

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