Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 346

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 346

                                               

Shared services center

A shared services center – a center for shared services in an organization – is the entity responsible for the execution and the handling of specific operational tasks, such as accounting, human resources, payroll, IT, legal, compliance, purchasi ...

                                               

Shareholder

A shareholder is an individual or institution that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a public or private corporation. Shareholders may be referred to as members of a corporation. By law, a person is not a shareholder in a corporation un ...

                                               

Shareholder value

Shareholder value is a business term, sometimes phrased as shareholder value maximization or as the shareholder value model, which implies that the ultimate measure of a companys success is the extent to which it enriches shareholders. It became ...

                                               

Shiftability theory

In banking, shiftability is an approach to keep banks liquid by supporting the shifting of assets. When a bank is short of ready money, it is able to sell or repo its assets to a more liquid bank.

                                               

Short shipment

A short shipment is when cargo is listed on a shipping list but not included in a shipment, or not received by the recipient. Notably, when the quantity received is less than the quantity listed. Conversely, an overshipment is when the quantity r ...

                                               

Short-termism

Short-termism is giving priority to immediate profit, quickly executed projects and short-term results, over long term results and far-seeing action. Short-termism is attributed to certain cognitive biases.

                                               

Shotgun clause

A shotgun clause is a term of art, rather than a legal term. It is a specific type of exit provision that may be included in a shareholders agreement, and may often be referred to as a buy-sell agreement. The shotgun clause allows a shareholder t ...

                                               

Single-window system

The Single-window system is a trade facilitation idea. In simple words, it allows a user to get sufficient information from one source. As such, the implementation of a single window system enables international traders to submit regulatory docum ...

                                               

SIPOC

In process improvement, a SIPOC is a tool that summarizes the inputs and outputs of one or more processes in table form. It is used to define a business process from beginning to end before work begins. The acronym SIPOC stands for s uppliers, i ...

                                               

Six Sigma

Not to be confused with 5S methodology Six Sigma is a set of techniques and tools for process improvement. It was introduced by American engineer Bill Smith while working at Motorola in 1986. Jack Welch made it central to his business strategy at ...

                                               

Skin in the game (phrase)

To have skin in the game is to have incurred risk by being involved in achieving a goal. In the phrase, "skin" is a synecdoche for the person involved, and "game" is the metaphor for actions on the field of play under discussion. The aphorism is ...

                                               

Social consumerism

Social Consumerism occurs when the consumers needs are met, the business achieves profitability and a social issue is positively affected. This is very different than traditional business models where only the first two objectives are achieved. T ...

                                               

Social selling

Social selling is the process of developing relationships as part of the sales process. Today this often takes place via social networks such as LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, and Pinterest, but can take place either online or offline. Examples of ...

                                               

Speed thinking

Speed thinking is a type of thinking technique proposed by authors such as Dr Ken Hudson, Malcolm Gladwell and Edward de Bono that, according to the authors, could accelerate the pace of thinking and improve how an individual or group thinks, cre ...

                                               

Spend analysis

Spend Analysis or Spend Analytics is the process of collecting, cleansing, classifying and analyzing expenditure data with the purpose of decreasing procurement costs, improving efficiency, and monitoring controls and compliance. It can also be l ...

                                               

Split billing

Split billing is the division of a bill for service into two or more parts. Bills may be split to divide work between clients, payers for reimbursement to different service providers for performing a shared service.

                                               

Sprinkler strategy

The sprinkler strategy is a market entry strategy based on the principle of diversification in which a company attempts to enter as many markets as possible in a relatively short time. A successful implementation of the sprinkler strategy require ...

                                               

Staff management

Staff management is the management of subordinates in an organization. Often, large organizations have many of these functions performed by a specialist department, such as personnel or human resources, but all line managers are still required to ...

                                               

Strategic alliance

A strategic alliance is an agreement between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon objectives needed while remaining independent organizations. A strategic alliance will usually fall short of a legal partnership entity, agency, or co ...

                                               

Strategic early warning system

The aim of a strategic early warning system is to assist organizations in dealing with discontinuities or strategic surprises. By detecting weak signals, which can be perceived as important discontinuities in an organizational environment, SEWS a ...

                                               

Strategic financial management

Strategic financial management is the study of finance with a long term view considering the strategic goals of the enterprise. Financial management is nowadays increasingly referred to as "Strategic Financial Management" so as to give it an incr ...

                                               

Strategic management

In the field of management, strategic management involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by an organizations top managers on behalf of owners, based on consideration of resources and an assessment of t ...

                                               

Strategic partnership

A strategic partnership is a relationship between two commercial enterprises, usually formalized by one or more business contracts. A strategic partnership will usually fall short of a legal partnership entity, agency, or corporate affiliate rela ...

                                               

Strategic risk

Strategic risk is the risk that failed business decisions, or lack thereof, may pose to a company. Strategic risk is often a major factor in determining a companys worth, particularly observable if the company experiences a sharp decline in a sho ...

                                               

Strategic sourcing

Strategic sourcing is an institutional procurement process that continuously improves and re-evaluates the purchasing activities of a company. In the services industry, strategic sourcing refers to a service solution, sometimes called a strategic ...

                                               

Straw man proposal

A straw-man proposal is a brainstormed simple draft proposal intended to generate discussion of its disadvantages and to provoke the generation of new and better proposals. The term is considered American business jargon, but it is also encounter ...

                                               

Street date

In business, a street date is the date a particular product is to be released for sale to the general public. Typically, retailers receive shipments of stock prior to its street date release, so that the product can be placed on display shelves f ...

                                               

Structured sale

A structured sale or structured installment sale, is a special type of installment sale pursuant to the Internal Revenue Code. In an installment sale, the seller defers recognition of gain on the sale of a business or real estate to the tax year ...

                                               

Subsidiary

A subsidiary, subsidiary company or daughter company is a company that is owned or controlled by another company, which is called the parent company, parent, or holding company. The subsidiary can be a company, corporation, or limited liability c ...

                                               

Super Bowl indicator

The Super Bowl Indicator is a superstition that says that the stock markets performance in a given year can be predicted based on the outcome of the Super Bowl of that year. It was "discovered" by Leonard Koppett in the 70s when he realized that ...

                                               

Supplier association

A supplier association is a business term which refers to a customer company bringing together a group of its suppliers on a formal and regular basis in order to achieve strategic and operational alignment.

                                               

Supplier convergence

Supplier convergence is a business model in which a company offers a combination of services or products that were previously supplied by separate companies. It is not to be confused with product convergence, where one product combines and replac ...

                                               

Supplier diversity

A Supplier Diversity program is a proactive business program which encourages the use of minority-owned, women owned, veteran owned, LGBT-owned, service disabled veteran owned, historically underutilized business, and Small Business Administratio ...

                                               

Supplier evaluation

Supplier evaluation and supplier appraisal are terms used in business and refer to the process of evaluating and approving potential suppliers by quantitative assessment. The aim of the process is to ensure a portfolio of best-in-class suppliers ...

                                               

Supply chain responsiveness matrix

A supply chain responsiveness matrix is a tool that is used to analyze inventory and lead time within an organization. The matrix is one of a number of Value Stream Mapping tools The matrix is represented by showing lead time along the X- Axis an ...

                                               

Table stakes

In poker and other gambling games, table stakes is a rule that a player may bet no more money than they had on the table at the beginning of that hand; they cannot go back to their pocket for more money once a hand is dealt. This limits the amoun ...

                                               

Tacit relocation

Tacit Relocation in Scots Law is a principle whereby leases of land or buildings are renewed on the same conditions as previously existed if no notice of termination is given within the requisite period, subject to a minimum period of one year, a ...

                                               

Test and learn

Test and Learn is a set of practices followed by retailers, banks and other consumer-focused companies to test ideas in a small number of locations or customers to predict impact. The process is often designed to answer three questions about any ...

                                               

Third-party administrator

A third-party administrator is an organization that processes insurance claims or certain aspects of employee benefit plans for a separate entity. It is also a term used to define organizations within the insurance industry which administer other ...

                                               

First-party source

In commerce, a third-party source means a supplier who is not directly controlled by either the seller nor the customer/buyer in a business transaction. The third party is considered independent from the other two, even if hired by them, because ...

                                               

Throughput (business)

Throughput is rate at which a product is moved through a production process and is consumed by the end-user, usually measured in the form of sales or use statistics. The goal of most organizations is to minimize the investment in inputs as well a ...

                                               

Throughput accounting

Throughput accounting is a principle-based and simplified management accounting approach that provides managers with decision support information for enterprise profitability improvement. TA is relatively new in management accounting. It is an ap ...

                                               

Time and materials

Time and materials is a standard phrase in a contract for construction, product development or any other piece of work in which the employer agrees to pay the contractor based upon the time spent by the contractors employees and subcontractors em ...

                                               

Time to market

In commerce, time to market is the length of time it takes from a product being conceived until its being available for sale. TTM is important in industries where products are outmoded quickly. A common assumption is that TTM matters most for fir ...

                                               

Tonnage tax

A tonnage tax is a taxation mechanism that can be applied to shipping companies. The tax is determined by the Net tonnage of the entire fleet of vessels under operation or use by a company. It is on the basis of this variable that taxation is app ...

                                               

Total addressable market

Total addressable market, also called total available market, is a term that is typically used to reference the revenue opportunity available for a product or service. TAM helps to prioritize business opportunities by serving as a quick metric of ...

                                               

Total productive maintenance

Total Productive Maintenance is a system of maintaining and improving the integrity of production, safety and quality systems through the machines, equipment, processes, and employees that add business value to an organization. TPM focuses on kee ...

                                               

Total quality management

Total quality management consists of organization-wide efforts to "install and make permanent climate where employees continuously improve their ability to provide on demand products and services that customers will find of particular value." "To ...

                                               

Trade finance

Trade finance signifies financing for trade, and it concerns both domestic and international trade transactions. A trade transaction requires a seller of goods and services as well as a buyer. Various intermediaries such as banks and financial in ...

                                               

Trading account assets

Trading account assets refer to a separate account managed by banks that buy U.S. government securities and other securities for their own trading account for resale at a profit to other banks and to the public, rather than for investment in the ...

                                               

Traffic management

Traffic management is a key branch within logistics. It concerns the planning, control and purchasing of transport services needed to physically move vehicles and freight. Traffic management is implemented by people working with different job tit ...

                                               

Transparency report

A transparency report is a statement issued on a regular basis by a company, disclosing a variety of statistics related to requests for user data, records, or content. Transparency reports generally disclose how frequently and under what authorit ...

                                               

Travel and subsistence

Travel and subsistence expenses describe the cost of spending on business travel, meals, hotels, sundry items such as laundry and similar ad hoc expenditures. These reimbursements often have tax and related implications, and vary depending on the ...

                                               

TRevPAR

TRevPAR, or total revenue per available room, is a performance metric in the hotel industry. TRevPAR is calculated by dividing the total net revenues of a property by the total available rooms. TRevPAR is the preferred metric for accountants and ...

                                               

Trojan horse (business)

In business, a trojan horse is an advertising offer made by a company that is designed to draw potential customers by offering them cash or something of value for acceptance, but following acceptance, the buyer is forced to spend a much larger am ...

                                               

Undercapitalization

Under-capitalization refers to any situation where a business cannot acquire the funds they need. An under-capitalized business may be one that cannot afford current operational expenses due to a lack of capital, which can trigger bankruptcy, may ...

                                               

Undervalued stock

An undervalued stock is defined as a stock that is selling at a price significantly below what is assumed to be its intrinsic value. For example, if a stock is selling for, but it is worth 0 based on predictable future cash flows, then it is an u ...

                                               

Utilization rate

In business, the utilization rate is an important number for firms that charge their time to clients and for those that need to maximize the productive time of their employees. It can reflect the billing efficiency or the overall productive use o ...

                                               

Value chain management capability

Value chain management capability refers to an organisations capacity to manage the internationally dispersed activities and partners that are part of its value chain. Value chain management capability is a higher level capability that draws toge ...

                                               

Value investing

Value investing is an investment paradigm that involves buying securities that appear underpriced by some form of fundamental analysis. The various forms of value investing derive from the investment philosophy first taught by Benjamin Graham and ...

                                               

Value proposition

A value proposition is a promise of value to be delivered, communicated, and acknowledged. It is also a belief from the customer about how value will be delivered, experienced and acquired. A value proposition can apply to an entire organization, ...

                                               

Value stream

Value streams are artifacts within business architecture that allow a business to specify the value proposition derived by an external or internal stakeholder from an organization. A value stream depicts the stakeholders initiating and involved i ...

                                               

Value-added reseller

A value-added reseller is a company that adds features or services to an existing product, then resells it as an integrated product or complete "turn-key" solution. This practice occurs commonly in the electronics or IT industry, where, for examp ...

                                               

Value-stream mapping

Value-stream mapping, also known as "material- and information-flow mapping", is a lean-management method for analyzing the current state and designing a future state for the series of events that take a product or service from the beginning of t ...

                                               

Venture equity

Venture equity is an investment strategy that includes a hybrid of venture capital and private equity approaches. Firms or individuals involved in venture equity acquire struggling startups, make improvements to the companies to help spur growth, ...

                                               

Vertical disintegration

Vertical disintegration refers to a specific organizational form of industrial production. As opposed to vertical integration, in which production occurs within a singular organization, vertical disintegration means that various diseconomies of s ...

                                               

Vertical integration

In microeconomics and management, vertical integration is an arrangement in which the supply chain of a company is owned by that company. Usually each member of the supply chain produces a different product or service, and the products combine to ...

                                               

Very small business

A very small business is a company that is at the lower end, in terms of size, of companies that are considered small and medium enterprise. The actual definition of what size companies classify as VSBs varies from region to region, but upper lim ...

                                               

Virtual business

A virtual business employs electronic means to transact business as opposed to a traditional brick and mortar business that relies on face-to-face transactions with physical documents and physical currency or credit.

                                               

Virtual office

A virtual office is part of the flexible workspace industry that provides businesses with any combination of services, space and/or technology, without those businesses bearing the capital expenses of owning or leasing a traditional office. Virtu ...

                                               

Vision statement

A vision statement is a declaration of an organizations objectives, intended to guide its internal decision-making. A vision statement is not limited to business organizations and may also be used by non-profit or governmental entities.

                                               

VRIO

VRIO is a business analysis framework that forms part of the firms larger strategic scheme. The basic strategic process that any firm goes through begins with a vision statement, and continues on through objectives, internal & external analysis, ...

                                               

Vulture investor

Unlike an angel investor, a vulture investor buys up assets and financial instruments below cost from distressed entities. This could take the form of securities, debt, held assets, real estate, etc. A vulture investor may purchase the controllin ...

                                               

Window of opportunity

A window of opportunity is a period of time during which some action can be taken that will achieve a desired outcome. Once this period is over, or the "window is closed", the specified outcome is no longer possible.

                                               

Workload

Workload is the amount of work an individual has to do. There is a distinction between the actual amount of work and the individuals perception of the workload. Workload can also be classified as quantitative the amount of work to be done or qual ...

                                               

Workspace

Workspace refers to small premises provided, often by local authorities or economic development agencies, to help new businesses to establish themselves. These typically provide not only physical space and utilities but also administrative servic ...

                                               

Yield management

Yield management is a variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue or profits from a fixed, time-limited resource. As a specific, inventory-focused branch of revenu ...

                                               

Zero Defects

Zero Defects was a management-led program to eliminate defects in industrial production that enjoyed brief popularity in American industry from 1964 to the early 1970s. Quality expert Philip Crosby later incorporated it into his "Absolutes of Qua ...

                                               

Zone of possible agreement

The term zone of possible agreement, or bargaining range, describes the intellectual zone in sales and negotiations between two parties where the respective minimum targets of the parties overlap. Where no such overlap is given, in other words wh ...

                                               

Bleisure travel

Bleisure travel is a portmanteau of" business” and" leisure”, and, it refers to" the activity of combining business travel with leisure time”. The term bleisure was first published in 2009 by the Future Laboratory as part of their biannual Trend ...

                                               

Business travel

Business travel is travel undertaken for work or business purposes, as opposed to other types of travel, such as for leisure purposes or regularly commuting between ones home and workplace. According to a survey 88% small business owners enjoy bu ...

                                               

Christopherson Business Travel

Christopherson Business Travel is a corporate Travel Management Company headquartered in Salt Lake City, Utah and founded in 1953. Christopherson is the largest travel agency in Utah, and the largest national travel affiliate of BCD Travel, with ...

                                               

CNN Business Traveller

CNN Business Traveller is a monthly television program on CNN International hosted by Richard Quest. The program was launched in 2002 and the program investigates various topics related to business related travel, including airlines, airport loun ...

                                               

Corporate travel management

Corporate travel management is the function of managing a company’s strategic approach to travel, the negotiations with all vendors, day-to-day operation of the corporate travel program, traveler safety and security, credit-card management and tr ...

                                               

FCM Travel Solutions

FCM Travel Solutions is the corporate travel business of the Flight Centre Travel Group. The company is headquartered in Brisbane and operates a network spanning over 90 countries across Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific and the Americas.

                                               

Travel management company

Travel Management Companies are organizations that manage organizations corporate or business travel program. They will often provide an end-user online booking tool, mobile application, program management, and consulting teams, executive travel ...

                                               

The Economists' Voice

The Economists Voice is a publishing forum for professional economists that seeks to fill the gap between op-ed pages of newspapers and scholarly journal articles. Published by Walter de Gruyter, the forum brings to bear scholarly work and academ ...

                                               

ISM Report On Business

The ISM Report On Business ®, popularly known as the ISM Report, is the collective name for two monthly reports, the Manufacturing ISM Report On Business ® and the Non-Manufacturing ISM Report On Business ®, published by Institute for Supply Mana ...

                                               

Non-Manufacturing ISM Report on Business

The Non-Manufacturing ISM Report on Business is a purchasing survey of the United States service economy, published by the Institute for Supply Management since June 1998. Its results are a popular economic indicator and forecaster. The survey is ...

                                               

Philadelphia Fed Report

The Philadelphia Fed Report, formally known as the Business Outlook Survey and sometimes abbreviated as BOS, is a monthly survey produced by the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia which questions manufacturers on general business conditions. Th ...

                                               

The Poor Pay More

The Poor Pay More is a 1967 book published by David Caplovitz. It is a sociology study of what could be called the "poverty penalty", which is a concept that poor people pay more for the same goods and services as people with more money do. Esthe ...

                                               

Regulatory News Service

The Regulatory News Service transmits regulatory and non-regulatory information published by companies and organisations allowing them to comply with local market transparency legislation. It is owned by the London Stock Exchange and distributes ...

                                               

SigFig (company)

SigFig is an investment portal that uses the wiki format. It is available online and via an app. Wikinvest was also a winner in the 2008 SXSW Interactive Web Awards.

                                               

10.000 Women

10.000 Women is a program organized by Goldman Sachs and the Goldman Sachs Foundation with the goal of helping to grow local economies by providing business education, mentoring and networking, and access to capital to underserved women entrepren ...

                                               

22 point regulation

22 point regulation was a guideline approved by the Communist Party of China in 1988 to encourage Taiwanese investments in the Peoples Republic of China.

                                               

100 Best Workplaces in Europe

100 Best Workplaces in Europe is a ranking of the 100 workplaces in Europe performed each year by the Financial Times, in partnership with Great Place to Work. The list is based on employee surveys and a review of the companys culture. Two thirds ...

                                               

Abandonment cost

Abandonment costs or Abandonment expenditure are costs associated with the abandonment of a business venture. Abandonment costs traditionally applied to the process of abandoning an under-producing or non-producing oil or gas well. In that contex ...

                                               

Acceptable loss

An acceptable loss, also known as acceptable damage, is a military euphemism used to indicate casualties or destruction inflicted by the enemy that is considered minor or tolerable. In combat situations, leaders have to often choose between optio ...

                                               

Acqui-hiring

Acqui-hiring or Acq-hiring is a neologism, or a talent acquisition, is the process of acquiring a company primarily to recruit its employees, rather than its products or services. Ben Zimmer traced the derivation of the phrase to a blog post in M ...

                                               

Activated Content

Activated Content is a digital watermarking company based in Seattle, Washington. The company has its own proprietary audio watermarking technology and provides solutions based around watermarking. The system was designed with help from Sony Musi ...

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