Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 323

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 323

                                               

Biblical genre

A Biblical genre is a classification of Bible literature according to literary genre. The genre of a particular Bible passage is ordinarily identified by analysis of its general writing style, tone, form, structure, literary technique, content, d ...

                                               

Historical-grammatical method

The historical-grammatical method is a Christian hermeneutical method that strives to discover the biblical authors original intended meaning in the text, which it then takes as representing history. It is the primary method of interpretation for ...

                                               

Internal consistency of the Bible

The internal consistency of the Bible concerns the coherence and textual integrity of the Bible. Disputes regarding biblical consistency have a long history. Classic texts that discuss questions of inconsistency from a critical secular perspectiv ...

                                               

Kaige revision

The kaige revision, or simply kaige, is the group of revisions to the Septuagint made in order to more closely align its translation with the proto-Masoretic Hebrew. The name kaige derives from the revisions pervasive use of Koinē Greek: και γε. ...

                                               

L Source

In historical-critical analysis, the L source is an inferred oral tradition which Luke used when composing his gospel. It includes the virgin birth of Jesus and many of Jesus best loved parables. Like Matthews unique source, known as M, the L sou ...

                                               

Biblical languages

Biblical languages are any of the languages employed in the original writings of the Bible. Partially owing to the significance of the Bible in society, Biblical languages are studied more widely than many other dead languages. Furthermore, some ...

                                               

James Gilchrist Lawson

James Gilchrist Lawson was a prolific British Christian author and compiler. Most notably, he compiled biographical sketches into Deeper Experiences of Famous Christians, which is a landmark text in Pentecostal and Charismatic history. This book ...

                                               

Medieval popular Bible

The medieval popular Bible is a term used especially in literary studies, but also in art history and other disciplines, to encompass the wide variety of presentations of biblical material in medieval culture not directly recorded in the exegetic ...

                                               

New Perspective on Paul

The New Perspective on Paul represents a significant shift in the field of Biblical studies since the 1970s in the understanding of the writings of the Apostle Paul, due to E. P. Sanders pioneering 1977 work Paul and Palestinian Judaism. Paul adv ...

                                               

Providentissimus Deus

Providentissimus Deus, "On the Study of Holy Scripture", was an encyclical letter issued by Pope Leo XIII on 18 November 1893. In it, he reviewed the history of Bible study from the time of the Church Fathers to the present, spoke against the err ...

                                               

Ernest Renan

Joseph Ernest Renan was a French expert of Semitic languages and civilizations, philosopher, biblical scholar and critic, and historian of religion. He is best known for his influential and pioneering historical works on the origins of early Chri ...

                                               

Gary A. Rendsburg

Gary A. Rendsburg is a professor of biblical studies, Hebrew language, and ancient Judaism at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. He holds the rank of Distinguished Professor and serves as the Blanche and Irving Laurie Chair of Jewis ...

                                               

Alexander Souter

Souter was born in Perth, and studied at the University of Aberdeen and the University of Cambridge. He subsequently became a Latin assistant at Aberdeen. While at Cambridge he studied under J. E. B. Mayor, whom Souter would credit with influence ...

                                               

Supplementary hypothesis

In biblical studies, the supplementary hypothesis proposes that the Pentateuch was derived from a series of direct additions to an existing corpus of work. It serves as a revision to the earlier documentary hypothesis, which proposed that indepen ...

                                               

Wisdom literature

Wisdom literature is a genre of literature common in the ancient Near East. It consists of statements by sages and the wise that offer teachings about divinity and virtue. Although this genre uses techniques of traditional oral storytelling, it w ...

                                               

Truth-default theory

Truth-default theory is a communication theory which predicts and explains the use of veracity and deception detection in humans. It was developed upon the discovery of the veracity effect - whereby the proportion of truths versus lies presented ...

                                               

African American Communication

The book seeks to demonstrate why and how communication in interpersonal interactions between African Americans differs from that between European Americans. The authors argue that African-American identity, communicative competence, language sty ...

                                               

Canadian Communication Association

The Canadian Communication Association is a national, bilingual association of communications researchers, educators, and private and public sector professionals in Canada. Established in 1979, the CCA/ACC "seeks to advance communication research ...

                                               

Center for Intercultural Dialogue

The Center for Intercultural Dialogue was established by the Council of Communication Associations in March 2010. Intercultural dialogue occurs when members of different cultural groups, who hold conflicting opinions and assumptions, speak to one ...

                                               

Closed-loop communication

Closed-loop communication is a communication technique used to avoid misunderstandings. When the sender gives a message, the receiver repeats this back. The sender then confirms the message; thereby common is using the word" yes ”. When the recei ...

                                               

Communication design

Communication design is a mixed discipline between design and information-development which is concerned with how media intervention such as printed, crafted, electronic media or presentations communicate with people. A communication design appro ...

                                               

History of communication studies

Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.

                                               

Crisis communication

Crisis communication is a sub-specialty of the public relations profession that is designed to protect and defend an individual, company, or organization facing a public challenge to its reputation. The communication scholar Timothy Coombs define ...

                                               

Cross-cultural communication

Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from differing cultural backgrounds communicate, in similar and different ways among themselves, and how they endeavor to communicate across cultures. Intercultural communi ...

                                               

Development communication

Development communication refers to the use of communication to facilitate social development. Development communication engages stakeholders and policy makers, establishes conducive environments, assesses risks and opportunities and promotes inf ...

                                               

Digital rhetoric

Digital rhetoric is a way of informing, persuading, and inspiring action in an audience through digital media that is composed, created, and distributed through multimedia platforms. Due to the digitally mediated nature of our contemporary societ ...

                                               

Environmental communication

Environmental communication is "the dissemination of information and the implementation of communication practices that are related to the environment. In the beginning, environmental communication was a narrow area of communication; however, now ...

                                               

Feminist rhetoric

Feminist rhetoric is seen as the act of producing or the study of feminist discourses. According to Jacqueline Jones Royster, it is a fairly new field that works to bring the narrative of all demographics of women into the pedagogy of rhetoric. S ...

                                               

Frame analysis

Frame analysis is a multi-disciplinary social science research method used to analyze how people understand situations and activities. Frame analysis looks at images, stereotypes metaphors, actors, messages, and more. It examines how important th ...

                                               

Health communication

Health communication is the study and practice of communicating promotional health information, such as in public health campaigns, health education, and between doctor and patient. The purpose of disseminating health information is to influence ...

                                               

History of communication

The history of communication technologies have evolved in tandem with shifts in political and economic systems, and by extension, systems of power. Communication can range from very subtle processes of exchange, to full conversations and mass com ...

                                               

Intergroup Dialogue

Intergroup dialogue is a "face-to-face facilitated conversation between members of two or more social identity groups that strives to create new levels of understanding, relating, and action". This process promotes conversation around controversi ...

                                               

Interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication is an exchange of information between two or more people. It is also an area of research that seeks to understand how humans use verbal and nonverbal cues to accomplish a number of personal and relational goals. Interp ...

                                               

MacBride report

Many Voices One World, also known as the MacBride report, was a written in 1980 by United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization UNESCO which reports to its International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems. Based ...

                                               

Making Chastity Sexy

Making Chastity Sexy: The Rhetoric of Evangelical Abstinence Campaigns is a 2011 book by Christine Gardner, a professor at Wheaton College. In it, Gardner states that sexual abstinence teachings by evangelicals are currently "using sex to sell ab ...

                                               

Mass communication

Mass communication is the process of imparting and exchanging information through mass media to large segments of the population. It is usually understood for relating to various forms of media, as these technologies are used for the disseminatio ...

                                               

Media ecology

Media ecology theory is the study of media, technology, and communication and how they affect human environments. The theoretical concepts were proposed by Marshall McLuhan in 1964, while the term media ecology was first formally introduced by Ma ...

                                               

Mediated cross-border communication

Mediated cross-border communication is a scholarly field in communication studies and refers to any mediated form of communication in the course of which nation state or cultural borders are crossed or even get transgressed and undermined. The ex ...

                                               

Organizational communication

In communication studies, organizational communication is the study of communication within organizations. The flow of communication could be either formal or informal.

                                               

Performance studies

Performance studies is an interdisciplinary field that studies performance and uses performance as a lens to study the world. The term performance is broad, and can include artistic and aesthetic performances like concerts, theatrical events, and ...

                                               

Political communication

Political communication is a subfield of communication and political science that is concerned with how information spreads and influences politics and policy makers, the news media and citizens. Since the advent of the World Wide Web, the amount ...

                                               

Political economy of communications

The Political Economy of Communications, news, or media, is a particular branch in Communication studies or media studies which studies the power relations that shape the communication of information from the mass media to its publics. This conce ...

                                               

Public rhetoric

Public rhetoric refers to discourse both within a group of people and between groups, often centering on the process by which individual or group discourse seeks membership in the larger public discourse. Public rhetoric can also involve rhetoric ...

                                               

Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of persuasion, which along with grammar and logic, is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in spe ...

                                               

Risk management

Risk management is the identification, evaluation, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the re ...

                                               

Science communication

Science communication is the practice of informing, educating, sharing wonderment, and raising awareness of science-related topics. Science communicators and audiences are ambiguously defined and the expertise and level of science knowledge varie ...

                                               

Semiotics

Semiotics is the study of sign process, which is any form of activity, conduct, or any process that involves signs, including the production of meaning. A sign is anything that communicates a meaning, that is not the sign itself, to the interpret ...

                                               

Tie signs

Tie signs are signs, signals, and symbols, that are revealed through peoples actions as well as objects such as engagement rings, wedding bands, and photographs of a personal nature that suggest a relationship exists between two people. For roman ...

                                               

Visual rhetoric

Visual rhetoric is a form of rhetoric and communication through the use of visual images, typography and texts. Visual rhetoric encompasses the skill of visual literacy and the ability to analyze images for their form and meaning. Drawing on tech ...

                                               

Outline of environmental studies

Renewable energy Environmental toxicology Environmental organization Environmental degradation Renewable resource Global issue Natural resource management Pollutant Environmental archaeology Whaling Environmental remediation Environmental effects ...

                                               

Bachelor of Environmental Science

A Bachelor of Environmental Science is an undergraduate bachelors degree awarded for courses taken in the study of environmental science or related disciplines, such as sustainable resource development, environmental health, or ecological sustain ...

                                               

Bachelor of Resource and Environmental Planning

The Bachelor of Resource and Environmental Planning is a professional degree that seeks to integrate the disciplines of Urban planning, Environmental planning and Natural resource management. It is similar to the Bachelor of Environmental Studies ...

                                               

Biodiversity Monitoring Switzerland

The Biodiversity Monitoring Switzerland surveys the long-term development of species diversity in selected organism groups in Switzerland. The focus is on surveying common and widespread species in order to make informed statements about the deve ...

                                               

Cold and heat adaptations in humans

Cold and heat adaptations in humans are a part of the broad adaptability of Homo sapiens. Adaptations in humans can be physiological, genetic, or cultural, which allow people to live in a wide variety of climates. There has been a great deal of r ...

                                               

Commodification of nature

The commodification of nature is an area of research within critical environmental studies that is concerned with the ways in which natural entities and processes are made exchangeable through the market, and the implications thereof. Drawing upo ...

                                               

Ecocriticism

Ecocriticism is the study of literature and the environment from an interdisciplinary point of view, where literature scholars analyze texts that illustrate environmental concerns and examine the various ways literature treats the subject of natu ...

                                               

Environment and Urbanization ASIA

Environment and Urbanization ASIA is a peer reviewed journal which provides information in the fields of urbanization, human settlements and the environment across Asia. It is published twice a year by SAGE Publications in association with Nation ...

                                               

Geovisualization

Geovisualization or geovisualisation, refers to a set of tools and techniques supporting the analysis of geospatial data through the use of interactive visualization. Like the related fields of scientific visualization and information visualizati ...

                                               

Human ecology

Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments. The philosophy and study of human ecology has a diffuse history with advancements in ecology, ...

                                               

Master of Environmental Management

The M.E.M. is a degree designed for students with primary interests in careers in environmental policy and analysis, stewardship, education, consulting, or management dealing with natural resource or environmental issues. The program requires cou ...

                                               

Master of Resource Management

The Master of Resource Management degree is a graduate degree program in the School of Resource and Environmental Management at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada. and the university centre of the Westfjords, Iceland. Th ...

                                               

Philosophy of environment

The philosophy of environment is a trend of free thought located between philosophy, epistemology and anthropology. It combines various schools of philosophy such as humanist ecology, philosophy of evolution and environmental humanism. It is also ...

                                               

Prisoner's dilemma

The prisoners dilemma is a standard example of a game analyzed in game theory that shows why two completely rational individuals might not cooperate, even if it appears that it is in their best interests to do so. It was originally framed by Merr ...

                                               

Queer ecology

The term queer ecology refers to a series of practices that reimagine nature, biology, and sexuality in light of queer theory. Queer ecology disrupts heterosexist notions of nature, drawing from a diverse array of disciplines, including science s ...

                                               

Semiosphere

Semiosphere is the sphere of semiosis in which sign processes operate in the set of all interconnected Umwelten. The concept was coined by Yuri Lotman in 1984 and is now applied to many fields, including cultural semiotics generally, biosemiotics ...

                                               

Urban semiotics

Urban semiotics is the study of meaning in urban form as generated by signs, symbols, and their social connotations. Most urban semiotic theory is based on social semiotics, which considers social connotations, including meanings related to ideol ...

                                               

Euthenics

Euthenics is the study of the improvement of human functioning and well-being by improvement of living conditions. "Improvement" is conducted by altering external factors such as education and the controllable environment, including the preventio ...

                                               

Accountability

In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving. As an aspect of governance, it has been central to discussions related to problems in the public sector, nonprofit and p ...

                                               

Minnie Cumnock Blodgett

Minnie Cumnock Blodgett graduated from Vassar College in 1884, later becoming a trustee. She is the mother of Katharine Blodgett Hadley, who was also a Vassar trustee, and was chairman of the Board. Her husband, John W. Blodgett, built their esta ...

                                               

Corporate social responsibility

Corporate social responsibility is a type of international private business self-regulation that aims to contribute to societal goals of a philanthropic, activist, or charitable nature by engaging in or supporting volunteering or ethically-orient ...

                                               

European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions

The European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions, abbreviated EU-SILC, is a survey department of the EU. It replaced in 2004 the European Community Household Panel, which covered the years 1994-2003. The EU-SILC includes only minor c ...

                                               

Home economics

Home economics, domestic science or home science is a field of study that deals with the relationship between individuals, families, communities, and the environment in which they live. Home economics courses are offered internationally and acros ...

                                               

Jukes family

The Jukes family was a New York "hill family" studied in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The studies are part of a series of other family studies, including the Kallikaks, the Zeros and the Nams, that were often quoted as arguments in sup ...

                                               

The Kallikak Family

The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness was a 1912 book by the American psychologist and eugenicist Henry H. Goddard. The work was an extended case study of Goddards for the inheritance of "feeble-mindedness", a general ...

                                               

Julia Lathrop

Julia Clifford Lathrop was an American social reformer in the area of education, social policy, and childrens welfare. As director of the United States Childrens Bureau from 1912 to 1922, she was the first woman ever to head a United States feder ...

                                               

Public health

Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease”, prolonging life and improving quality of life through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals ...

                                               

Ellen Swallow Richards

Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards was an industrial and safety engineer, environmental chemist, and university faculty member in the United States during the 19th century. Her pioneering work in sanitary engineering, and experimental research in d ...

                                               

Social accounting

Social accounting is the process of communicating the social and environmental effects of organizations economic actions to particular interest groups within society and to society at large. Social Accounting is different from public interest acc ...

                                               

Social responsibility

Social responsibility is an ethical framework and suggests that an entity, be it an organization or individual, has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large. Social responsibility is a duty every individual has to perform so as to ...

                                               

Digital phenotyping

Digital phenotyping is a multidisciplinary field of science, defined by Jukka-Pekka Onnela in 2015 as the" moment-by-moment quantification of the individual-level human phenotype in situ using data from personal digital devices,” in particular sm ...

                                               

Legal anthropology

Legal anthropology, also known as the anthropology of laws, is a sub-discipline of anthropology which specializes in "the cross-cultural study of social ordering". The questions that Legal Anthropologists seek to answer concern how is law present ...

                                               

Legal archaeology

Legal archaeology is an area of legal scholarship "involving detailed historical reconstruction and analysis of important cases." While most legal scholars confine their research to published opinions of court cases, legal archaeologists examine ...

                                               

Transdisciplinarity

Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach. It applies to research efforts focused on problems that cross the boundaries of two or more disciplines, such as research on ...

                                               

Legal norms

A legal norm is a binding rule or principle, or norm, that organisations of sovereign power promulgate and enforce in order to regulate social relations. Legal norms determine the rights and duties of individuals who are the subjects of legal rel ...

                                               

Analytical jurisprudence

Analytical jurisprudence is a philosophical approach to law that draws on the resources of modern analytical philosophy to try to understand its nature. Since the boundaries of analytical philosophy are somewhat vague, it is difficult to say how ...

                                               

Cautelary jurisprudence

Cautelary jurisprudence is law made in a precautionary way prior to or outside of the normal legislative enactment. It meant empirical, practical legal efforts aimed at solving individual cases, as distinguished from regular jurisprudence which s ...

                                               

Commodity form theory

Commodity form theory is a theory of jurisprudence advanced by the Soviet legal theorist Evgeny Pashukanis. The theory argues that the legal form is the parallel of the commodity form under capitalist society. All law is concerned with the proces ...

                                               

Courtroom Workgroup

In the United States criminal justice system, a Courtroom Workgroup is an informal arrangement between a criminal prosecutor, criminal defense attorney, and the judicial officer. This foundational concept in the academic discipline of criminal ju ...

                                               

Human Rights and Climate Change

Human Rights and Climate Change is a conceptual and legal framework under which international human rights and their relationship to global warming are studied, analyzed, and addressed. The framework has been employed by governments, United Natio ...

                                               

Judicial interference

Judicial interference is the actions of courts or judicial officers in matters that are interpreted by some as beyond their constitutionally established role.

                                               

Otto Kirchheimer

Otto Kirchheimer was a German jurist of Jewish ancestry and political scientist of the Frankfurt School whose work essentially covered the state and its constitution. Kirchheimer worked as a research analyst at the Office of Strategic Services OS ...

                                               

Kompetenz-kompetenz

Kompetenz-kompetenz, or competence-competence, is a jurisprudential doctrine whereby a legal body, such as a court or arbitral tribunal, may have competence, or jurisdiction, to rule as to the extent of its own competence on an issue before it. T ...

                                               

Law school of Beirut

The law school of Beirut was a center for the study of Roman law located in Berytus during late antiquity. It flourished under the patronage of the Roman emperors and functioned as the Roman Empires preeminent center of jurisprudence until its de ...

                                               

Law without the state

Law without the state is law made primarily outside of the power of a state. Such law may be established in several ways: It may emerge in systems such as existed in feudal Europe prior to the emergence of the modern nation state with the treaty ...

                                               

Legal debate

A legal debate is a discussion between lawyers, legal academics, jurists, politicians, and others who might have an interest or expertise in the law, about a particular legal issue.

                                               

Philip Morris v. Uruguay

The Philip Morris v. Uruguay case started on 19 February 2010, when the multinational tobacco company Philip Morris International filed a complaint against Uruguay. The company complained that Uruguays anti-smoking legislation devalued its cigare ...

                                               

Owen Hood Phillips

Owen Hood Phillips was Barber Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of Birmingham and Dean of the Faculty of Law, Vice-Principal and Pro-Vice-Chancellor of that university.

                                               

Practice of law

In its most general sense, the practice of law involves giving legal advice to clients, drafting legal documents for clients, and representing clients in legal negotiations and court proceedings such as lawsuits, and is applied to the professiona ...

                                               

Retslægerådet

Retslægerådet is a Danish institution under the Ministry of Justice. Its job is to guide the authority body on medical questions in legal cases. The council advised up to 2000 times in 2006. Most of their cases are about psychiatry.

                                               

Scholia Sinaitica

The Scholia Sinaitica are fragments of a work of Roman law written in Greek, dating between 438 and 529 AD, containing comments to the books 35-38 of Ulpians ad Sabinum treatise. The papyrus fragments that show parts of the work were discovered b ...

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