Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 316

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 316

                                               

The Family of Man

The Family of Man was an ambitious photography exhibition curated by Edward Steichen, the director of the New York City Museum of Modern Arts Department of Photography. According to Steichen, the exhibition represented the "culmination of his car ...

                                               

Feminine psychology

Feminine psychology is an approach that focuses on social, economic, and political issues confronting women all throughout their lives. It can be considered a reaction to male-dominated theories such as Sigmund Freuds view of female sexuality. Th ...

                                               

Flaneur

Flaneur, from the French noun flaneur, means "stroller", "lounger", "saunterer", or "loafer". Flanerie is the act of strolling, with all of its accompanying associations. A near-synonym is boulevardier. He is an ambivalent figure of urban riches ...

                                               

Food fight

A food fight is a form of chaotic collective behavior, in which food is thrown at others in the manner of projectiles. These projectiles are not made nor meant to harm others, but to simply ignite a fight filled with spontaneous food throwing. Fo ...

                                               

Functional Ensemble of Temperament

Functional Ensemble of Temperament is a neurochemical model suggesting specific functional roles of main neurotransmitter systems in the regulation of behaviour.

                                               

Gender differences in social network service use

Men and women use social network services differently and with different frequencies. In general, several researchers have found that women tend to use SNSs more than men and for different and more social purposes.

                                               

Gender psychology

Gender is generally conceived as a set of characteristics or traits that are associated with a certain biological sex. In non-western countries, gender is not always conceived as binary, or strictly linked to biological sex. As a result, in some ...

                                               

Gender role

A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their biological or perceived sex. Gender roles are ...

                                               

Gold digger

A gold digger is a person, typically a woman, who engages in a type of transactional relationship for money rather than love. When it turns into marriage, it is a type of marriage of convenience.

                                               

Good Behavior Game

The Good Behavior Game is a scientifically proven strategy used to increase self-regulation, group regulation and stimulate prosocial behavior among students while reducing problematic behavior. The Good Behavior Game has more than 60 published s ...

                                               

Group polarization

In social psychology, group polarization refers to the tendency for a group to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of its members. These more extreme decisions are towards greater risk if individuals initial tendenci ...

                                               

Guiltive

The guiltive is a term introduced by John Haiman for the speaker attitude whereby the speaker overtly presents him- or herself as generous or indifferent but actually means the opposite of what he or she is saying, with the intention of making th ...

                                               

Habit

A habit is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously. The American Journal of Psychology 1903 defines a "habit, from the standpoint of psychology, a more or less fixed way of thinking, willing, or feeling ...

                                               

Hamiltonian spite

Within the field of social evolution, Hamiltonian spite is a term for behaviours occurring among conspecifics that have a cost for the actor and a negative impact upon the recipient.

                                               

Hawthorne effect

The Hawthorne effect is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed. This can undermine the integrity of research, particularly the relationships between variables. ...

                                               

Health action process approach

The health action process approach is a psychological theory of health behavior change, developed by Ralf Schwarzer, Professor of Psychology at the Free University of Berlin, Germany. Health behavior change refers to a replacement of health-compr ...

                                               

Herd mentality

Herd mentality, mob mentality and pack mentality, also lesser known as gang mentality, describes how people can be influenced by their peers to adopt certain behaviors on a largely emotional, rather than rational, basis. When individuals are affe ...

                                               

Human information interaction

Human-information interaction or HII is the formal term for information behavior research in archival science; the term was invented by Nahum Gershon in 1995. HII is not transferable from analog to digital research because nonprofessional researc ...

                                               

Human nature

Human nature is a bundle of characteristics, including ways of thinking, feeling, and acting, which humans are said to have naturally. The term is often regarded as capturing what it is to be human, or the essence of humanity. The term is controv ...

                                               

Human Universals

Human Universals is a book by Donald Brown, an American professor of anthropology who worked at the University of California, Santa Barbara. It was published by McGraw Hill in 1991. Brown says human universals, "comprise those features of culture ...

                                               

Human vestigiality

In the context of human evolution, human vestigiality involves those traits occurring in humans that have lost all or most of their original function through evolution. Although structures called vestigial often appear functionless, a vestigial s ...

                                               

Hypoactivity

Hypoactivity is an inhibition of behavioral or locomotor activity. Hypoactivity is a characteristic effect of sedative agents and many centrally acting anesthetics. Other drugs such as antipsychotics and mCPP also produce this effect, often as a ...

                                               

Impulse (psychology)

An impulse is a wish or urge, particularly a sudden one. It can be considered as a normal and fundamental part of human thought processes, but also one that can become problematic, as in a condition like obsessive-compulsive disorder, borderline ...

                                               

Impulsivity

In psychology, impulsivity is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences. Impulsive actions are typically "poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, ...

                                               

Inclusive fitness in humans

Inclusive fitness in humans is the application of inclusive fitness theory to human social behaviour, relationships and cooperation. Inclusive fitness theory and the related kin selection theory are general theories in evolutionary biology that p ...

                                               

Infomania

Infomania is the debilitating state of information overload, caused by the combination of a backlog of information to process, and continuous interruptions from technologies like phones, instant messaging, and e-mail. It is also defined as an obs ...

                                               

Institute for the Study of Human Knowledge

The Institute for the Study of Human Knowledge is a non-profit educational charity and publisher established in 1969 by the noted and award-winning psychologist and writer Robert E. Ornstein and based in Los Altos, California, in the United State ...

                                               

Interactionism (nature versus nurture)

In the context of the nature-nurture debate, interactionism is the view that all human behavioral traits develop from the interaction of both "nature" and "nurture", that is, from both genetic and environmental factors. This view further holds th ...

                                               

Internet troll

In Internet slang, a troll is a person who starts quarrels or upsets people on the Internet to distract and sow discord by posting inflammatory and digressive, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community with the intent of provoking ...

                                               

Intrusiveness

Intrusiveness can refer to a behavior, act, state or disposition towards being intrusive, interrupting and disturbing to others. Intrusiveness is typically unwelcome and recipients of intrusive behavior may feel like the intruder is coming withou ...

                                               

Irrationality

Irrationality is cognition, thinking, talking, or acting without inclusion of rationality. It is more specifically described as an action or opinion given through inadequate use of reason, or through emotional distress or cognitive deficiency. Th ...

                                               

Jeitinho

Jeitinho is finding a way to accomplish something by circumventing or bending the rules or social conventions. Most times it is harmless, made for basic ordinary opportunistic advantages, as gatecrashing a party just to get free food and beverage ...

                                               

John Henryism

John Henryism is a strategy for coping with prolonged exposure to stresses such as social discrimination by expending high levels of effort which results in accumulating physiological costs.

                                               

Kindness

Kindness is a behavior marked by ethical characteristics, a pleasant disposition, and concern and consideration for others. It is considered a virtue, and is recognized as a value in many cultures and religions. In Book II of "Rhetoric", Aristotl ...

                                               

Lawn dart effect

In psychology, the lawn dart effect occurs when fighter aircraft pilots accelerate horizontally at more than 1 standard gravity. The effect occurs when such extreme stimulation to the vestibular system leads to the perception that the aircraft is ...

                                               

Laziness

Laziness is disinclination to activity or exertion despite having the ability to act or to exert oneself. It is often used as a pejorative; terms for a person seen to be lazy include "couch potato", "slacker", and "bludger". Despite Sigmund Freud ...

                                               

Leisure satisfaction

"Leisure refers to activities that a person voluntarily engages in when they are free from any work, social or familial responsibilities." Leisure satisfaction is the positive perceptions or feelings that an individual forms, elicits and gains as ...

                                               

Loner

A loner is a person who avoids or does not actively seek human interaction or relationships. There are many reasons for their solitude, intentional or otherwise. Intentional reasons include being introverted, spiritual, mystic, having religious c ...

                                               

The Lucifer Principle

The Lucifer Principle is a 1995 book by Howard Bloom, in which the author argues that social groups, not individuals, are the primary "unit of selection" on genes and human psychological development. He states that both competition between groups ...

                                               

Maternal sensitivity

Maternal sensitivity is a mothers ability to perceive and infer the meaning behind her infants behavioural signals, and to respond to them promptly and appropriately. Maternal sensitivity affects child development at all stages through life, from ...

                                               

Maturity (psychological)

In psychology, maturity is the ability to respond to the environment being aware of the correct time and location to behave and knowing when to act, according to the circumstances and the culture of the society one lives in. Adult development and ...

                                               

McGuire's Motivations

McGuire’s Psychological Motivations is a classification system that organizes theories of motives into 16 categories. The system helps marketers to isolate motives likely to be involved in various consumption situations.

                                               

Meaningful life

In positive psychology, a meaningful life is a construct having to do with the purpose, significance, fulfillment, and satisfaction of life. While specific theories vary, there are two common aspects: a global schema to understand ones life and t ...

                                               

Mind games

Mind games is used to define three forms of competitive human behaviors: the unconscious games played by people engaged in ulterior transactions of which they are not fully aware, and which transactional analysis considers to form a central eleme ...

                                               

Misanthropy

Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature. A misanthrope or misanthropist is someone who holds such views or feelings. The words origin is from the Greek words μῖσος and ἄνθρωπος. The co ...

                                               

Mockery

Mockery or mocking is the act of insulting or making light of a person or other thing, sometimes merely by taunting, but often by making a caricature, purporting to engage in imitation in a way that highlights unflattering characteristics. Mocker ...

                                               

Models of communication

Models of communication are conceptual models used to explain the human communication process. The first major model for communication was developed in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon and published with an introduction by Warren Weaver for Bell Lab ...

                                               

Motivation

Motivation is the experience of desire or aversion…You want something, or want to avoid or escape something. As such, motivation has both an objective side – a goal or thing you aspire to – and an internal or subjective aspect: it is you that wan ...

                                               

Nagging

Nagging, in interpersonal communication, is repetitious behaviour in the form of pestering, hectoring, or otherwise continuously urging an individual to complete previously discussed requests or act on advice. Reporter Elizabeth Bernstein defined ...

                                               

Narcissism

Narcissism is the pursuit of gratification from vanity or egotistic admiration of ones idealised self image and attributes. This includes self-flattery, perfectionism, and arrogance. The term originated from Greek mythology, where the young Narci ...

                                               

Narcissistic leadership

Narcissistic leadership is a leadership style in which the leader is only interested in him/herself. Their priority is themselves – at the expense of their people/group members. This leader exhibits the characteristics of a narcissist: arrogance, ...

                                               

Narcissistic parent

A narcissistic parent is a parent affected by narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder. Typically, narcissistic parents are exclusively and possessively close to their children and are threatened by their childrens growing independence. Th ...

                                               

National Procrastination Week

National Procrastination Week is a national holiday devoted to procrastination and putting-off important tasks. It is an annual event that takes place during the first two weeks of March, but, in spirit of the holiday, the specific dates change a ...

                                               

National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior

The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior is an award-winning decade-long nationally representative study of human sexual behavior. The research has been conducted in the United States by researchers from the Center for Sexual Health Prom ...

                                               

Nature Human Behaviour

Nature Human Behaviour is a monthly multidisciplinary online-only peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of human behaviour. It was established in January 2017 and is published by Springer Nature Publishing. The editor-in-chief is ...

                                               

Nature versus nurture

The nature versus nurture debate involves whether human behavior is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a persons life, or by a persons genes. The alliterative expression "nature and nurture" in English has been in use since ...

                                               

Neanderthal behavior

Almost everything about Neanderthal behaviour remains controversial. From their physiology, Neanderthals are presumed to have been omnivores, but animal protein formed the majority of their dietary protein, showing them to have been apex predator ...

                                               

Negative capability

Negative capability was a phrase first used by Romantic poet John Keats in 1817 to characterise the capacity of the greatest writers to pursue a vision of artistic beauty even when it leads them into intellectual confusion and uncertainty, as opp ...

                                               

Neophobia

Neophobia is the fear of anything new, especially a persistent and abnormal fear. In its milder form, it can manifest as the unwillingness to try new things or break from routine. In the context of children the term is generally used to indicate ...

                                               

Normality (behavior)

Normal person behavior that can be normal for an individual when it is consistent with the most common behaviour for that person. Normal is also used to describe individual behaviour that conforms to the most common behaviour in society. Definiti ...

                                               

Normative social influence

Normative social influence is a type of social influence that leads to conformity. It is defined in social psychology as ".the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them." The power of normative s ...

                                               

Obedience (human behavior)

Obedience, in human behavior, is a form of "social influence in which a person yields to explicit instructions or orders from an authority figure". Obedience is generally distinguished from compliance, which is behavior influenced by peers, and f ...

                                               

Obfuscation

Obfuscation is the obscuring of the intended meaning of communication by making the message difficult to understand, usually with confusing and ambiguous language. The obfuscation might be either unintentional or intentional, and is accomplished ...

                                               

Obstructionism

An obstructionist causes problems. Neuman and Baron 1998 identify obstructionism as one of the three dimensions that encompass the range of workplace aggression. In this context, obstructionism is "behaviors intended to hinder an employee from pe ...

                                               

Opportunism

Opportunism is the practice of taking advantage of circumstances – with little regard for principles or with what the consequences are for others. Opportunist actions are expedient actions guided primarily by self-interested motives. The term can ...

                                               

Passive-aggressive behavior

Passive-aggressive behavior is characterized by a pattern of passive hostility and an avoidance of direct communication. Inaction where some action is socially customary is a typical passive-aggressive strategy. Such behavior is sometimes protest ...

                                               

Pedant

A pedant is a person who is excessively concerned with formalism, accuracy, and precision, or one who makes an ostentatious and arrogant show of learning.

                                               

Personal advertisement

A personal or personal ad is an item or notice traditionally in the newspaper, similar to a classified advertisement but personal in nature. In British English it is also commonly known as an advert in a lonely hearts column. With its rise in pop ...

                                               

Pet peeve

A pet peeve, pet aversion, or pet hate is a minor annoyance that an individual identifies as particularly irritating to them, to a greater degree than would be expected based on the experience of others. The phrase analogizes that feeling of anno ...

                                               

Phi complex

The phi complex is a brain rhythm in the awake human brain that appears to serve various social functions. Phi is one of several brain rhythms in the awake human brain that coordinate human behavior. "Phi" operates in the 10-Hz band, and is locat ...

                                               

Popularity

In sociology, popularity is how much a person, idea, place, item or other concept is either liked or accorded status by other people. Liking can be due to reciprocal liking, interpersonal attraction, and similar factors. Social status can be due ...

                                               

Preferred walking speed

The preferred walking speed is the speed at which humans or animals choose to walk. Many people tend to walk at about 1.4 metres per second. Although many people are capable of walking at speeds upwards of 2.5 m/s, especially for short distances, ...

                                               

Premastication

Premastication, pre-chewing, or kiss feeding is the act of chewing food for the purpose of physically breaking it down in order to feed another that is incapable of masticating the food by themselves. This is often done by the mother or relatives ...

                                               

Probabilistic epigenesis

Probabilistic epigenesis is a way of understanding human behavior based on the relationship between experience and biology. It is a variant form of epigenetics, proposed by American psychologist Gilbert Gottlieb in 1991. Gottlieb’s model is based ...

                                               

Procrastination

Procrastination is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished by a certain deadline. It could be further stated as a habitual or intentional delay of starting or finishing a task despite knowing it might have negative consequence ...

                                               

Psychological contract

A psychological contract, a concept developed in contemporary research by organizational scholar Denise Rousseau, represents the mutual beliefs, perceptions and informal obligations between an employer and an employee. It sets the dynamics for th ...

                                               

Psychological manipulation

Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through indirect, deceptive, or underhanded tactics. By advancing the interests of the manipulator, often at anothers expense, such ...

                                               

Queen bee syndrome

Queen bee syndrome was first defined by G.L. Staines, T.E. Jayaratne, and C. Tavris in 1973. It describes a woman in a position of authority who views or treats subordinates more critically if they are female. This phenomenon has been documented ...

                                               

Reasoned action approach

The reasoned-action approach is an integrative framework for the prediction of human social behavior. The reasoned-action approach states that attitudes towards the behavior, perceived norms, and perceived behavioral control determine peoples int ...

                                               

Relational disorder

According to Michael First of the DSM-5 working committee the focus of a relational disorder, in contrast to other DSM-IV disorders, "is on the relationship rather than on any one individual in the relationship". Relational disorders involve two ...

                                               

Religious behaviour

Religious behaviours are behaviours motivated by religious beliefs. Religious actions are also called ritual and religious avoidances are called taboos or ritual prohibitions.

                                               

Repetition priming

Repetition priming refers to improvements in a behavioural response when stimuli are repeatedly presented. The improvements can be measured in terms of accuracy or reaction time, and can occur when the repeated stimuli are either identical or sim ...

                                               

Respect

Respect, also called esteem, is a positive feeling or action shown towards someone or something considered important, or held in high esteem or regard. It conveys a sense of admiration for good or valuable qualities. And it is also the process of ...

                                               

Ritualization

Ritualization is a behavior that occurs typically in a member of a given species in a highly stereotyped fashion and independent of any direct physiological significance. It is found, in differing forms, both in non-human animals and in humans.

                                               

Sadfishing

Sadfishing is the act of making exaggerated claims about ones emotional problems to generate sympathy. The name is a variation on "catfishing." Sadfishing is a common reaction for someone going through a hard time, or pretending to be going throu ...

                                               

Sadomasochism

Sadomasochism is the giving or receiving of pleasure from acts involving the receipt or infliction of pain or humiliation. Practitioners of sadomasochism may seek sexual gratification from their acts. While the terms sadist and masochist refer re ...

                                               

Safety behaviors (anxiety)

Safety behaviors are coping behaviors used to reduce anxiety and fear when the user feels threatened. An example of a safety behavior in social anxiety is to think of excuses to escape a potentially uncomfortable situation. These safety behaviors ...

                                               

Self-actualization

Self-actualization is a term that has been used in various Humanistic psychology theories, often in different ways. The term was originally introduced by the organismic theorist Kurt Goldstein for the motive to realize ones full potential: "the t ...

                                               

Sexual attraction

Sexual attraction is attraction on the basis of sexual desire or the quality of arousing such interest. Sexual attractiveness or sex appeal is an individuals ability to attract the sexual or erotic interests of other people, and is a factor in se ...

                                               

Human sexual activity

Human sexual activity, human sexual practice or human sexual behaviour is the manner in which humans experience and express their sexuality. People engage in a variety of sexual acts, ranging from activities done alone to acts with another person ...

                                               

Sexual guilt

Sexual guilt is a negative emotional response associated with the feeling of anxiety, guilt or shame in relation to sexual activity. It is also known as" sexual shame ”. It is linked with the negative social stigma and cultural expectations that ...

                                               

Sexual selection

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection in which members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with, and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex. These two forms of selection me ...

                                               

Human sexuality

Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. This involves biological, erotic, physical, emotional, social, or spiritual feelings and behaviors. Because it is a broad term, which has varied with historical context ...

                                               

Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship

Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship: Compatibility between Cultural and Biological Approaches is a book on human kinship and social behavior by Maximilian Holland, published in 2012. The work synthesizes the perspectives of evolutionary biology, p ...

                                               

Social constructionism

Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge in sociology and communication theory that examines the development of jointly-constructed understandings of the world that form the basis for shared assumptions about reality. The theory centers on ...

                                               

Social influences on fitness behavior

Physical fitness is maintained by a range of physical activities. Physical activity is defined by the World Health Organization as "any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure." Human factors and social influ ...

                                               

Social proof

Social proof, a term coined by Robert Cialdini in his 1984 book, Influence, is also known as informational social influence. It describes a psychological and social phenomenon wherein people copy the actions of others in an attempt to undertake b ...

                                               

Spoiled child

A spoiled child or spoiled brat is a derogatory term aimed at children who exhibit behavioral problems from being overindulged by their parents or other caregivers. Children and teens who are perceived as spoiled may be described as "overindulged ...

                                               

Sportsmanship

Sportsmanship is an aspiration or ethos that a sport or activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. This is with proper consideration for fairness, ethics, respect, and a sense of fellowship with ones competitors. A "sore loser" refers to one who ...

                                               

Spotlight effect

The spotlight effect is the phenomenon in which people tend to believe they are being noticed more than they really are. Being that one is constantly in the center of ones own world, an accurate evaluation of how much one is noticed by others is ...

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