Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 315

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 315

                                               

Governmental accounting

Government accounting refers to the process of recording and the management of all financial transactions incurred by the government which includes its income and expenditures. Various governmental accounting systems are used by various public se ...

                                               

Governmental learning spiral

The governmental learning spiral is a technique used to solve specific governance challenges. The governmental learning spiral - a heuristic and multidisciplinary tool - has been developed and implemented at international governmental learning ev ...

                                               

Head of state succession

Head of state succession is the process by which nations transfer leadership of their highest office from one person to another. The succession of a head of state can be brought about through various means, the most common of which include: Impea ...

                                               

Hierarchical organization

A hierarchical organization is an organizational structure where every entity in the organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity. This arrangement is a form of a hierarchy. In an organization, the hierarchy usually consists ...

                                               

Hung parliament

A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition has an absolute majority of legislators in a parliament or other legislature. T ...

                                               

Inclusive management

Inclusive management is a pattern of practices by public managers that facilitate the inclusion of public employees, experts, the public, and politicians in collaboratively addressing public problems or concerns of public interest. In the inclusi ...

                                               

Interest articulation

Interest articulation is a way for members of a society to express their needs to a system of government. It can range from personal contact with government officials to the development of interest groups who act in the interest of larger groups ...

                                               

Internal security

Internal security, is the act of keeping peace within the borders of a sovereign state or other self-governing territories, generally by upholding the national law and defending against internal security threats. Responsibility for internal secur ...

                                               

Joint session

A joint session or joint convention is, most broadly, when two normally separate decision-making groups meet together, often in a special session or other extraordinary meeting, for a specific purpose. Most often it refers to when both houses of ...

                                               

Legislative calendar

Typically, one of the first items mentioned on the calendar is passing the bill enacting procedures and deadlines for the session. Time may also be allotted for considering the budget bill, which is usually the major item of business in a session ...

                                               

Legislative session

A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking, usually being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections. ...

                                               

List of youth parliaments

European Youth Parliament, a ngo to encourage opinion forming and political engagement by youth European Youth Parliament – Ukraine European Youth Parliament - Ireland Scottish Youth Parliament, a Scottish youth organization UK Youth Parliament, ...

                                               

Ministry (collective executive)

In constitutional usage in Commonwealth realms and in some other systems, a ministry is a collective body of government ministers headed by a prime minister or premier, and also referred to as the head of government. It is described by the Oxford ...

                                               

Multi-party system

A multi-party system is a political system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition. Apart from one-pa ...

                                               

Municipal services

Municipal services or city services refer to basic services that residents of a city expect the city government to provide in exchange for the taxes which citizens pay. Basic city services may include sanitation, water, streets, the public librar ...

                                               

Outline of government

Form a More Perfect Union - Establish Justice - Insure Domestic Tranquility - Provide for the Common Defense - Promote the General Welfare - Secure the Blessings of Liberty -

                                               

Outline of public affairs

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to public affairs: Public affairs – catch-all term that includes public policy as well as public administration, both of which are closely related to and draw upon the fields o ...

                                               

Policy studies

Policy studies is a subdisicipline of political science that includes the analysis of the process of policymaking and the contents of policy. Policy analysis includes substantive area research, program evaluation and impact studies, and policy de ...

                                               

Political agenda

A political agenda is a list of subjects or problems to which government officials as well as individuals outside the government are paying serious attention at any given time. It is most often shaped by political and policy elites, but can also ...

                                               

Political authorities

Political authorities hold positions of power or influence within a system of government. Although some are exclusive to one or another form of government, many exist within several types. Secretary of state Secretary Cabinet government Attorney ...

                                               

Polity

A polity is an identifiable political entity - any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mobilize resources. A polity can be any other group of ...

                                               

Provisional government

A provisional government, also called an interim government or transitional government, is an emergency governmental authority set up to manage a political transition generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse of the previous ...

                                               

Public participation

Public participation, also known as citizen participation or public involvement, is the inclusion of the public in the activities of any organization or project. Public participation is similar to but more inclusive than stakeholder engagement. G ...

                                               

Public sector

The public sector is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises. Public sectors include public goods and governmental services such as the military, law enforcement, infrastructure, public transit, public educ ...

                                               

Public trust

The concept of the public trust relates back to the origins of democratic government and its seminal idea that within the public lies the true power and future of a society; therefore, whatever trust the public places in its officials must be res ...

                                               

Public value

Public value describe the value that an organization contributes to society. The term was originally coined by Harvard professor Mark H. Moore who saw it as the equivalent of shareholder value in public management. Public value is supposed to pro ...

                                               

Public-benefit corporation

Public-benefit corporations are a specific type of corporation that allow for public benefit to be a charter purpose in addition to the traditional corporate goal of maximizing profit for shareholders. Depending on the country they may also be kn ...

                                               

Puppet ruler

A puppet ruler is a person who has a title indicating possession of political power, but who, in reality, is controlled by outside individuals or forces. Such outside power can be exercised by a foreign government, in which case the puppet rulers ...

                                               

Regime

In politics, a regime is the form of government or the set of rules, cultural or social norms, etc. that regulate the operation of a government or institution and its interactions with society.

                                               

Regulatory competition

Regulatory competition, also called competitive governance or policy competition, is a phenomenon in law, economics and politics concerning the desire of lawmakers to compete with one another in the kinds of law offered in order to attract busine ...

                                               

Ruling clique

A ruling clique is a group of people who jointly rule an oligarchic form of government. Ruling cliques generally differ from another type of oligarchy: a military junta. Military juntas are always ruled by military personnel often high-ranking li ...

                                               

Senate of the Free City of Danzig

The Senate of the Free City of Danzig was the government of the Free City of Danzig from 1920 to 1939, after the Allied administration of Reginald Tower and the Danzig Staatsrat.

                                               

Shadow Cabinet

The Shadow Cabinet or Shadow Ministry is a feature of the Westminster system of government. It consists of a senior group of opposition spokespeople who, under the leadership of the Leader of the Opposition, form an alternative cabinet to that of ...

                                               

Soil and grain

Soil and grain was a common political term in East Asia for the state. Altars of soil and grain were constructed alongside ancestral altars. Local kings performed ceremonies of soil and grain to affirm their sovereignty at Beijing Shejitan and Se ...

                                               

Speaker of the senate

Speaker of the Senate is a title given to the presiding officer of the Senate in a small number of jurisdictions and mainly amongst English-speaking countries. Speaker of the Franklin Senate; the bicameral legislative branch of the defunct "Lost ...

                                               

State of emergency

A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to perform actions or impose policies that it would normally not be permitted to undertake. A government can declare such a state during a natural disaster, medical pandemics/ ...

                                               

Syrian Salvation Government

The Syrian Salvation Government is a de facto alternative government of the Syrian Opposition, seated within Idlib Governorate. The General Conference, concluded on 11 September 2017, formed a constituent assembly and named a new prime minister. ...

                                               

Theocracy

Theocracy is a form of government in which God or a deity of some type is recognized as the supreme ruling authority, giving divine guidance to human intermediaries that manage the day to day affairs of the government.

                                               

Tribal chief

Tribal societies with social stratification under a single or dual leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, and they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous ...

                                               

Vote trading

Vote trading is the practice of voting in the manner another person wishes on a bill, position on a more general issue, or favored candidate in exchange for the other persons vote in the manner one wishes on another position, proposal, or candida ...

                                               

Health

The meaning of health has evolved over time. In keeping with the biomedical perspective, early definitions of health focused on the theme of the bodys ability to function; health was seen as a state of normal function that could be disrupted from ...

                                               

An apple a day keeps the doctor away

"An apple a day keeps the doctor away" is a common English-language proverb of Welsh origin. There is no scientific evidence that eating an apple a day has any significant health effect.

                                               

Healing

Healing is the process of the restoration of health from an unbalanced, diseased, damaged or unvitalized organism. The result of healing can be to cure the cause of a health challenge, but one can grow without being cured or heal without "a cure" ...

                                               

Health hazard

                                               

Health survival paradox

The male-female health-survival paradox, also known as the morbidity-mortality paradox or gender paradox, is the phenomenon in which women experience more medical conditions and disability during their lives, but they unexpectedly live longer tha ...

                                               

Single-use medical devices

Single-use medical devices include any medical equipment, instrument or apparatus having the ability to only be used once in a hospital or clinic and then disposed. The Food and Drug Administration defines this as any device entitled by its manuf ...

                                               

Human behavior

Human behavior is the response of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli. It refers to the array of every physical action and observable emotion associated with individuals, as well as the human race. While specific trai ...

                                               

Human ethology

Human ethology is the study of human behavior. Ethology as a discipline is generally thought of as a sub-category of biology, though psychological theories have been developed based on ethological ideas. The bridging between biological sciences a ...

                                               

1% rule (Internet culture)

In Internet culture, the 1% rule is a rule of thumb pertaining to participation in an internet community, stating that only 1% of the users of a website add content, while the other 99% of the participants only lurk. Variants include the 1–9–90 r ...

                                               

Accismus

Accismus is a feigned refusal of something earnestly desired. The 1823 Encyclopædia Britannica writes that accismus may sometimes be considered a virtue, sometimes a vice. The Latin term comes from the Greek word is "ἀκκισμός", which, according t ...

                                               

Action assembly theory

Action assembly theory is a communication theory that emphasizes psychological and social influences on human action. The goal is to examine and describe the links between the cognition and behavior – how an individuals thoughts get transformed i ...

                                               

Alloplastic adaptation

Alloplastic adaptation is a form of adaptation where the subject attempts to change the environment when faced with a difficult situation. Criminality, mental illness, and activism can all be classified as categories of alloplastic adaptation. Th ...

                                               

Animal spirits (Keynes)

Animal spirits is the term John Maynard Keynes used in his 1936 book The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money to describe the instincts, proclivities and emotions that ostensibly influence and guide human behavior, and which can be me ...

                                               

Antilocution

Antilocution is a form of prejudice in which negative verbal remarks against a person, group, or community, are made in a public or private setting and not addressed directly to the target. American psychologist Gordon Allport first used this ter ...

                                               

Assertiveness

Assertiveness is the quality of being self-assured and confident without being aggressive. In the field of psychology and psychotherapy, it is a skill that can be learned and a mode of communication. Dorlands Medical Dictionary defines assertiven ...

                                               

Attention seeking

Attention seeking behavior is to act in a way that is likely to elicit attention, usually to elicit validation from others. People are thought to engage in both positive and negative attention seeking behavior independent of the actual benefit or ...

                                               

Attitude change

Attitudes are associated beliefs and behaviors towards some object. They are not stable, and because of the communication and behavior of other people, are subject to change by social influences, as well as by the individuals motivation to mainta ...

                                               

Autoplastic adaptation

Autoplastic adaptation is a form of adaptation where the subject attempts to change itself when faced with a difficult situation. The concept of autoplastic adaptation was developed by Sigmund Freud, Sandor Ferenczi, and Franz Alexander. They pro ...

                                               

Avoidance coping

In psychology, avoidance/avoidant coping or escape coping is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage. Altern ...

                                               

Bad habit

There is a theory that it takes an average of 66 days to break a habit. The amount of time it takes to break a habit is generally between 18 and 254 days. This should often be repeated once or maybe twice depending on what the habit is, something ...

                                               

Behavior change (individual)

A behavioral change can be a temporary or permanent effect that is considered a change in an individuals behavior when compared to previous behavior. It is sometimes considered a mental disorder, yet it is also a strategy used to improve such dis ...

                                               

Behavior change (public health)

Behavior change, in context of public health, refers to efforts put in place to change peoples personal habits and attitudes, to prevent disease. Behavior change in public health is also known as social and behavior change communication. More and ...

                                               

Behavior-shaping constraint

A behavior-shaping constraint, also sometimes referred to as a forcing function or poka-yoke, is a technique used in error-tolerant design to prevent the user from making common errors or mistakes. One example is the reverse lockout on the transm ...

                                               

Behavioral confirmation

Behavioral confirmation is a type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby peoples social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations. The phenomenon of belief creating reality is known by several names in ...

                                               

Behavioral contagion

Behavioral contagion is a type of social influence. It refers to the propensity for certain behavior exhibited by one person to be copied by others who are either in the vicinity of the original actor, or who have been exposed to the behavior of ...

                                               

Behavioral modernity

Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates. Although often debating the concept, most scholars agree that modern human b ...

                                               

Behavioral urbanism

Behavioral urbanism and its related area of study, behavioral architecture, is an interdisciplinary field focused on the interaction between humans and the built environment, studying the effects of social, cognitive, and emotional factors in und ...

                                               

Boreout

Boredom boreout syndrome is a psychological disorder that causes physical illness, mainly caused by mental underload at the workplace due to lack of either adequate quantitative or qualitative workload. One reason for bore-out could be that the i ...

                                               

Brodie's Law (act)

Brodies Law is an amendment to the Victorian Crimes Act 1958 which makes serious bullying an offence punishable by a maximum penalty of 10 years imprisonment. The law is named after Brodie Panlock, a 19-year-old who took her own life after being ...

                                               

Calculus of concepts

The calculus of concepts is an abstract language and theory, which was developed to simplify the reasons behind effective messaging when delivered to a specific target or set of targets. The theory aims to maximize the likelihood of desired outco ...

                                               

Chinese fire drill

The term goes back to the early 1900s, and is alleged to have originated when a ship run by British officers and a Chinese crew practiced a fire drill for a fire in the engine room. The bucket brigade drew water from the starboard side, took it t ...

                                               

Civil inattention

Civil inattention is the process whereby strangers who are in close proximity demonstrate that they are aware of one another, without imposing on each other – a recognition of the claims of others to a public space, and of their own personal boun ...

                                               

Cold feet

Cold feet is a phrase which refers to a person not going through with an action, particularly one which requires long term commitment, due to fear, uncertainty, and doubt. A person is said to be "getting cold feet" when, after previously committi ...

                                               

Communal coping

Communal coping is the collective effort of members of a connected network to manage a distressing event. This definition and the scope of the concept positions communal coping as an offshoot of social support. According to Lyons et al., the comm ...

                                               

Coping

Coping means to invest ones own conscious effort, to solve personal and interpersonal problems, in order to try to master, minimize or tolerate stress and conflict. The psychological coping mechanisms are commonly termed coping strategies or copi ...

                                               

Coping planning

Coping planning is an approach to supporting people who are distressed. It is part of a biopsychosocial approach to mental health and wellbeing that comprises healthy environments, responsive parenting, belonging, healthy activities, coping, psyc ...

                                               

Courtesy

Courtesy is gentle politeness and courtly manners. In the Middle Ages in Europe, the behaviour expected of the nobility was compiled in courtesy books.

                                               

Critical positivity ratio

The critical positivity ratio is a largely discredited concept in positive psychology positing an exact ratio of positive to negative emotions which distinguishes "flourishing" people from "languishing" people. The ratio was proposed by Marcial L ...

                                               

Critical-Creative Thinking and Behavioral Research Laboratory

Critical-Creative Thinking and Behavioral Research Laboratory was founded in March 2002 as a branch in the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences in Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey. Academicians and students in different disciplines ...

                                               

Cultural divide

A cultural divide is "a boundary in society that separates communities whose social economic structures, opportunities for success, conventions, styles, are so different that they have substantially different psychologies". A cultural divide is t ...

                                               

Cutting in line

Cutting in line, also known as line/queue jumping, butting, barging, budging, skipping, breaking, shorting, pushing in, or cutsies, is the act of entering a queue or line at any position other than the end. The act, which may be taboo in some ins ...

                                               

Deception

Deception is an act or statement which misleads, hides the truth, or promotes a belief, concept, or idea that is not true. It is often done for personal gain or advantage. Deception can involve dissimulation, propaganda, and sleight of hand, as w ...

                                               

Defensive communication

Defensive communication is a communicative behavior that occurs within relationships, work environments, and social groups when an individual reacts in a defensive manner in response to a self-perceived flaw or a threat from outsiders. Defensive ...

                                               

Demonstration effect

Demonstration effects are effects on the behavior of individuals caused by observation of the actions of others and their consequences. The term is particularly used in political science and sociology to describe the fact that developments in one ...

                                               

Denunciation

Denunciation is the act of publicly assigning blame of a perceived wrongdoing to a person with the hopes of bringing attention to it.

                                               

Description error

A description error or selection error is an error, or more specifically a human error, that occurs when a person performs the correct action on the wrong object due to insufficient specification of an action which would have led to a desired res ...

                                               

Philosophy of desire

In philosophy which trace back to ancient Indian Vedas, desire has been identified as a philosophical problem in realising the highest state of human nature Moksh. In Platos The Republic, Socrates argues that individual desires must be postponed ...

                                               

Dishonesty

Dishonesty is to act without honesty. It is used to describe a lack of probity, cheating, lying, or being deliberately deceptive or a lack in integrity, knavishness, perfidiosity, corruption or treacherousness. Dishonesty is the fundamental compo ...

                                               

Disinhibition

In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard of social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and sympto ...

                                               

Distraction

Distraction is the process of diverting the attention of an individual or group from a desired area of focus and thereby blocking or diminishing the reception of desired information. Distraction is caused by: the lack of ability to pay attention; ...

                                               

Dropping out

Dropping out means leaving high school, college, university or another group for practical reasons, necessities, or disillusionment with the system from which the individual in question leaves.

                                               

Dual loyalty

Some scholars refer to a growing trend of transnationalism and suggest that as societies become more heterogeneous and multi-cultural, the term "dual loyalty" increasingly becomes a meaningless bromide. According to the theory of transnationalism ...

                                               

Eccentricity (behavior)

Eccentricity is unusual or odd behavior on the part of an individual. This behavior would typically be perceived as unusual or unnecessary, without being demonstrably maladaptive. Eccentricity is contrasted with normal behavior, the nearly univer ...

                                               

Eductive ability

                                               

Endemic warfare

Endemic warfare is a state of continual or frequent warfare, such as is found in some tribal societies. Ritual fighting or ritual battle or ritual warfare permits the display of courage, masculinity and the expression of emotion while resulting i ...

                                               

Environmental enrichment

Environmental enrichment is the stimulation of the brain by its physical and social surroundings. Brains in richer, more stimulating environments have higher rates of synaptogenesis and more complex dendrite arbors, leading to increased brain act ...

                                               

Evasion (ethics)

In ethics, evasion is an act that deceives by stating a true statement that is irrelevant or leads to a false conclusion. For instance, a man knows that another man is in a room in the building because he heard him, but in answer to a question, s ...

                                               

Evolutionary psychology

Evolutionary psychology is a theoretical approach in the social and natural sciences that examines psychological structure from a modern evolutionary perspective. It seeks to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations – tha ...

                                               

History of evolutionary psychology

The history of evolutionary psychology began with Charles Darwin, who said that humans have social instincts that evolved by natural selection. Darwins work inspired later psychologists such as William James and Sigmund Freud but for most of the ...

                                               

Expressions of dominance

Power and dominance-submission are two key dimensions of relationships, especially close relationships in which parties rely on one another to achieve their goals and as such it is important to be able to identify indicators of dominance. Power i ...

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