Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 314

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 314

                                               

Antalo Limestone

The Antalo Limestone, also known as the Antalo Sequence, is a geological formation in Ethiopia. It is between 300 and 800 metres thick and comprises fossiliferous limestones and marls that were deposited in a reef. Marine microfossils have shown ...

                                               

Ashangi Basalts

The Ashangi Basalts are the earliest Tertiary volcanic rocks in north Ethiopia, hence they are in the lowest position. These dark porphyritic basalts are separated from the Mesozoic formations below it by basal conglomerates. The basalts hold phe ...

                                               

Boundary problem (spatial analysis)

A boundary problem in analysis is a phenomenon in which geographical patterns are differentiated by the shape and arrangement of boundaries that are drawn for administrative or measurement purposes. The boundary problem occurs because of the loss ...

                                               

Degua Tembien

Dogua Tembien is one of the woredas in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. It is named in part after the former province of Tembien. Nowadays, the mountainous district is part of the Southeastern Tigray Zone. The administrative centre of this woreda i ...

                                               

Distance decay

Distance decay is a geographical term which describes the effect of distance on cultural or spatial interactions. The distance decay effect states that the interaction between two locales declines as the distance between them increases. Once the ...

                                               

Earth section paths

Earth section paths are paths on the earth defined by the intersection of a reference ellipsoid and a plane. Common examples of earth sections include the great ellipse and normal sections. This page provides a unifying approach to all earth sect ...

                                               

Easting and northing

Easting and northing are geographic Cartesian coordinates for a point. Easting is the eastward-measured distance and northing is the northward-measured distance. When using common projections such as the transverse Mercator projection, these are ...

                                               

Economic restructuring

Economic restructuring is used to indicate changes in the constituent parts of an economy in a very general sense. In the western world, it is usually used to refer to the phenomenon of urban areas shifting from a manufacturing to a service secto ...

                                               

Edaga Arbi Glacials

The Edaga Arbi Glacials are a Palaeozoic geological formation in Tigray and in Eritrea. The matrix is composed of grey, black and purple clays, that contains rock fragments up to 6 metres across. Pollen dating yields a Late Carboniferous to Early ...

                                               

Edgelands

Edgelands are the transitional, liminal areas of space to be found on the boundaries of country and town - with the spread of urbanisation, an increasingly important facet of the twenty-first century world.

                                               

Enticho Sandstone

The Enticho Sandstone is a geological formation in north Ethiopia. It forms the lowermost sedimentary rock formation in the region and lies directly on the basement rocks. Enticho Sandstone consists of arenite that is rich in quartz. The formatio ...

                                               

Extreme environment

An extreme environment is a habitat that is considered very hard to survive in due to its considerably extreme conditions such as temperature, accessibility to different energy sources or under high pressure. For an area to be considered an extre ...

                                               

Fictional geography

Fictional geography is the use of maps, text and imagery to create lands and territories to accompany works of fiction. Depending on the completeness and complexity of the work, varying media, levels of collaboration and a number of other factors ...

                                               

Fundamental plane (spherical coordinates)

The fundamental plane in a spherical coordinate system is a plane of reference that divides the sphere into two hemispheres. The geocentric latitude of a point is then the angle between the fundamental plane and the line joining the point to the ...

                                               

Geo-literacy

The term "geo-literacy" arose from the National Geographic Societys "Fight against Geographic Illiteracy." The organization released various media to help explain the concept to the general public. In an editorial, Daniel C. Edelson, vice preside ...

                                               

Geo-replication

Geo-replication systems are designed to improve the distribution of data across geographically distributed data networks. This is intended to improve the response time for applications such as web portals. Geo-replication can be achieved using so ...

                                               

Geoarchaeology

Geoarchaeology is a multi-disciplinary approach which uses the techniques and subject matter of geography, geology, geophysics and other Earth sciences to examine topics which inform archaeological knowledge and thought. Geoarchaeologists study t ...

                                               

Geocriticism

Geocriticism is a method of literary analysis and literary theory that incorporates the study of geographic space. The term designates a number of different critical practices. In France, Bertrand Westphal has elaborated the concept of geocritiqu ...

                                               

Geographic contiguity

Geographic contiguity is the characteristic in geography of political or geographical land divisions, as a group, not being interrupted by other land or water. Such divisions are referred to as being contiguous. In the United States, for example, ...

                                               

Geographic targeting

Geographic targeting is a viable way for resource allocation, especially to alleviate poverty in a country. In this context, public expenditure and policy interventions can be deployed to reach the neediest people in the poorest areas. Geographic ...

                                               

Geographical cluster

A geographical cluster is a localised anomaly, usually an excess of something given the distribution or variation of something else. Often it is considered as an incidence rate that is unusual in that there is more of some variable than might be ...

                                               

Geographical feature

Geographical features are naturally-created features of the Earth. Natural geographical features consist of landforms and ecosystems. For example, terrain types, are natural geographical features. Conversely, human settlements or other engineered ...

                                               

Geography of aging

Geography of aging or gerontological geography is an emerging field of knowledge of Human Geography that analyzes the socio-spatial implications of aging of the population from the understanding of the relationships between the physical-social en ...

                                               

Geopark

A geopark is a unified area that advances the protection and use of geological heritage in a sustainable way, and promotes the economic well-being of the people who live there. There are global geoparks and national geoparks.

                                               

Glacial refugium

A glacial refugium is a geographic region which made possible the survival of flora and fauna in times of ice ages and allowed for post-glacial re-colonization. Different types of glacial refugia can be distinguished, namely nunatak, peripheral a ...

                                               

Governmentality

Governmentality is a concept first developed by the French philosopher Michel Foucault in the later years of his life, roughly between 1977 and his death in 1984, particularly in his lectures at the College de France during this time. The concept ...

                                               

Hemispheres of Earth

In geography and cartography, the hemispheres of Earth refer to any division of the globe into two hemispheres. The most common such divisions are by latitudinal or longitudinal markers: Southern Hemisphere, the half that lies south of the Equato ...

                                               

Hermit kingdom

The term hermit kingdom is used to refer to any country, organization or society which willfully walls itself off, either metaphorically or physically, from the rest of the world. In the current geopolitical order, the East Asian country of North ...

                                               

Hjulstrom curve

The Hjulstrom curve, named after Filip Hjulstrom, is a graph used by hydrologists and geologists to determine whether a river will erode, transport, or deposit sediment. It was originally published in his doctoral thesis "Studies of the morpholog ...

                                               

International date line in Judaism

The international date line in Judaism is used to demarcate the change of one calendar day to the next in the Jewish calendar. The Jewish calendar defines days as running from sunset to sunset rather than midnight to midnight. So in the context o ...

                                               

Internet geography

Internet geography, also called cybergeography, is a subdiscipline of geography that studies the spatial organization of the Internet, from social, economic, cultural, and technological perspectives. The core assumption of Internet geography is t ...

                                               

Intra-volcanic sedimentary rock in North Ethiopia

Between 29 and 27 million years ago, the extrusion of Ethiopia’s flood basalts was interrupted and deposition of continental sediments occurred. Inter-trappean beds outcrop in many places of the Ethiopian highlands. They consist of fluvio-lacustr ...

                                               

Laminar sublayer

The laminar sublayer, also called the viscous sublayer, is the region of a mainly-turbulent flow that is near a no-slip boundary and in which the flow is laminar. As such, it is a type of boundary layer. The existence of the laminar sublayer can ...

                                               

Land cover

Land cover is the physical material at the surface of the earth. Land covers include grass, asphalt, trees, bare ground, water, etc. Earth cover is the expression used by ecologist Frederick Edward Clements that has its closest modern equivalent ...

                                               

Land systems

Land systems constitute the terrestrial component of the Earth system and encompass all processes and activities related to the human use of land, including socioeconomic, technological and organizational investments and arrangements, as well as ...

                                               

Landlocked developing countries

Landlocked developing countries are developing countries that are landlocked. The economic and other disadvantages experienced by such countries makes the majority of landlocked countries Least Developed Countries, with inhabitants of these count ...

                                               

Lenz Island

                                               

Mainland

Mainland is defined as "relating to or forming the main part of a country or continent, not including the islands around it." The term is often politically, economically and/or demographically more significant than politically associated remote t ...

                                               

Map

A map is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects, regions, or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most ...

                                               

Mountain research

Mountain research or montology, traditionally also known as orology, is a field of research that regionally concentrates on the Earths surfaces part covered by mountain landscapes.

                                               

Natural landscape

A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture. The natural landscape and the cultural landscape are separate parts of the landscape. However, in the twenty-first century landscapes that are tot ...

                                               

Pan-region

A pan-region is a geographic region or state’s sphere of economic, political and cultural influence extending beyond that states borders. For example, the pan-region of the United States of America regions both bordering the USA and its close nei ...

                                               

Paraiba Valley

The Paraiba Valley is a natural geographical accident that encompasses the regions: Paraiba Valley Metropolitan Region and Northern Coast, in the state of São Paulo and Sul-Fluminense Region, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, which stands out for c ...

                                               

Phonolite series in North Ethiopia

The phonolite or clinkstone of northern Ethiopia is a shallow-seated igneous rock. The phonolites intruded and punctured the Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and the Tertiary flood basalts some 19 to 11 million years ago.

                                               

Place identity

Place identity or place-based identity refers to a cluster of ideas about place and identity in the fields of geography, urban planning, urban design, landscape architecture, environmental psychology, ecocriticism and urban sociology/ecological s ...

                                               

Population density

Population density is a measurement of population per unit area, or exceptionally unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density. It is frequently applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans. It is a key geographical term. In si ...

                                               

Primary care service area

Primary Care Service Areas are geographic areas that are self-sufficient markets of primary care. These areas are designed in a manner such that the majority of patients living in these areas use primary care services form within the area. This e ...

                                               

Rank-size distribution

Rank-size distribution is the distribution of size by rank, in decreasing order of size. For example, if a data set consists of items of sizes 5, 100, 5, and 8, the rank-size distribution is 100, 8, 5, 5. This is also known as the rank-frequency ...

                                               

Region

In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics, human impact characteristics, and the interaction of humanity and the environment. Geographic regions and sub-regions are mostly described by their imprecisely ...

                                               

Small Island Developing States

Small Island Developing States are a group of small island countries that tend to share similar sustainable development challenges, including small but growing populations, limited resources, remoteness, susceptibility to natural disasters, vulne ...

                                               

Soil in Atsbi Wenberta

The soils of the Atsbi Wenberta woreda in Tigray reflect its longstanding agricultural history, highly seasonal rainfall regime and relatively low temperatures. The northern part of the district is on the high uplifted Atsbi Horst, whereas the so ...

                                               

Soil in Dogu'a Tembien

The soils of the Dogu’a Tembien woreda in Tigray reflect its longstanding agricultural history, highly seasonal rainfall regime, relatively low temperatures, an extremely great variety in lithology and steep slopes. Outstanding features in the so ...

                                               

Soil in Inderta

The soils of the Inderta woreda in Tigray reflect its longstanding agricultural history, highly seasonal rainfall regime, relatively low temperatures, overall dominance of limestone and dolerite lithologies and steep slopes. Outstanding features ...

                                               

Soil in Kilte Awula'ilo

The soils of the Kilte Awula’ilo woreda in Tigray reflect its longstanding agricultural history, highly seasonal rainfall regime, relatively low temperatures, the presence of a wide depression at the foot of the Atsbi horst and steep slopes. Outs ...

                                               

Soil in Kola Tembien

The soils of the Kola Tembien woreda in Tigray reflect its longstanding agricultural history, highly seasonal rainfall regime, relatively high temperatures, overall dominance of sandstone and metamorphic lithology and steep slopes.

                                               

Soil in Sa'isi Tsa'ida Imba

The soils of the Saisi Tsaida Imba woreda in Tigray reflect its longstanding agricultural history, highly seasonal rainfall regime, relatively low temperatures, overall dominance of metamorphic and sandstone lithology and steep slopes.

                                               

Soil in Tanqwa Abergele

The soils of the Tanqwa Abergele woreda in Tigray reflect its longstanding agricultural history, highly seasonal rainfall regime, relatively high temperatures, overall dominance of Precambrian metamorphic rocks and steep slopes.

                                               

Solar equator

The solar equator is the latitude on Earth at which the Sun is directly overhead; where the sun is vertically above at midday. Because of the inclination of the Earths orbit the solar equator varies during the year, from the Tropic of Capricorn o ...

                                               

Spatial analysis

Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which studies entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. Spatial analysis includes a variety of techniques, many still in their early develop ...

                                               

Spatial association

Spatial association is the degree to which things are similarly arranged in space. Analysis of the distribution patterns of two phenomena is done by map overlay. If the distributions are similar, then the spatial association is strong, and vice v ...

                                               

Spatial justice

Spatial justice links together social justice and space, most notably in the works of geographers David Harvey and Edward W. Soja. The organization of space is a crucial dimension of human societies and reflects social facts and influences social ...

                                               

Spatial mismatch

Spatial mismatch is the mismatch between where low-income households reside and suitable job opportunities. In its original formulation and in subsequent research, it has mostly been understood as a phenomenon affecting African-Americans, as a re ...

                                               

Surroundings

Surroundings are the area around a given physical or geographical point or place. The exact definition depends on the field. Surroundings can also be used in geography and mathematics, as well as philosophy, with the literal or metaphorically ext ...

                                               

Tobler's first law of geography

The First Law of Geography, according to Waldo Tobler, is "everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things." This first law is the foundation of the fundamental concepts of spatial dependence and spa ...

                                               

Triangulated irregular network

A triangulated irregular network is a representation of a continuous surface consisting entirely of triangular facets, used mainly as Discrete Global Grid in primary elevation modeling. The vertices of these triangles are created from field recor ...

                                               

Two-step floating catchment area method

The two-step floating catchment area method is a method for combining a number of related types of information into a single, immediately meaningful, index that allows comparisons to be made across different locations. Its importance lies in the ...

                                               

Government

A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a means by which ...

                                               

State government

A state government is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government. A state government may have some level of political autonomy, or be subject to th ...

                                               

Administrative centre

An administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a commune is located. In countries which have French as one of their administrative languages an ...

                                               

Artificial intelligence in government

Artificial intelligence has a range of uses in government. It can be used to further public policy objectives, as well as assist the public to interact with the government. According to the Harvard Business Review, "Applications of artificial int ...

                                               

Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature has legislators in two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group, and from some legislatures that have three or m ...

                                               

Bureaucracy

Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elected government officials and an administrative policy-making group. Historically, a bureaucracy was a government administration managed by departments staffed with non-elected officials. Today, bureauc ...

                                               

Bureaucratic inertia

Bureaucratic inertia is the supposed inevitable tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate the established procedures and modes, even if they are counterproductive and/or diametrically opposed to established organizational goals. This u ...

                                               

Cabinet crisis

A cabinet crisis or government crisis is a situation when the government is challenged before the mandate period expires, because it threatens to resign over a proposal, or it is at risk at being dismissed after a motion of no confidence, a confl ...

                                               

Caretaker government

A caretaker government is a temporary ad hoc government that performs some governmental duties and functions in a country until a regular government is elected or formed. Depending on specific practice, it usually consists of either randomly sele ...

                                               

Center of government

The center of government is the institution or group of institutions that provide direct support to the chief executive in leading the management of government. Unlike line ministries and other government agencies, the CoG does not deliver servic ...

                                               

Citizen oversight

Citizen oversight, sometimes referred to as Civilian oversight, is the act of an assembly of citizens, a form of citizen participation, who review government activities. Activities may be deemed as government misconduct. Members of the group are ...

                                               

Citizenship

Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation. The idea of citizenship has been defined as the capacity of individuals to defend their rights in fron ...

                                               

Civic lottery

A civic lottery, a popular term for the contemporary use of sortition or allotment, is a lottery-based method for selecting citizens for public service or office. It is based on the premise that citizens in a democracy have both a duty and the de ...

                                               

Civilian control of the military

Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a countrys strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military off ...

                                               

Classification of the Functions of Government

Classification of the Functions of Government is a classification defined by the United Nations Statistics Division. These functions are designed to be general enough to apply to the government of different countries. The accounts of each country ...

                                               

Code enforcement

Code enforcement, sometimes encompassing law enforcement, is the act of enforcing a set of rules, principles, or laws and ensuring observance of a system of norms or customs. An authority usually enforces a civil code, a set of rules, or a body o ...

                                               

Compulsory purchase order

A compulsory purchase order is a legal function in the United Kingdom and Ireland that allows certain bodies to obtain land or property without the consent of the owner. It may be enforced if a proposed development is considered one for public be ...

                                               

Constitutional body

Dr.Basudeb Roy with A Constitutional Bodies of India is created by passing a constitutional amendment bill, rather than by a regular, government or private bill.

                                               

Courtesy resolution

Courtesy resolution is a non-controversial resolution in the nature of congratulations on the birth of a child, celebration of a wedding anniversary, congratulations of an outstanding citizen achievement or a similar event. It is "a resolution ex ...

                                               

Criticism of government

Criticism of government may refer to criticism of particular government, or of the concept of government itself. In certain cases, such as in certain monarchies and authoritarian governments, criticizing the government is considered criminal spee ...

                                               

Delegate model of representation

The delegate model of representation is a model of a representative democracy. In this model, constituents elect their representatives as delegates for their constituency. These delegates act only as a mouthpiece for the wishes of their constitue ...

                                               

Diplomatic capital

Diplomatic capital refers to the trust, goodwill, and influence which a diplomat, or a state represented by its diplomats, has within international diplomacy. According to political scientist Rebecca Adler-Nissen, diplomatic capital is a kind of ...

                                               

Direct rule

Direct rule is when an imperial or central power takes direct control over the legislature, executive and civil administration of an otherwise largely self-governing territory.

                                               

Dual mandate

A dual mandate is the practice in which elected officials serve in more than one elected or other public position simultaneously. This practice is sometimes known as double jobbing in Britain and cumul des mandats in France; not to be confused wi ...

                                               

E-participation

e-participation is the term referring to "ICT-supported participation in processes involved in government and governance". Processes may concern administration, service delivery, decision making and policy making. E-participation is hence closely ...

                                               

Exclusive mandate

An exclusive mandate is a governments assertion of its legitimate authority over a certain territory, part of which another government controls with stable, de facto sovereignty. It is also known as a claim to sole representation or an exclusive ...

                                               

False necessity

False necessity, or anti-necessitarian social theory, is a contemporary social theory that argues for the plasticity of social organizations and their potential to be shaped in new ways. The theory rejects the assumption that laws of change gover ...

                                               

Father of the House

Father of the House is a title that has been traditionally bestowed, unofficially, on certain members of some legislatures, most notably the House of Commons in the United Kingdom. In some legislatures the title refers to the longest continuously ...

                                               

Favourite

A favourite or favorite was the intimate companion of a ruler or other important person. In post-classical and early-modern Europe, among other times and places, the term was used of individuals delegated significant political power by a ruler. I ...

                                               

Formative context

Formative contexts are the institutional and imaginative arrangements that shape a societys conflicts and resolutions. They are the structures that limit both the practice and the imaginative possibilities in a socio-political order, and in doing ...

                                               

Fractionalism

Fractionalism is the government system that is the closest to a confederation but differs when the market system is a central market owned mostly by the government and very little by the people, yet the people have more control over it than the c ...

                                               

Government district

A government district or government area is any part of a city or town in which the primary land use is by state institutions, as opposed to a residential neighbourhood, commercial district and industrial zone, or other types of neighborhoods. In ...

                                               

Government in exile

A government in exile is a political group which claims to be a country or semi-sovereign states legitimate government, but is unable to exercise legal power and instead resides in another state or foreign country. Governments in exile usually pl ...

                                               

Government spin-off

Government spin-off is civilian goods which are the collateral result of military or governmental research. One prominent example of a type of government spin-off is technology that has been commercialized through NASA funding, research, licensin ...

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