Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 312

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 312

                                               

Ecclesiastical crime

An ecclesiastical crime is a crime related to the clergy where the crime is against canon law. Compare civil law. The crime of Simony is the ecclesiastical crime of paying for offices or positions in the hierarchy of a church. The crimes of Schis ...

                                               

Evil

Evil, in a general sense, is the opposite or absence of good. It can be an extremely broad concept, although in everyday usage is often used more narrowly to denote profound wickedness. It is generally seen as taking multiple possible forms, such ...

                                               

Facial composite

A facial composite is a graphical representation of one or more eyewitnesses memory of a face, as recorded by a composite artist. Facial composites are used mainly by police in their investigation of crimes. These images are used to reconstruct t ...

                                               

False lien

A false lien is document that purports to describe a lien, but which has no legal basis, or which is based upon false, fictitious, or fraudulent statements or representations. The filing of false liens has been used as a tool of harassment in "pa ...

                                               

Fear of crime

The fear of crime refers to the fear of being a victim of crime as opposed to the actual probability of being a victim of crime. The fear of crime, along with fear of the streets and the fear of youth, is said to have been in Western culture for ...

                                               

Fingersmith (slang)

Fingersmith or finger-smith is slang for a midwife or pickpocket. Used in a 1977 short story, "The Hitchhiker" by Roald Dahl and as the title of Sarah Waterss 2002 novel: "Fingersmith".

                                               

Fire marshal

A fire marshal or fire commissioner, in the United States and Canada, is often a member of a state, provincial or territorial government, but may be part of a building department or a separate department altogether. Fire marshals duties vary but ...

                                               

Forgery

Forgery is a white-collar crime that generally refers to the false making or material alteration of a legal instrument with the specific intent to defraud anyone. Tampering with a certain legal instrument may be forbidden by law in some jurisdict ...

                                               

Four Horsemen of the Infocalypse

A play on Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, it refers to types of criminals who use the internet to facilitate crime and consequently jeopardize the rights of honest internet users. There does not appear to be an exact definition for who the Horse ...

                                               

Gang

A gang is a group or society of associates, friends or members of a family with a defined leadership and internal organization that identifies with or claims control over territory in a community and engages, either individually or collectively, ...

                                               

Gang population

Los Angeles has held the nickname "gang capital America" since 1930 because approximately 120.000 gang members reside in the city, and tens of thousands more in surrounding Los Angeles County.

                                               

Gene theft

In bioethics and law, gene theft or DNA theft is the act of acquiring the genetic material of another individual, usually from public places, without his or her permission. The DNA may be harvested from a wide variety of common objects such as di ...

                                               

Grade (crime)

The grade of a crime is its ranking or classification by its degree or seriousness or severity. A felony is more serious than a misdemeanor, which is more serious than an infraction. A first degree felony is more serious than a second degree felo ...

                                               

Gun violence

Gun-related violence is violence committed with the use of a gun. Gun-related violence may or may not be considered criminal. Criminal violence includes homicide, assault with a deadly weapon, and suicide, or attempted suicide, depending on juris ...

                                               

Gun Violence Archive

Gun Violence Archive is a nonprofit research group with accompanying website and social media delivery platforms which catalogs every incident of gun violence in the United States. It was founded in 2013 by Michael Klein and Mark Bryant. Klein is ...

                                               

Tamar Nais Hodel

Tamar Nais Hodel daughter to Dr. George Hodel, was sexually abused and raped for many years by her father who is widely known for his involvement in the Black Dahlia murder case. She would then go to trial, juvenile detention, and endure sexual a ...

                                               

Illegal sports

An illegal sport is any sport that is illegal in one or more jurisdictions due to the violent or dangerous nature of the sport. Well-known illegal sports, such as cockfighting and dogfighting, are barred on the basis of animal abuse. Illegal spor ...

                                               

Illegalism

Illegalism is a tendency of anarchism that developed primarily in France, Italy, Belgium and Switzerland during the early 1900s as an outgrowth of individualist anarchism. Illegalists embrace criminality either openly or secretly as a lifestyle. ...

                                               

Immigration and crime

Immigration and crime refers to perceived or actual relationships between crime and immigration. The academic literature provides mixed findings for the relationship between immigration and crime worldwide, but finds for the United States that im ...

                                               

Incident book

An incident book is a book used for recording injuries, crimes, and other incidents; they are included in British police boxes, hospitals, and other locations in which an incident is to be reported or treated.

                                               

Individual reclamation

Individual reclamation is a form of direct action, characterized by the individual theft of resources from the rich by the poor. Individual reclamation gained popular attention in the early 20th century as a result of the exploits of anarchists a ...

                                               

Intimate partner violence

Intimate partner violence is domestic violence by a current or former spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner. IPV can take a number of forms, including physical, verbal, emotional, economic and sexual ab ...

                                               

Justice Network

Justice Network is an American digital multicast television network that is operated by Justice Network, LLC, a limited liability company, which is owned by Tegna Inc. The network specializes in true crime, investigation and forensic science docu ...

                                               

Juvenile delinquency

Juvenile delinquency, also known juvenile offending ", is the act of participating in unlawful behavior as minors. Most legal systems prescribe specific procedures for dealing with juveniles, such as juvenile detention centers and courts, with it ...

                                               

Lonely hearts killer

A lonely hearts killer is a criminal who commits murder by contacting a victim who has either posted advertisements to or answered advertisements via newspaper classified ads and personal or lonely hearts ads.

                                               

Lookout

A lookout or look-out is a person in charge of the observation of hazards. The term originally comes from a naval background, where lookouts would watch for other ships, land, and various dangers. The term has now passed into wider parlance.

                                               

Lovers' lane

A lovers lane is a secluded area where people kiss, make out, or engage in sexual activity. These areas range from parking lots in secluded rural areas to places with extraordinary views of a cityscape or other feature. "Lovers lanes" are typical ...

                                               

Malice aforethought

Malice aforethought is the "premeditation" or "predetermination" required as an element of some crimes in some jurisdictions and a unique element for first-degree or aggravated murder in a few. Insofar as the term is still in use, it has a techni ...

                                               

Maria Duval scam

The Maria Duval Psychic Scam is one of the most successful mail scams in history, having defrauded millions of people out of at least 0 million over twenty years. Targeting sick and elderly people through a combination of personalized letters and ...

                                               

Midnight basketball

Midnight basketball is an initiative which developed in the 1990s to curb inner-city crime in the United States by keeping urban youth off the streets and engaging them with alternatives to drugs and crime. It was founded by G. Van Standifer in t ...

                                               

Mischief Night

Mischief Night is an informal holiday on which children and teenagers engage in pranks and vandalism. It is known by a variety of names including Devils Night, Gate Night, Goosey Night, Moving Night, Cabbage Night and Mat Night.

                                               

National Crime Scene Cleanup Association

The National Crime Scene Cleanup Association is an American company, that is owned by Prestige Worldwide Group, that provides crime scene cleanup, hoarding cleanup, trauma cleanup, unattended death cleanup, as well as various types of remediation ...

                                               

No-go area

A no-go area or a no-go zone is an area in a town or region that is barricaded off to civil or military authorities by a force such as a paramilitary, or an area that is barred to certain individuals or groups. The term has also been used to refe ...

                                               

Online Abuse Prevention Initiative

The OAPI was founded in 2015 by Randi Lee Harper, with Crash Override Networks Zoe Quinn and Alex Lifschitz stated as serving on the inaugural board of directors. In March 2015 Quinn announced a formal partnership between the two organizations.

                                               

Outline of domestic violence

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to domestic violence: Domestic violence – pattern of abusive behaviors by one or both partners in an intimate relationship, such as marriage, dating, family, or cohabitation. I ...

                                               

Pin prick attack

A pin prick attack is a hypothetical assault on another person with a needle or syringe tainted with the blood of somebody carrying a blood-borne disease, such as HIV. Although there have been numerous cases of people being attacked with needles ...

                                               

Predicate crime

In the criminal law of the United States, a predicate crime or offense is a crime which is a component of a larger crime. The larger crime may be racketeering, money laundering, financing of terrorism, etc. For example, to violate the Racketeer I ...

                                               

Preemptive arrest

A preemptive arrest is one in which a person is arrested prior to committing a crime. Preemptive arrests are sometimes viewed with suspicion as being contrary to the principles of a democracy. This practice is distinct from an arrest on a charge ...

                                               

Psychopathy

Psychopathy is traditionally a personality disorder characterized by persistent antisocial behavior, impaired empathy and remorse, and bold, disinhibited, and egotistical traits. It is sometimes considered synonymous with sociopathy. Different co ...

                                               

Public security

Public security is the function of governments which ensures the protection of citizens, persons in their territory, organizations, and institutions against threats to their well-being – and to the prosperity of their communities. To meet the inc ...

                                               

Race and crime

Race is one of the correlates of crime receiving attention in academic studies, government surveys, media coverage, and public concern. Research suggests that police practices, such as racial profiling, over-policing in areas populated by minorit ...

                                               

School violence

School violence encompasses physical violence, including student-on-student fighting and corporal punishment; psychological violence, including verbal abuse; sexual violence, including rape and sexual harassment; many forms of bullying, including ...

                                               

Seduction (crime)

Seduction, in criminal law, is the making of a false promise of marriage as a way of luring a previously chaste unmarried woman into having sex. In some jurisdictions, an element of the offense is that the woman be younger than a certain age; for ...

                                               

Sequential Intercept Model

The Sequential Intercept Model clarifies five points at which standard processing of crimes can be intervened with community-based actions, so that individuals with mental and psychiatric disorders would not have to further penetrate the criminal ...

                                               

Serial killer

A serial killer is typically a person who murders three or more people, usually in service of abnormal psychological gratification, with the murders taking place over more than a month and including a significant period of time between them. Whil ...

                                               

Slashing (crime)

Slashing is a crime intended to cause bodily harm to a victim. A slashing is typically performed with a knife or other type of bladed or sharp object.

                                               

Smash and grab

A smash and grab is a particular form of burglary that involves smashing a barrier, usually a display window in a shop or a showcase, grabbing valuables, and then making a quick getaway, without concern for setting off alarms or creating noise. T ...

                                               

Smuggling tunnel

Smuggling tunnels are secret passages used for the smuggling of goods and people. The term is also used where the tunnels are built in response to a siege.

                                               

Squatting

Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. Author Robert Neuwirth suggested in 2004 that there ...

                                               

Strain theory (sociology)

In sociology and criminology, strain theory states that social structures within society may pressure citizens to commit crime. Following on the work of Emile Durkheim, strain theories have been advanced by Robert King Merton, Albert K. Cohen, Ri ...

                                               

Stranger danger

Stranger danger is the idea or warning that all strangers can potentially be dangerous. It is an example of a moral panic that people experience regarding anyone that they are unfamiliar with in society. The phrase is intended to encapsulate the ...

                                               

Terroristic threat

A terroristic threat is a threat to commit a crime of violence or a threat to cause bodily injury to another person and terrorization as the result of the proscribed conduct. Several U.S. states have enacted statutes which impose criminal liabili ...

                                               

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime is a United Nations office that was established in 1997 as the Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention by combining the United Nations International Drug Control Program and the Crime Prevention a ...

                                               

Unreported employment

Unreported employment, working under the table, off the books, cash-in-hand, illicit work, or moonlighting, is illegal employment that is not reported to the government. The employer or the employee often does so for tax evasion or avoiding or vi ...

                                               

Vice

Vice is a practice, behaviour, or habit generally considered immoral, sinful, criminal, rude, taboo, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a negative character trait, a defect, an infirm ...

                                               

Victimless crime

A victimless crime is an illegal act that typically either directly involves only the perpetrator or occurs between consenting adults; because it is consensual in nature, there is arguably no true victim, i.e. aggrieved party. Definitions of vict ...

                                               

Violence

Violence is "the use of physical force so as to injure, abuse, damage, or destroy." Less conventional definitions are also used, such as the World Health Organizations definition of violence as "the intentional use of physical force or power, thr ...

                                               

Welfare fraud

Welfare fraud is the act of businesses or program recipients knowingly withholding or giving information to obtain more funds than would otherwise be allocated by social benefit programs. This article deals with welfare fraud in various countries ...

                                               

White-collar crime

White-collar crime refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by businesses and government professionals. It was first defined by the sociologist Edwin Sutherland in 1939 as "a crime committed by a person of respectability and hi ...

                                               

Wireless identity theft

Wireless identity theft, also known as contactless identity theft or RFID identity theft, is a form of identity theft described as "the act of compromising an individual’s personal identifying information using wireless mechanics." Numerous artic ...

                                               

Women's fear of crime

Womens fear of crime refers to womens fear of being a victim of crime, independent of actual victimization. Although fear of crime is a concern for people of all genders, studies consistently find that women around the world tend to have much hig ...

                                               

Work-at-home scheme

A work-at-home scheme is a get-rich-quick scam in which a victim is lured by an offer to be employed at home, very often doing some simple task in a minimal amount of time with a large amount of income that far exceeds the market rate for the typ ...

                                               

Culture

Culture is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities and habits of the individuals in these groups. Humans acquire culture throu ...

                                               

Outline of culture

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to culture: Culture – set of patterns of human activity within a community or social group and the symbolic structures that give significance to such activity. Customs, laws, d ...

                                               

Cultural appropriation

Cultural appropriation, at times also phrased cultural misappropriation, is the adoption of elements of one culture by members of another culture. This can be controversial when members of a dominant culture appropriate from disadvantaged minorit ...

                                               

Artificiality

Artificiality is the state of being the product of intentional human manufacture, rather than occurring naturally through processes not involving or requiring human activity.

                                               

Assessment culture

Assessment culture is a subset of organizational culture defined by the values, beliefs, and assumptions held by its members. In higher education, a positive assessment culture is characterized by trusting relationships, data-informed decision-ma ...

                                               

Cultural assimilation

Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble a dominant group or assume the values, behaviors, and beliefs of another group. A conceptualization describes cultural assimilation as similar to accultur ...

                                               

Authenticity in art

Authenticity in art is the different ways in which a work of art or an artistic performance may be considered authentic.Denis Dutton distinguishes between nominal authenticity and expressive authenticity. The first refers to the correct identific ...

                                               

Aversion to happiness

Aversion to happiness, also called cherophobia or fear of happiness, is an attitude towards happiness in which individuals may deliberately avoid experiences that invoke positive emotions or happiness. One of several reasons why cherophobia may d ...

                                               

Ceremonial pole

A ceremonial pole symbolizes a variety of concepts in several different cultures. For example, in the Miao culture in Yunnan China. In The Evolution of the Idea of God, Grant Allen notes that Samoyeds of Siberia, and Damara of South Africa plant ...

                                               

Civilization

A civilization or civilisation is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication, and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural enviro ...

                                               

Classic

A classic is an outstanding example of a particular style; something of lasting worth or with a timeless quality; of the first or highest quality, class, or rank – something that exemplifies its class. The word can be an adjective or a noun. It d ...

                                               

Coffee in Japan

Japan has a very unique coffee culture that has changed with societal needs over time. Today, coffee shops serve as a niche within their urban cultures. While it was introduced earlier in history, in the sixteen and seventeenth centuries by Dutch ...

                                               

Cognitive adequacy

Cognitive adequacy is a term proposed by Rein Raud as a standard of judging cultural phenomena. According to this method, a cultural phenomenon is cognitively adequate if it provides the means of solving certain problems in a certain socio-cultur ...

                                               

Cultural competency training

Cultural competence refers to an ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures. Cultural competence comprises four components: a awareness of ones own cultural worldview, b attitude towards cultural differences, c knowledge of ...

                                               

Cultural consensus theory

Cultural consensus theory is an approach to information pooling which supports a framework for the measurement and evaluation of beliefs as cultural; shared to some extent by a group of individuals. Cultural consensus models guide the aggregation ...

                                               

Counterculture

A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a speci ...

                                               

Critical consumerism

Critical consumption is the conscious choice of buying or not buying a specific product according to ethical and political beliefs. The critical consumer recognizes the importance of considering some characteristics of the product and its realiza ...

                                               

Cultural intelligence

Cultural intelligence or cultural quotient is a term used in business, education, government and academic research. Cultural intelligence can be understood as the capability to relate and work effectively across cultures. Originally, the term cul ...

                                               

Cultural lag

The term cultural lag refers to the notion that culture takes time to catch up with technological innovations, and the resulting social problems that are caused by this lag. In other words, cultural lag occurs whenever there is an unequal rate of ...

                                               

Cultural manager

A cultural manager is a person who is motivated by the improvement of art, works independently and professionally with knowledge of the subject, and develops work as a mediator between governmental and/or private cultural institutions with artist ...

                                               

Cultural mediation

Cultural mediation describes a profession that studies the cultural differences between people, using the data in problem solving. It is one of the fundamental mechanisms of distinctly human development according to cultural–historical psychologi ...

                                               

Cultural movement

A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. This embodies all art forms, the sciences, and philosophies. Historically, different nations or regions of the world have gone through their own ind ...

                                               

Cultural narcissism

                                               

Cultural policy

Cultural policy is the government actions, laws and programs that regulate, protect, encourage and financially support activities related to the arts and creative sectors, such as painting, sculpture, music, dance, literature, and filmmaking, amo ...

                                               

Cultural practice

Cultural practice is the manifestation of a culture or sub-culture, especially in regard to the traditional and customary practices of a particular ethnic or other cultural group. The term is gaining in importance due to the increased controversy ...

                                               

Cultural radicalism

Cultural radicalism was a movement in first Danish, but later also Norwegian culture. It was particular strong in the Interwar Period, but its philosophy has its origin in the 1870s and a great deal of modern social commentary still refer to it. ...

                                               

Cultural retention

Cultural retention is the act of retaining the culture of a specific ethnic group of people, especially when there is reason to believe that the culture, through inaction, may be lost. Many African-American, European and Asian organizations have ...

                                               

Cultural universal

A cultural universal, as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Levi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide. Taken together, the whole body of cu ...

                                               

Culture change

Culture change is a term used in public policy making that emphasizes the influence of cultural capital on individual and community behavior. It has been sometimes called repositioning of culture, which means the reconstruction of the cultural co ...

                                               

Culture hero

A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group who changes the world through invention or discovery. Although many culture heroes help with the creation of the world, most culture heroes are important because of their effect on the ...

                                               

Cultural deprivation

Cultural deprivation is a theory in sociology where a person has inferior norms, values, skills and knowledge. The theory states that people of the working class experience cultural deprivation and this disadvantages them, as a result of which th ...

                                               

Design culture

Design culture is an organizational culture focused on approaches that improve customer experiences through design. In every firm, the design is significant since it allows the company to understand users and their needs. Integration of design cu ...

                                               

Design theory

Design theory is a subfield of design research concerned with various theoretical approaches towards understanding and delineating design principles, design knowledge, and design practice.

                                               

Cultural diversity

Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay. The phrase cultural diversity can also refer to having different cultu ...

                                               

Cultural ecology

Cultural ecology is the study of human adaptations to social and physical environments. Human adaptation refers to both biological and cultural processes that enable a population to survive and reproduce within a given or changing environment. Th ...

                                               

Cultural emphasis

Cultural emphasis is an important aspect of a culture which is often reflected though language and, more specifically, vocabulary. This means that the vocabulary people use in a culture indicates what is important to that group of people. If ther ...

                                               

Empowerment

Empowerment is a set of measures designed to increase the degree of autonomy and self-determination in people and in communities in order to enable them to represent their interests in a responsible and self-determined way, acting on their own au ...

                                               

Ethnoscience

Ethnoscience has been defined as an attempt "to reconstitute what serves as science for others, their practices of looking after themselves and their bodies, their botanical knowledge, but also their forms of classification, of making connections ...

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