Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 237

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 237

                                               

Niklaus Wirth

Niklaus Emil Wirth is a Swiss computer scientist. He has designed several programming languages, including Pascal, and pioneered several classic topics in software engineering. In 1984 he won the Turing Award, generally recognized as the highest ...

                                               

Shafi Goldwasser

Shafrira "Shafi" Goldwasser is an American-Israeli computer scientist and winner of the Turing Award in 2012. She is the RSA Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, a professor of mathematical sciences at the Weizmann Ins ...

                                               

Edsger W. Dijkstra

Edsger Wybe Dijkstra ; 11 May 1930 – 6 August 2002) was a Dutch systems scientist, programmer, software engineer, science essayist, and pioneer in computing science. A theoretical physicist by training, he worked as a programmer at the Mathematis ...

                                               

Heraklion

Heraklion or Iraklion is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete and capital of Heraklion regional unit. It is the fourth largest city in Greece with a population of 140.730 according to the 2011 census. The populat ...

                                               

Bob Kahn

Robert Elliot Kahn is an American electrical engineer, who, along with Vint Cerf, first proposed the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol, the fundamental communication protocols at the heart of the Internet. In 2004, Kahn won ...

                                               

Richard M. Karp

Richard Manning Karp is an American computer scientist and computational theorist at the University of California, Berkeley. He is most notable for his research in the theory of algorithms, for which he received a Turing Award in 1985, The Benjam ...

                                               

Edmund M. Clarke

Edmund Melson Clarke, Jr. is an American retired computer scientist and academic noted for developing model checking, a method for formally verifying hardware and software designs. He is the FORE Systems Professor of Computer Science Emeritus at ...

                                               

John Cocke

John Cocke was an American computer scientist recognized for his large contribution to computer architecture and optimizing compiler design. He is considered by many to be "the father of RISC architecture." He attended Duke University, where he r ...

                                               

Stephen Cook

Stephen Arthur Cook, is an American-Canadian computer scientist and mathematician who has made major contributions to the fields of complexity theory and proof complexity. He is a university professor at the University of Toronto, Department of C ...

                                               

William Kahan

William "Velvel" Morton Kahan is a Canadian mathematician and computer scientist, who received the Turing Award in 1989 for his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis ", was named an ACM Fellow in 1994, and inducted into the National Aca ...

                                               

Current events/March 2015

                                               

Harry H. Goode Memorial Award

The Harry H. Goode Memorial Award is an IEEE Computer Society annual awards in honor of Harry H. Goode for achievements in the information processing field which are considered either a single contribution of theory, design, or technique of outst ...

                                               

Silvio Micali

Silvio Micali is an Italian computer scientist at MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and a professor of computer science in MITs Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science since 1983. His research centers o ...

                                               

Robin Milner

Arthur John Robin Gorell Milner, known as Robin Milner or A. J. R. G. Milner, was a British computer scientist, and a Turing Award winner.

                                               

Marvin Minsky

Marvin Lee Minsky was an American cognitive scientist concerned largely with research of artificial intelligence, co-founder of the Massachusetts Institute of Technologys AI laboratory, and author of several texts concerning AI and philosophy. Mi ...

                                               

Allen Newell

Allen Newell was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology. He contributed to the Info ...

                                               

David Patterson (computer scientist)

David Andrew Patterson is an American computer pioneer and academic who has held the position of Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley since 1976. He announced retirement in 2016 after serving nearly forty years, ...

                                               

Judea Pearl

Judea Pearl is an Israeli-American computer scientist and philosopher, best known for championing the probabilistic approach to artificial intelligence and the development of Bayesian networks. He is also credited for developing a theory of causa ...

                                               

Amir Pnueli

Pnueli was born in Nahalal, in the British Mandate of Palestine now in Israel and received a Bachelors degree in mathematics from the Technion in Haifa, and Ph.D. in applied mathematics from the Weizmann Institute of Science. His thesis was on th ...

                                               

Loebner Prize

The Loebner Prize is an annual competition in artificial intelligence that awards prizes to the computer programs considered by the judges to be the most human-like. The format of the competition is that of a standard Turing test. In each round, ...

                                               

Marconi Prize

The Marconi Prize is an annual award recognizing achievements and advancements made in field of communications. The prize is awarded by the Marconi Foundation. and it includes a 0.000 honorarium and a work of sculpture.

                                               

Michael O. Rabin

Michael Oser Rabin is an Israeli mathematician and computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award.

                                               

Raj Reddy

Dabbala Rajagopal "Raj" Reddy is an Indian-American computer scientist and a winner of the Turing Award. He is one of the early pioneers of Artificial Intelligence and has served on the faculty of Stanford and Carnegie Mellon for over 50 years. H ...

                                               

Joseph Sifakis

Joseph Sifakis is a Greek-French computer scientist with French citizenship, laureate of the 2007 Turing Award, along with Edmund M. Clarke and E. Allen Emerson, for his work on model checking.

                                               

Richard E. Stearns

Richard Edwin Stearns is a prominent computer scientist who, with Juris Hartmanis, received the 1993 ACM Turing Award "in recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory". In 1 ...

                                               

Michael Stonebraker

Michael Ralph Stonebraker is a computer scientist specializing in database research. Through a series of academic prototypes and commercial startups, Stonebrakers research and products are central to many relational database systems. He is also t ...

                                               

Charles P. Thacker

Charles Patrick "Chuck" Thacker was an American pioneer computer designer. He worked on the Xerox Alto, which is the first computer that used a mouse-driven Graphical User Interface.

                                               

Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist. Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of ...

                                               

James H. Wilkinson

James Hardy Wilkinson FRS was a prominent figure in the field of numerical analysis, a field at the boundary of applied mathematics and computer science particularly useful to physics and engineering.

                                               

Maurice Wilkes

Sir Maurice Vincent Wilkes was a British computer scientist who designed and helped build the Electronic delay storage automatic calculator, one of the earliest stored program computers and invented microprogramming, a method for using stored-pro ...

                                               

Edward Feigenbaum

Edward Albert Ed Feigenbaum is a computer scientist working in the field of artificial intelligence, and joint winner of the 1994 ACM Turing Award. He is often called the "father of expert systems."

                                               

Martin Hellman

Martin Edward Hellman is an American cryptologist, best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle. Hellman is a longtime contributor to the computer privacy debate, has applied risk a ...

                                               

John L. Hennessy

John Leroy Hennessy is an American computer scientist, academician, businessman, and Chair of Alphabet Inc. Hennessy is one of the founders of MIPS Computer Systems Inc. as well as Atheros and served as the tenth President of Stanford University. ...

                                               

Geoffrey Hinton

Geoffrey Everest Hinton is an English Canadian cognitive psychologist and computer scientist, most noted for his work on artificial neural networks. Since 2013 he divides his time working for Google and the University of Toronto. In 2017, he cofo ...

                                               

Tony Hoare

Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare is a British computer scientist. He developed the sorting algorithm quicksort in 1959–1960. He also developed Hoare logic for verifying program correctness, and the formal language communicating sequential process ...

                                               

Antonin Holy

Antonin Holy was a pioneering Czech scientist. He specialised in the field of chemistry and cooperated on the development of important antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV and hepatitis B. He was involved in the creation of the most ...

                                               

Pascale Cossart

Pascale Cossart is a bacteriologist at the Pasteur Institute of Paris, and the foremost authority on Listeria monocytogenes, a deadly and common food-borne pathogen responsible for encephalitis, meningitis, bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and other ...

                                               

Chryssa Kouveliotou

Chryssa Kouveliotou is a Greek astrophysicist. She is a professor at George Washington University and a retired senior technologist in high-energy astrophysics at NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

                                               

John Pendry

Sir John Brian Pendry, FRS FInstP is an English theoretical physicist known for his research into refractive indices and creation of the first practical "Invisibility Cloak". He is a professor of theoretical solid state physics at Imperial Colleg ...

                                               

Costas Soukoulis

Costas M. Soukoulis is a Senior Scientist in the Ames Laboratory and a Distinguished Professor of Physics at Iowa State University. He received his B.Sc. from University of Athens in 1974. He obtained his Ph.D. in Physics from the University of C ...

                                               

Richard Friend

Sir Richard Henry Friend FRS FREng is a British physicist who is Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge and Tan Chin Tuan Centennial Professor at the National University of Singapore. Friends research concerns the physics a ...

                                               

Anton Zeilinger

Anton Zeilinger is an Austrian quantum physicist who in 2008 received the Inaugural Isaac Newton Medal of the Institute of Physics for "his pioneering conceptual and experimental contributions to the foundations of quantum physics, which have bec ...

                                               

Nikolay Belov (geochemist)

Nikolay Vasilyevich Belov was a Soviet crystallographer, geochemist, academician, and Hero of Socialist Labor.

                                               

Cosmos

The cosmos is the Universe. Using the word cosmos rather than the word universe implies viewing the universe as a complex and orderly system or entity; the opposite of chaos. The cosmos, and our understanding of the reasons for its existence and ...

                                               

Sex in space

Sex in space is human sexual activity in the weightlessness of outer space. It presents difficulties for the performance of most sexual activities due to Newtons third law. According to the law, if the couple remain attached, their movements will ...

                                               

Soviet space dogs

During the 1950s and 1960s the Soviet space program used dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible. In this period, the Soviet Union launched missions with passenger slots for at least 57 d ...

                                               

Natural satellite

A natural satellite, or moon, is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet. In the Solar System, there are six planetary satellite systems containing 205 known natural satellites. Four IAU-listed dwarf p ...

                                               

Anik (satellite)

The Anik satellites are a series of geostationary communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for television in Canada, from 1972 through 2013. Some of the later satellites in the series remain operational in orbit, while others have bee ...

                                               

Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and the second-largest natural satellite in the Solar System. It is the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere, and the only known body in space, other than Earth, where clear evidence of stable bodies of s ...

                                               

Triton (moon)

Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered. The discovery was made on October 10, 1846, by English astronomer William Lassell. It is the only large moon in the Solar System with a ...

                                               

Charon (moon)

Charon, also known as Pluto I, is the largest of the five known natural satellites of the dwarf planet Pluto. It has a mean radius of 606 km. It was discovered in 1978 at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C., using photographic ...

                                               

Vulcan (hypothetical planet)

Vulcan is a small hypothetical planet that was proposed to exist in an orbit between Mercury and the Sun. The 19th-century French mathematician Urbain Le Verrier hypothesized that peculiarities in Mercurys orbit were the result of another planet, ...

                                               

Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun. It has the third-largest planetary radius and fourth-largest planetary mass in the Solar System. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have bulk chemical compositions which differ from th ...

                                               

Phaeton (hypothetical planet)

Phaeton was the hypothetical planet theorized by the Titius–Bode law to have existed between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, the destruction of which supposedly led to the formation of the asteroid belt. The hypothetical planet was named for Phae ...

                                               

Coma (cometary)

The coma is the nebulous envelope around the nucleus of a comet, formed when the comet passes close to the Sun on its highly elliptical orbit; as the comet warms, parts of it sublimate. This gives a comet a "fuzzy" appearance when viewed in teles ...

                                               

Caladan

Caladan is a fictional planet in the Dune universe created by Frank Herbert, first mentioned in the 1965 novel Dune. On October 8, 2014, a real-world planitia plain on Saturns moon Titan was named Caladan Planitia after Herberts fictional planet.

                                               

Krypton (comics)

Krypton is a fictional planet appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The planet is the native world of Superman and is named after the element Krypton. The planet was created by Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster, and was first refer ...

                                               

Pern

Pern is a fictional planet created by Anne McCaffrey beginning in the 1960s, the setting for the Dragonriders of Pern series of science fiction books. In the story it is "Rukbat 3", the third planet in orbit around the star Rukbat, counting outwa ...

                                               

Rocket

A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine. Rocket engine exhaust is formed entirely from propellant carried within the rocket. Rocket engines work by action and reaction and push rockets ...

                                               

Launch vehicle

A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket propelled vehicle used to carry a payload from Earths surface to space, usually to Earth orbit or beyond. A launch system includes the launch vehicle, launch pad, vehicle assembly and fuelling system ...

                                               

Super heavy-lift launch vehicle

A super heavy-lift launch vehicle is a launch vehicle capable of lifting more than 50 tonnes of payload into low Earth orbit.

                                               

Heavy-lift launch vehicle

A heavy-lift launch vehicle, HLV or HLLV, is an orbital launch vehicle capable of lifting between 20.000 to 50.000 kg into low Earth orbit. As of 2019, operational heavy-lift launch vehicles include the Ariane 5, the Proton-M and the Delta IV Hea ...

                                               

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle is an expendable launch system operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation. GSLV was used in thirteen launches from 2001 to 2018, with more launches planned. Even though GSLV Mk III shares the name, ...

                                               

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III, also referred to as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3, is a three-stage medium-lift launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation. Primarily designed to launch communication satel ...

                                               

H-I

The H–I or H–1 was a Japanese liquid-fuelled carrier rocket, consisting of a licence-produced American first stage and set of booster rockets, and all-Japanese upper stages. It was launched nine times between 1986 and 1992. It replaced the N-II, ...

                                               

H-II

The H-II rocket was a Japanese satellite launch system, which flew seven times between 1994 and 1999, with five successes. It was developed by NASDA in order to give Japan a capability to launch larger satellites in the 1990s. It was the first tw ...

                                               

H3 (rocket)

The H3 Launch Vehicle is an expendable launch system in development in Japan. H3 rockets are liquid-propellant rockets with strap-on solid rocket boosters and are planned to be launched from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. Mitsubishi and JAXA ...

                                               

N-I (rocket)

The N-I or N-1 was a derivative of the American Thor-Delta rocket, produced under licence in Japan. It used a Thor-ELT first stage, a Mitsubishi Heavy Industries-designed LE-3 engine was used as a second stage, and three Castor SRMs. Seven were l ...

                                               

N-II (rocket)

The N-II or N-2 was a derivative of the American Delta rocket, produced under licence in Japan. It replaced the N-I-rocket in Japanese use. It used a Thor-ELT first stage, a Delta-F second stage, nine Castor SRMs, and on most flights either a Sta ...

                                               

Vulcan (rocket)

Vulcan is a next generation heavy-lift launch vehicle under development by the United Launch Alliance to meet the demands of the United States Air Forces National Security Space Launch competition and launch program. The maiden flight is planned ...

                                               

Vanguard (rocket)

The Vanguard rocket was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit. Instead, the Sputnik crisis caused by the surprise launch of Sputnik 1 led the U.S., after the failure of Vanguard TV3, t ...

                                               

Antares (rocket)

Antares, known during early development as Taurus II, is an expendable launch system developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation and the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau to launch the Cygnus spacecraft to the International Space Station as part of NASAs COTS ...

                                               

Athena (rocket family)

Athena was a 1990s Lockheed Martin expendable launch system which underwent several name changes in its lifetime. Development began at the Lockheed Corporation in 1993, where the design was known as the Lockheed Launch Vehicle. The name was subse ...

                                               

Vega (rocket)

Vega, is an expendable launch system in use by Arianespace jointly developed by the Italian Space Agency and the European Space Agency. Development began in 1998 and the first launch took place from the Centre Spatial Guyanais on 13 February 2012 ...

                                               

Volna

Space launch vehicle Volna, is a converted Submarine-launched ballistic missile used for launching satellites into orbit. It is based on the R-29R designed by State Rocket Center Makayev and related to the Shtil Launch Vehicle. The Volna is a 3-s ...

                                               

Vostok (rocket family)

Vostok was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM and was designed for the human spaceflight programme. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite and the first crewed spacecraft in human history. It was ...

                                               

Voskhod (rocket)

The Voskhod rocket was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for launching Zenit reconnaissance satellites. It consisted of the Molniya 8K78M third stage minus the Blok L. In 1966, all R-7 ...

                                               

Delta (rocket family)

Delta is an American versatile family of expendable launch systems that has provided space launch capability in the United States since 1960. More than 300 Delta rockets have been launched with a 95% success rate. Only the Delta IV Heavy rocket r ...

                                               

Diamant

The Diamant rocket was the first exclusively French expendable launch system and at the same time the first satellite launcher not built by either the United States or USSR. As such, it has been referred to as being a key predecessor for all subs ...

                                               

Dnepr (rocket)

The Dnepr rocket was a space launch vehicle named after the Dnieper River. It was a converted ICBM used for launching artificial satellites into orbit, operated by launch service provider ISC Kosmotras. The first launch, on April 21, 1999, succes ...

                                               

Zenit-2

The Zenit-2 is a Russian-Ukrainian, previously Soviet, expendable carrier rocket. First flown in 1985, it has been launched 37 times, with 6 failures. It is a member of the Zenit family of rockets and was designed by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.

                                               

Zenit-2M

The Zenit-2M, Zenit-2SB, Zenit-2SLB or Zenit-2FG was a Ukrainian expendable carrier rocket derived from the Zenit-3SL. It was a member of the Zenit family of rockets, which were designed by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau.

                                               

Irtysh (rocket)

Irtysh, also named Soyuz-5, codenamed Fenix in Russian and Sunkar in Kazakh, is a planned Russian rocket that is being developed by JSC SRC Progress within the "Project Feniks". Initially it will replace the capability of Zenit-2 and Proton Mediu ...

                                               

CORONA (SSTO)

CORONA is an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle developed from 1992 to 2012. In 2016, the company announced plans to resume CORONA development.

                                               

Kosmos-2I

Kosmos-2I is the designation applied to two Soviet carrier rockets, members of the R-12 Kosmos, which were used to orbit satellites between 1961 and 1977. They were superseded by the R-14 derived Kosmos-3 and Kosmos-3M.

                                               

Luna (rocket)

The Luna 8K72 vehicles were carrier rockets used by the Soviet Union for nine space probe launch attempts in the Luna programme between 23 September 1958 and 16 April 1960. Like many other Soviet launchers of that era the Luna 8K72 vehicles were ...

                                               

Magnum (rocket)

The Magnum was a large super-heavy-lift rocket designed by NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center during the mid-1990s. The Magnum, which never made it past the preliminary design phase, would have been a booster some 96 meters tall, on the scale of ...

                                               

Mayak (rocket family)

Mayak is a new family of Ukrainian launch vehicles under development by the Yuzhnoye Design Office, which would be manufactured by Yuzhmash. The family is built in a modular fashion on the basis of a single line of main engines with thrust of rou ...

                                               

Minotaur (rocket family)

The Minotaur is a family of American solid fuel rockets derived from converted Minuteman and Peacekeeper intercontinental ballistic missiles. They are built by Northrop Grumman via contract with the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Centers Spa ...

                                               

Molniya (rocket)

The Molniya, GRAU Index 8K78, was a modification of the well-known R-7 Semyorka rocket and had four stages. The 8K78 resulted from a crash program by the Korolev Bureau to develop a booster for launching planetary probes. A larger third stage was ...

                                               

Nova (rocket)

Nova was a series of proposed rocket designs, originally as NASAs first large launchers for missions similar to the production-level Saturn V. The Nova studied designs that closely mirrored the Saturn V in basic concept, power, size, and function ...

                                               

Pegasus (rocket)

The Pegasus is an air-launched rocket developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation. Capable of carrying small payloads of up to 443 kilograms into low Earth orbit, Pegasus first flew in 1990 and remains active as of 2019. The vehicle consists of thr ...

                                               

Proton (rocket family)

Proton is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches. The first Proton rocket was launched in 1965. Modern versions of the launch system are still in use as of 2019, making it one of the most succes ...

                                               

Rokot

Rokot, also transliterated Rockot, was a Russian space launch vehicle that was capable of launching a payload of 1.950 kilograms into a 200 kilometre Earth orbit with 63° inclination. It was based on the UR-100N intercontinental ballistic missile ...

                                               

Safir (rocket)

The Safir is the first Iranian expendable launch vehicle that is able to place a satellite in orbit. The first successful orbital launch using the Safir launch system took place on 2 February 2009 when a Safir carrier rocket placed the Omid satel ...

                                               

Simorgh (rocket)

Simorgh, also called Safir-2, is an Iranian expendable small-capacity orbital space launch vehicle, which was originally scheduled to make its maiden flight in 2010. The project was unveiled by Iraninan President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad on 3 February ...

                                               

Scout (rocket family)

The Scout family of rockets were American launch vehicles designed to place small satellites into orbit around the Earth. The Scout multistage rocket was the first orbital launch vehicle to be entirely composed of solid fuel stages. The original ...

                                               

Soyuz (rocket family)

Soyuz is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia. With over 1700 flights since its debut in 1966, the Soyuz is the most frequently used launch vehicle in the worl ...

                                               

Soyuz-7 (rocket)

The Soyuz-7 is a launch family Russian rocket proposed by JSC SRC Progress, the manufacturer and custodian of the Soyuz family design, within the Project Feniks. While all previous iterations of the Soyuz family had its roots firmly set on the R- ...

                                               

Soyuz-L

The Soyuz-L, GRAU index 11A511L was a Soviet expendable carrier rocket designed by OKB-1 and manufactured by State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Samara, Russia. It was created to test the LK lunar lander in low Earth orbit, as part of the Soviet lunar ...

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