Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 236

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 236

                                               

Donald Knuth

Donald Ervin Knuth is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the 1974 recipient of the ACM Turing Award, informally considered the Nobel Prize of computer science. He is the author of t ...

                                               

Fernando J. Corbato

Fernando Jose Corby Corbato was a prominent American computer scientist, notable as a pioneer in the development of time-sharing operating systems.

                                               

Nils Alwall

Nils Alwall, a Swedish professor, was a pioneer in hemodialysis and the inventor of one of the first practical dialysis machines. Alwall pioneered the technique of ultrafiltration and introduced the principle of hemofiltration. Alwall is referred ...

                                               

Vladimir Arnold

Vladimir Igorevich Arnold was a Soviet and Russian mathematician. While he is best known for the Kolmogorov–Arnold–Moser theorem regarding the stability of integrable systems, he made important contributions in several areas including dynamical s ...

                                               

Seymour Benzer

Seymour Benzer was an American physicist, molecular biologist and behavioral geneticist. His career began during the molecular biology revolution of the 1950s, and he eventually rose to prominence in the fields of molecular and behavioral genetic ...

                                               

Roger Blandford

Blandford is famous in the astrophysical community for the Blandford-Znajek process which is a model for the extraction of energy from a black hole. In April 2005 he wrote a letter to the astronomy community showing his concern about the George W ...

                                               

Wallace Smith Broecker

Wallace "Wally" Smith Broecker was an American geochemist. He was the Newberry Professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University, a scientist at Columbias Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and a sustainability ...

                                               

James Van Allen

James Alfred Van Allen was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa. He was instrumental in establishing the field of magnetospheric research in space. The Van Allen radiation belts were named after him, following their discovery by ...

                                               

Carl Woese

Carl Richard Woese was an American microbiologist and biophysicist. Woese is famous for defining the Archaea in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA, a technique he pioneered that revolutionized microbiology. He also originated the ...

                                               

W. D. Hamilton

William Donald Hamilton, FRS was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. Hamilton became famous through his theoretical work expounding a rigorous genetic bas ...

                                               

James Gunn (astronomer)

James Edward Gunn is the Eugene Higgins Professor of Astronomy at Princeton University. Gunns early theoretical work in astronomy has helped establish the current understanding of how galaxies form, and the properties of the space between galaxie ...

                                               

Andrea M. Ghez

Andrea Mia Ghez is an American astronomer and professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at UCLA. In 2004, Discover magazine listed Ghez as one of the top 20 scientists in the United States who have shown a high degree of understanding ...

                                               

Reinhard Genzel

Genzel studied physics at the University of Freiburg and the University of Bonn where he did his PhD in 1978 and, in the same year, his PhD thesis on radioastronomy at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy. He then worked at the Harvard-Sm ...

                                               

Daniel H. Janzen

Daniel Hunt Janzen is an American evolutionary ecologist, and conservationist. He divides his time between his professorship in biology at the University of Pennsylvania, where he is the DiMaura Professor of Conservation Biology, and his research ...

                                               

Charles A. Dinarello

Charles A. Dinarello is a professor of medicine currently at the University of Colorado at Denver. He is an expert on inflammatory cytokines, specifically Interleukin 1. Dinarello received his Doctor of Medicine in 1969 at Yale University and sin ...

                                               

Adolf Seilacher

Adolf "Dolf" Seilacher was a German palaeontologist who worked in evolutionary and ecological palaeobiology for over 60 years. He is best known for his contributions to the study of trace fossils; constructional morphology and structuralism; bios ...

                                               

Roy Kerr

Roy Patrick Kerr is a New Zealand mathematician who discovered the Kerr geometry, an exact solution to the Einstein field equation of general relativity. His solution models the gravitational field outside an uncharged rotating massive object, in ...

                                               

Tadamitsu Kishimoto

Tadamitsu Kishimoto is a Japanese immunologist known for research on IgM and cytokines, most famously, interleukin 6. He did postdoctoral work under Kimishige Ishizaka, the discoverer of IgE at Johns Hopkins University. He is listed by the Instit ...

                                               

Richard Lewontin

Richard Charles "Dick" Lewontin is an American evolutionary biologist, mathematician, geneticist, and social commentator. A leader in developing the mathematical basis of population genetics and evolutionary theory, he pioneered the application o ...

                                               

Edward Norton Lorenz

Edward Norton Lorenz was an American mathematician and meteorologist who established the theoretical basis of weather and climate predictability, as well as the basis for computer-aided atmospheric physics and meteorology. He is best known as the ...

                                               

Ernst Mayr

Not to be confused with Ernst Mayr computer scientist, Ernst Mayer, Ernst Meyer, Ernest Mayer or Ernest May. Ernst Walter Mayr was one of the 20th centurys leading evolutionary biologists. He was also a renowned taxonomist, tropical explorer, orn ...

                                               

Dan McKenzie (geophysicist)

Dan Peter McKenzie is a Professor of Geophysics at the University of Cambridge, and one-time head of the Bullard Laboratories of the Cambridge Department of Earth Sciences. He wrote the first paper defining the mathematical principles of plate te ...

                                               

Syukuro Manabe

Syukuro "Suki" Manabe is a meteorologist and climatologist who pioneered the use of computers to simulate global climate change and natural climate variations.

                                               

Walter Munk

Walter Heinrich Munk was an American physical oceanographer. One of the first scientists to bring statistical methods to the analysis of oceanographic data, Munks work is noted for creating fruitful areas of research that continue to be explored ...

                                               

Robert May, Baron May of Oxford

Robert McCredie May, Baron May of Oxford, HonFAIB is an Australian scientist who was formerly Chief Scientific Adviser to the UK Government, President of the Royal Society, and a professor at the University of Sydney and Princeton University. He ...

                                               

Louis Nirenberg

Louis Nirenberg was a Canadian-American mathematician, considered one of the most outstanding mathematicians of the 20th century. He made fundamental contributions to linear and nonlinear partial differential equations PDEs and their application ...

                                               

Eugene Odum

Eugene Pleasants Odum was an American biologist at the University of Georgia known for his pioneering work on ecosystem ecology. He and his brother Howard T. Odum wrote the popular ecology textbook, Fundamentals of Ecology. The Odum School of Eco ...

                                               

Jim Peebles

Phillip James Edwin Peebles is a Canadian-American astrophysicist, astronomer, and theoretical cosmologist who is currently the Albert Einstein Professor Emeritus of Science at Princeton University. He is widely regarded as one of the worlds lead ...

                                               

Martin Rees

Martin John Rees, Baron Rees of Ludlow, is a British cosmologist and astrophysicist. He has been Astronomer Royal since 1995 and was Master of Trinity College, Cambridge from 2004 to 2012 and President of the Royal Society between 2005 and 2010.

                                               

Alexander Rudensky

Alexander Rudensky is an immunologist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center known for his research on regulatory T cells and the transcription factor Foxp3.

                                               

Susan Solomon

Susan Solomon is an atmospheric chemist, working for most of her career at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In 2011, Solomon joined the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she serves as the Ellen Swallo ...

                                               

Edwin Ernest Salpeter

Born in Vienna to a Jewish family, Salpeter emigrated from Austria to Australia while in his teens to escape the Nazis. He attended Sydney Boys High School 1939–40 and Sydney University, where he obtained his bachelors degree in 1944 and his mast ...

                                               

Lyman Spitzer

Lyman Strong Spitzer, Jr. was an American theoretical physicist, astronomer and mountaineer. As a scientist, he carried out research into star formation, plasma physics, and in 1946, conceived the idea of telescopes operating in outer space. Spit ...

                                               

Henry Stommel

Henry "Hank" Melson Stommel was a major contributor to the field of physical oceanography. Beginning in the 1940s, he advanced theories about global ocean circulation patterns and the behavior of the Gulf Stream that form the basis of physical oc ...

                                               

Allan Sandage

Allan Rex Sandage was an American astronomer. He was Staff Member Emeritus with the Carnegie Observatories in Pasadena, California. He determined the first reasonably accurate values for the Hubble constant and the age of the universe.

                                               

Rashid Sunyaev

Rashid Alievich Sunyaev is a Soviet and Russian astrophysicist of Tatar descent. He was educated at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. He became a professor at MIPT in 1974. Sunyaev was the head of the High Energy Astrophysics Depart ...

                                               

Terence Tao

Terence Chi-Shen Tao is an Australian-American mathematician who has worked in various areas of mathematics. He currently focuses on harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, algebraic combinatorics, arithmetic combinatorics, geometric c ...

                                               

Robert Trivers

Robert Ludlow "Bob" Trivers is an American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist. Trivers proposed the theories of reciprocal altruism, parental investment, facultative sex ratio determination, and parent–offspring conflict. He has also contr ...

                                               

E. O. Wilson

Edward Osborne Wilson, usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, naturalist, and writer. His biological specialty is myrmecology, the study of ants, on which he has been called the worlds leading expert. Wilson has been called "the ...

                                               

Marc Feldmann

Feldmann was born 2 December 1944 in Lvov to a Jewish family who managed to get to France immediately postwar. He emigrated from France to Australia at age eight. After graduating with an MBBS degree from the University of Melbourne in 1967, he e ...

                                               

Ilkka Hanski

Ilkka Aulis Hanski was a Finnish ecologist at the University of Helsinki, Finland. The Metapopulation Research Center led by Hanski, until his death, has been nominated as a Center of Excellence by the Academy of Finland. The group studies specie ...

                                               

Fred Hoyle

Sir Fred Hoyle FRS was an English astronomer who formulated the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. He also held controversial stances on other scientific matters - in particular his rejection of the "Big Bang" theory, a term coined by him on BBC ...

                                               

Yakov Eliashberg

Yakov Eliashberg is an American mathematician who was born in Leningrad, USSR. He received his Ph.D. from Leningrad University in 1972 under the direction of Vladimir Rokhlin. From 1972 to 1979 he taught at the Syktyvkar State University of Komi ...

                                               

Paul R. Ehrlich

Paul Ralph Ehrlich is an American biologist, best known for his warnings about the consequences of population growth and limited resources. He is the Bing Professor of Population Studies of the Department of Biology of Stanford University and pre ...

                                               

Grigori Perelman

Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman ; born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathematician. He has made contributions to Riemannian geometry and geometric topology. In 1994, Perelman proved the soul conjecture. In 2003, he proved Thurstons geometrization conje ...

                                               

Ruslan Medzhitov

Ruslan M. Medzhitov is a professor of immunobiology at Yale School of Medicine, a member of Yale Cancer Center, and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. His research focuses on the analysis of the innate immune system, inflammatory res ...

                                               

Bonnie Bassler

Bonnie Lynn Bassler is an American molecular biologist who has researched chemical communication between bacteria known as quorum sensing, and contributed to the idea that disruption of chemical signaling can be used as an antimicrobial therapy. ...

                                               

Charles L. Bennett

Charles L. Bennett is an American observational astrophysicist. He is a Bloomberg Distinguished Professor, the Alumni Centennial Professor of Physics and Astronomy and a Gilman Scholar at Johns Hopkins University. He is the Principal Investigator ...

                                               

Michael Berridge

Sir Michael John Berridge was a British physiologist and biochemist. Born and raised in Southern Rhodesia now Zimbabwe, he was best known for his work on cellular transmembrane signalling, in particular the discovery that inositol trisphosphate a ...

                                               

Herbert Boyer

Herbert Wayne Herb Boyer is a researcher and entrepreneur in biotechnology. Along with Stanley N. Cohen and Paul Berg he discovered a method to coax bacteria into producing foreign proteins, thereby jump starting the field of genetic engineering. ...

                                               

Adrian Bird

Sir Adrian Peter Bird, is a British geneticist and Buchanan Professor of Genetics at the University of Edinburgh. Bird has spent much of his academic career in Edinburgh, from receiving his PhD in 1970 to working at the MRC Mammalian Genome Unit ...

                                               

Rainer Weiss

Rainer Rai Weiss is an American physicist, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics. He is a professor of physics emeritus at MIT and an adjunct professor at LSU. He is best known for inventing the laser interferometr ...

                                               

Claire Voisin

Claire Voisin is a French mathematician known for her work in algebraic geometry. She is a member of the French Academy of Sciences and holds the chair of Algebraic Geometry at the College de France.

                                               

Richard S. Hamilton

He received his B.A in 1963 from Yale University and Ph.D. in 1966 from Princeton University. Robert Gunning supervised his thesis. Hamilton has taught at University of California, Irvine, University of California, San Diego, Cornell University, ...

                                               

Peter Goldreich

Peter Goldreich is an American astrophysicist whose research focuses on celestial mechanics, planetary rings, helioseismology and neutron stars. He is currently the Lee DuBridge Professor of Astrophysics and Planetary Physics at California Instit ...

                                               

Everett Peter Greenberg

Everett Peter Greenberg is an American microbiologist. He has been Professor of Microbiology in the Department of Microbiology, University of Washington in Seattle since 2005. In 2015, he was a co-recipient of the Shaw Prize in Life Science and M ...

                                               

David C. Jewitt

David Clifford Jewitt is a British-American astronomer who studies the Solar System, especially its minor bodies. He is based at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he is a Member of the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics ...

                                               

David Julius

David J. Julius is an American physiologist known for his work on molecular mechanisms underlying detection of thermal stimuli and natural products. He is a professor at the University of California, San Francisco, and won the 2010 Shaw Prize in ...

                                               

Richard Doll

Sir William Richard Shaboe Doll was a British physician who became an epidemiologist in the mid-20th century and made important contributions to that discipline. He was a pioneer in research linking smoking to health problems. With Ernst Wynder, ...

                                               

Huda Zoghbi

Huda Yahya Zoghbi, born Huda El-Hibri, is a Lebanese-born American geneticist, and a professor at the Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine. Her work helped elucidate mechanisms of Rett syndrome and spinocerebella ...

                                               

Indochine (film)

Indochine is a 1992 French period drama film set in colonial French Indochina during the 1930s to 1950s. It is the story of Eliane Devries, a French plantation owner, and of her adopted Vietnamese daughter, Camille, with the rising Vietnamese nat ...

                                               

Luis Caffarelli

Luis Angel Caffarelli is an Argentine mathematician and luminary in the field of partial differential equations and their applications.

                                               

Mary-Claire King

Mary-Claire King is the American Cancer Society Professor of Genome Sciences and of Medical Genetics in the Department of Medicine at the University of Washington. She studies human genetics and is particularly interested in genetic heterogeneity ...

                                               

Janos Kollar

Kollar began his studies at the Eotvos University in Budapest and later received his PhD at Brandeis University in 1984 under the direction of Teruhisa Matsusaka with a thesis on canonical threefolds. He was Junior Fellow at Harvard University fr ...

                                               

Douglas L. Coleman

Douglas L. Coleman was a scientist and professor at The Jackson Laboratory, in Bar Harbor, Maine. His work predicted that the ob gene encoded the hormone leptin, later co-discovered in 1994 by Jeffrey Friedman, Rudolph Leibel and their research t ...

                                               

Stanley Norman Cohen

Stanley Norman Cohen is an American geneticist and the Kwoh-Ting Li Professor in the Stanford University School of Medicine. Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer were the first scientists to transplant genes from one living organism to another, a fund ...

                                               

Jane Luu

Dr. Jane X. Luu is a Vietnamese American astronomer and defense systems engineer. She was awarded the Kavli Prize for 2012 "for discovering and characterizing the Kuiper Belt and its largest members, work that led to a major advance in the unders ...

                                               

Geoffrey Marcy

Geoffrey William Marcy is an American astronomer. He is one of the pioneers and leaders in the discovery and characterization of exoplanets. Marcy was Professor of Astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley and an Adjunct Professor of Ph ...

                                               

Kazutoshi Mori

Kazutoshi Mori is a Japanese molecular biologist known for research on unfolded protein response. He is a professor of Biophysics at the Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, and shared the 2014 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award ...

                                               

Jules A. Hoffmann

Jules A. Hoffmann is a Luxembourg-born French biologist. During his youth, growing up in Luxembourg, he developed a strong interest in insects under the influence of his father, Jos Hoffmann. This eventually resulted in the younger Hoffmanns dedi ...

                                               

Lyman Page

Lyman Alexander Page, Jr. is the James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Physics at Princeton University. He is an expert in observational cosmology and one of the original co-investigators for the WMAP probe that made precise ob ...

                                               

Saul Perlmutter

Saul Perlmutter is a U.S. astrophysicist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He is a member of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, and was elected a Fellow of the ...

                                               

Let the Bullets Fly

Let the Bullets Fly is a 2010 action comedy film written and directed by Jiang Wen, based on a story by Ma Shitu, a famous Sichuanese writer. The film is set in Sichuan during the 1920s when the bandit Zhang descends upon a town posing as its new ...

                                               

Five Shaolin Masters

Five Shaolin Masters a.k.a. 5 Masters Of Death is a 1974 Shaw Brothers kung fu film directed by Chang Cheh, with action choreography by Lau Kar Leung and Lau Kar Wing. The film focuses on Shaolins historic rivalries with the Qing Dynasty.

                                               

Adam Riess

Adam Guy Riess is an American astrophysicist and Bloomberg Distinguished Professor at Johns Hopkins University and the Space Telescope Science Institute and is known for his research in using supernovae as cosmological probes. Riess shared both t ...

                                               

David Spergel

David Nathaniel Spergel, is an American theoretical astrophysicist and Princeton University professor known for his work on the WMAP mission. Spergel is a MacArthur Fellow. He is a member of the NASA Advisory Council and is chair of the Space Stu ...

                                               

Edward C. Stone

Edward Carroll Stone is an American space scientist, professor of physics at the California Institute of Technology, and former director of the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

                                               

Michel Talagrand

Michel Pierre Talagrand is a French mathematician. Docteur es sciences since 1977, he has been, since 1985, Directeur de Recherches at CNRS and a member of the Functional Analysis Team of the Institut de Mathematique of Paris. Talagrand was elect ...

                                               

Richard Taylor (mathematician)

Richard Lawrence Taylor is a British mathematician working in the field of number theory. He is currently a professor of mathematics at Stanford University and the Institute for Advanced Study. Taylor received the 2014 Breakthrough Prize in Mathe ...

                                               

Kip Thorne

Kip Stephen Thorne is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate, known for his contributions in gravitational physics and astrophysics. A longtime friend and colleague of Stephen Hawking and Carl Sagan, he was the Feynman Professor of ...

                                               

Andrew Wiles

Sir Andrew John Wiles is an English mathematician and a Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Oxford, specializing in number theory. He is best known for proving Fermats Last Theorem, for which he was awarded the 2016 Abel Prize a ...

                                               

Simon White

Simon David Manton White, FRS, is a British astrophysicist. He was one of directors at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics before his retirement in late 2019.

                                               

Peter Walter

Peter Walter is a German-American molecular biologist and biochemist and Professor at the University of California, San Francisco.

                                               

Ludvig Faddeev

Ludvig Dmitrievich Faddeev was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist and mathematician. He is known for the discovery of the Faddeev equations in the theory of the quantum mechanical three-body problem and for the development of path integra ...

                                               

Jeffrey M. Friedman

Jeffrey M. Friedman is a molecular geneticist at New York Citys Rockefeller University and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. His discovery of the hormone leptin and its role in regulating body weight has had a major role in ...

                                               

Franz-Ulrich Hartl

Franz-Ulrich Hartl is a German biochemist and Managing Director of the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry. He is known for his pioneering work in the field of protein-mediated protein folding and is a recipient of the 2011 Lasker Award along wi ...

                                               

Nigel Hitchin

Nigel James Hitchin FRS is a British mathematician working in the fields of differential geometry, algebraic geometry, and mathematical physics. He is a Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at the University of Oxford.

                                               

Arthur L. Horwich

Arthur L. Horwich is an American biologist and Sterling Professor of Genetics and Pediatrics at the Yale School of Medicine. Horwich has also been a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator since 1990. His research into protein folding uncove ...

                                               

Shiing-Shen Chern

Shiing-Shen Chern was a Chinese-American mathematician and poet. He made fundamental contributions to differential geometry and topology. He has been called the "father of modern differential geometry" and is widely regarded as a leader in geomet ...

                                               

Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting gravitational acceleration so strong that nothing - no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light - can escape from it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently ...

                                               

Frank Shu

Frank H. Shu, is an American astrophysicist, astronomer and author. He is currently a university professor emeritus of astronomy at the University of California, Berkeley and University of California, San Diego.

                                               

Shinya Yamanaka

Shinya Yamanaka is a Japanese Nobel Prize-winning stem cell researcher. He serves as the director of Center for iPS Cell Research and Application and a professor at the Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences at Kyoto University; as a senior inve ...

                                               

Turing test

The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machines ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human. Turing proposed that a human evaluator would judge natural language con ...

                                               

Leonard Adleman

Leonard Adleman is an American computer scientist. He is one of the creators of the RSA encryption algorithm, for which he received the 2002 Turing Award, often called the Nobel prize of Computer science. He is also known for the creation of the ...

                                               

Kenneth E. Iverson

Kenneth Eugene Iverson was a Canadian computer scientist noted for the development of the programming language APL. He was honored with the Turing Award in 1979 "for his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulti ...

                                               

Frances E. Allen

Frances Elizabeth "Fran" Allen is an American computer scientist and pioneer in the field of optimizing compilers. Allen was the first female IBM Fellow and in 2006 became the first woman to win the Turing Award. Her achievements include seminal ...

                                               

Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery is an international learned society for computing. It was founded in 1947, and is the worlds largest scientific and educational computing society. The ACM is a non-profit professional membership group, clai ...

                                               

Charles Bachman

Charles William Bachman III was an American computer scientist, who spent his entire career as an industrial researcher, developer, and manager rather than in academia. He was particularly known for his work in the early development of database m ...

                                               

Tim Berners-Lee

Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee, also known as TimBL, is an English engineer and computer scientist best known as the inventor of the World Wide Web. He is a Professorial Fellow of Computer Science at the University of Oxford and a professor at the ...

                                               

Fred Brooks

Frederick Phillips Fred Brooks Jr. is an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBMs System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later wr ...

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