Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 235

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 235

                                               

Daniel C. Tsui

Daniel Chee Tsui is a Chinese-born American physicist whose areas of research included electrical properties of thin films and microstructures of semiconductors and solid-state physics. In 1998, along with Horst L. Stormer and Robert Laughlin, Ts ...

                                               

Martin Chalfie

Martin Lee Chalfie is an American scientist. He is University Professor at Columbia University. He shared the 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry along with Osamu Shimomura and Roger Y. Tsien "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent ...

                                               

James Chadwick

Sir James Chadwick, was a British physicist who was awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. In 1941, he wrote the final draft of the MAUD Report, which inspired the U.S. government to begin serious atomic ...

                                               

Ernst Chain

Sir Ernst Boris Chain, FRS was a German-born British biochemist, and a 1945 co-recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work on penicillin.

                                               

Pavel Cherenkov

Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov was a Soviet physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 1958 with Ilya Frank and Igor Tamm for the discovery of Cherenkov radiation, made in 1934.

                                               

Aaron Ciechanover

Aaron Ciechanover AH -hə- ROHN chee- HAH -noh-vair ; Hebrew: אהרן צחנובר ‎; born October 1, 1947) is an Israeli biologist, who won the Nobel prize in Chemistry for characterizing the method that cells use to degrade and recycle proteins using ubi ...

                                               

Andrew Schally

Andrzej Viktor Andrew Schally is an American endocrinologist of Polish ancestry, who was a corecipient with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

                                               

Georges Charpak

Georges Charpak was a Polish-born French physicist from a Jewish family who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.

                                               

Karl Barry Sharpless

Karl Barry Sharpless is an American chemist and Nobel Laureate known for his work on stereoselective reactions and Click Chemistry.

                                               

Melvin Schwartz

Melvin Schwartz was an American physicist. He shared the 1988 Nobel Prize in Physics with Leon M. Lederman and Jack Steinberger for their development of the neutrino beam method and their demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons thro ...

                                               

ETH Zurich

ETH Zurich is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics university in the city of Zurich, Switzerland, and one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Like its sister institution EPFL, it is an integral part of the Swiss Feder ...

                                               

Randy Schekman

Randy Wayne Schekman is an American cell biologist at the University of California, Berkeley and former editor-in-chief of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. In 2011, he was announced as the editor of eLife, a new high-profile open- ...

                                               

Thomas Schelling

Thomas Crombie Schelling was an American economist and professor of foreign policy, national security, nuclear strategy, and arms control at the School of Public Policy at University of Maryland, College Park. He was also co-faculty at the New En ...

                                               

Lloyd Shapley

Lloyd Stowell Shapley was an American mathematician and Nobel Prize-winning economist. He contributed to the fields of mathematical economics and especially game theory. Shapley is generally considered one of the most important contributors to th ...

                                               

Charles Scott Sherrington

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington was an English neurophysiologist, histologist, bacteriologist, and a pathologist, Nobel laureate and president of the Royal Society in the early 1920s. He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Edgar ...

                                               

Dan Shechtman

Dan Shechtman is the Philip Tobias Professor of Materials Science at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, an Associate of the US Department of Energys Ames Laboratory, and Professor of Materials Science at Iowa State University. On Apri ...

                                               

Wislawa Szymborska

Maria Wislawa Anna Szymborska was a Polish poet, essayist, translator and recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Literature. Born in Prowent, which has since become part of Kornik, she later resided in Krakow until the end of her life. In Poland, S ...

                                               

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine

The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States is the academic medical teaching and research arm of the Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876. The School of Medicine shares a campus with the Joh ...

                                               

Brian Schmidt

Brian Paul Schmidt is the Vice-Chancellor of the Australian National University. He was previously a Distinguished Professor, Australian Research Council Laureate Fellow and astrophysicist at the Universitys Mount Stromlo Observatory and Research ...

                                               

Yves Chauvin

Yves Chauvin was a French chemist and Nobel Prize laureate. He was honorary research director at the Institut français du petrole and a member of the French Academy of Science. He was known for his work for deciphering the process of metathesis f ...

                                               

Jack W. Szostak

Jack William Szostak is a Canadian American biologist of Polish British descent, Nobel Prize laureate, Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School, and Alexander Rich Distinguished Investigator at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Szost ...

                                               

Myron Scholes

Myron Samuel Scholes is a Canadian-American financial economist. Scholes is the Frank E. Buck Professor of Finance, Emeritus, at the Stanford Graduate School of Business, Nobel Laureate in Economic Sciences, and co-originator of the Black–Scholes ...

                                               

Hans Spemann

Hans Spemann was a German embryologist who was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1935 for his discovery of the effect now known as embryonic induction, an influence, exercised by various parts of the embryo, that directs the deve ...

                                               

John Robert Schrieffer

John Robert Schrieffer was an American physicist who, with John Bardeen and Leon Cooper, was a recipient of the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physics for developing the BCS theory, the first successful quantum theory of superconductivity. In 2005, Schrieff ...

                                               

Richard R. Schrock

Richard Royce Schrock is an American chemist and Nobel laureate recognized for his contributions to the olefin metathesis reaction used in organic chemistry.

                                               

Otto Stern

Otto Stern was also the pen name of German womens rights activist Louise Otto-Peters 1819–1895. Otto Stern was a German-American physicist and Nobel laureate in physics. He was the second most nominated person for a Nobel Prize with 82 nomination ...

                                               

Horst Ludwig Stormer

Horst Ludwig Stormer is a German physicist, Nobel laureate and emeritus professor at Columbia University. He was awarded the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics jointly with Daniel Tsui and Robert Laughlin "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fl ...

                                               

Shirin Ebadi

Shirin Ebadi is an Iranian political activist, lawyer, a former judge and human rights activist and founder of Defenders of Human Rights Center in Iran. On 10 October 2003, Ebadi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her significant and pioneerin ...

                                               

Martin Evans

Sir Martin John Evans is a British biologist who, with Matthew Kaufman, was the first to culture mice embryonic stem cells and cultivate them in a laboratory in 1981. He is also known, along with Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies, for his work i ...

                                               

Antonio Egas Moniz

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz, known as Egas Moniz, was a Portuguese neurologist and the developer of cerebral angiography. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern psychosurgery, having developed the surgical procedure leucot ...

                                               

Gerald Edelman

Gerald Maurice Edelman was an American biologist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system. Edelmans Nobel Prize-winning research concerned discovery of the structure of anti ...

                                               

Manfred Eigen

Manfred Eigen was a German biophysical chemist who won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for work on measuring fast chemical reactions. Eigens research helped solve major problems in physical chemistry and aided in the understanding of chemical p ...

                                               

Ulf von Euler

Ulf Svante von Euler was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 for his work on neurotransmitters.

                                               

Robert F. Engle

Robert Fry Engle III is an American statistician and the winner of the 2003 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, sharing the award with Clive Granger, "for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility ".

                                               

Norman Angell

Sir Ralph Norman Angell was an English Nobel Peace Prize winner. He was a lecturer, journalist, author and Member of Parliament for the Labour Party. Angell was one of the principal founders of the Union of Democratic Control. He served on the Co ...

                                               

Edward Victor Appleton

Sir Edward Victor Appleton was an English physicist, Nobel Prize winner and pioneer in radiophysics. He studied, and was also employed as a lab technician, at Bradford College from 1909 to 1911. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1947 for his s ...

                                               

Joseph Erlanger

Joseph Erlanger was an American physiologist who is best known for his contributions to the field of neuroscience. Together with Herbert Spencer Gasser, he identified several varieties of nerve fiber and established the relationship between actio ...

                                               

Richard R. Ernst

Richard Robert Ernst is a Swiss physical chemist and Nobel Laureate. Born in Winterthur, Switzerland, Ernst was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1991 for his contributions towards the development of Fourier transform Nuclear Magnetic Reson ...

                                               

Gerhard Ertl

Gerhard Ertl is a German physicist and a Professor emeritus at the Department of Physical Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin, Germany. Ertls research laid the foundation of modern surface chemistry, which has he ...

                                               

Leo Esaki

Reona Esaki, also known as Leo Esaki, is a Japanese physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973 with Ivar Giaever and Brian David Josephson for his work in electron tunneling in semiconductor materials which finally led to his inventi ...

                                               

Arthur Ashkin

Arthur Ashkin is an American scientist and Nobel laureate who worked at Bell Laboratories and Lucent Technologies. Ashkin has been considered by many as the father of optical tweezers, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2018 at a ...

                                               

Malala Yousafzai

Malala Yousafzai, also known mononymously as Malala, is a Pakistani activist for female education and the youngest Nobel Prize laureate. She is known for human rights advocacy, especially the education of women and children in her native Swat Val ...

                                               

Michael W. Young

Michael Warren Young is an American biologist and geneticist. He has dedicated over three decades to research studying genetically controlled patterns of sleep and wakefulness within Drosophila melanogaster. At Rockefeller University, his lab has ...

                                               

Gerard 't Hooft

Gerardus t Hooft is a Dutch theoretical physicist and professor at Utrecht University, the Netherlands. He shared the 1999 Nobel Prize in Physics with his thesis advisor Martinus J. G. Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak ...

                                               

Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. The Fields Medal is regarded as on ...

                                               

Michael Atiyah

Sir Michael Francis Atiyah was a British-Lebanese mathematician specialising in geometry. Atiyah grew up in Sudan and Egypt but spent most of his academic life in the United Kingdom at University of Oxford and University of Cambridge, and in the ...

                                               

Enrico Bombieri

Enrico Bombieri is an Italian mathematician, known for his work in analytic number theory, Diophantine geometry, complex analysis, and group theory. He won a Fields Medal in 1974. Bombieri is currently Professor Emeritus in the School of Mathemat ...

                                               

Richard Borcherds

Richard Ewen Borcherds is a British mathematician currently working in quantum field theory. He is known for his work in lattices, number theory, group theory, and infinite-dimensional algebras, for which he was awarded the Fields Medal in 1998.

                                               

Jean Bourgain

Jean, Baron Bourgain February 28, 1954 – December 22, 2018) was a Belgian mathematician. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1994 in recognition of his work on several core topics of mathematical analysis such as the geometry of Banach spaces, har ...

                                               

Akshay Venkatesh

Akshay Venkatesh is an Australian mathematician and a professor at the School of Mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study. His research interests are in the fields of counting, equidistribution problems in automorphic forms and number theo ...

                                               

Cedric Villani

Cedric Patrice Thierry Villani is a French mathematician and politician working primarily on partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry and mathematical physics. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 2010 and he was the director of Sorbonne ...

                                               

Edward Witten

Edward Witten is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Witten is a researcher in string theory, quantum gravity, supersymmetric quantum field theories ...

                                               

Pierre Deligne

Pierre Rene, Viscount Deligne is a Belgian mathematician. He is best known for work on the Weil conjectures, leading to a complete proof in 1973. He is the winner of the 2013 Abel Prize, 2008 Wolf Prize, 1988 Crafoord Prize, and 1978 Fields Medal.

                                               

Vaughan Jones

Sir Vaughan Frederick Randal Jones is a New Zealand mathematician, known for his work von Neumann algebras and knot polynomials. He was awarded a Fields Medal in 1990, and famously wore a New Zealand rugby jersey when he gave his acceptance speec ...

                                               

Simon Donaldson

Sir Simon Kirwan Donaldson is an English mathematician known for his work on the topology of smooth four-dimensional manifolds and Donaldson–Thomas theory. He is currently a permanent member of the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics at Stony ...

                                               

Jesse Douglas

Jesse Douglas was an American mathematician and Fields Medalist known for his general solution of the Problem of Plateau.

                                               

Jean-Christophe Yoccoz

Jean-Christophe Yoccoz was a French mathematician. He was awarded a Fields Medal in 1994, for his work on dynamical systems.

                                               

Alain Connes

Alain Connes is a French mathematician, currently Professor at the College de France, IHES, Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University. He was an Invited Professor at the Conservatoire national des arts et metiers.

                                               

Maxim Kontsevich

Maxim Lvovich Kontsevich ; born 25 August 1964) is a Russian and French mathematician. He is a professor at the Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques and a distinguished professor at the University of Miami. He received the Henri Poincare Priz ...

                                               

Pierre-Louis Lions

His parents were Jacques-Louis Lions, a mathematician and at that time professor at the University of Nancy, who became President of the International Mathematical Union, and Andree Olivier, his wife. He graduated from the Ecole normale superieur ...

                                               

Curtis T. McMullen

Curtis Tracy McMullen is an American mathematician who is the Cabot Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1998 for his work in complex dynamics, hyperbolic geometry and Teichmuller theory.

                                               

Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in their work, typically to solve mathematical problems. Mathematics is concerned with numbers, data, quantity, structure, space, models, and change.

                                               

Mathematics

Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change. It has no generally accepted definition. Mathematicians seek and use patterns to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures ...

                                               

Maryam Mirzakhani

Maryam Mirzakhani was an Iranian mathematician and a professor of mathematics at Stanford University. Her research topics included Teichmuller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory, and symplectic geometry. In 2005, as a result of her resea ...

                                               

Shigefumi Mori

Shigefumi Mori is a Japanese mathematician, known for his work in algebraic geometry, particularly in relation to the classification of three-folds.

                                               

Science and technology in the United States

Science and technology in the United States has a long history, producing many important figures and developments in the field. The United States of America came into being around the Age of Enlightenment, an era in Western philosophy in which wr ...

                                               

Ngo Bảo Chau

Ngo Bảo Chau is a Vietnamese-French mathematician at the University of Chicago, best known for proving the fundamental lemma for automorphic forms proposed by Robert Langlands and Diana Shelstad. He is the first Vietnamese national to have receiv ...

                                               

Sergei Novikov (mathematician)

Sergei Petrovich Novikov is a Soviet and Russian mathematician, noted for work in both algebraic topology and soliton theory. In 1970, he won the Fields Medal.

                                               

Percolation

In physics, chemistry and materials science, percolation refers to the movement and filtering of fluids through porous materials. It is described by Darcys law. Broader applications have since been developed that cover connectivity of many system ...

                                               

Jean-Pierre Serre

Jean-Pierre Serre is a French mathematician who has made contributions to algebraic topology, algebraic geometry, and algebraic number theory. He was awarded the Fields Medal in 1954 and the inaugural Abel Prize in 2003.

                                               

Gerd Faltings

In 1981 he obtained the venia legendi Habilitation in mathematics, both from the University of Munster. During this time he was an assistant professor at the University of Munster. From 1982 to 1984, he was professor at the University of Wupperta ...

                                               

Alessio Figalli

Alessio Figalli is an Italian mathematician working primarily on calculus of variations and partial differential equations. He was awarded the Prix and Cours Peccot in 2012, the EMS Prize in 2012, the Stampacchia Medal in 2015, the Feltrinelli Pr ...

                                               

John Charles Fields

John Charles Fields, FRS, FRSC was a Canadian mathematician and the founder of the Fields Medal for outstanding achievement in mathematics.

                                               

Peter Scholze

Peter Scholze is a German mathematician known for his work in algebraic geometry. He has been a professor at the University of Bonn since 2012, and director at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics since 2018. He has been called one of the lea ...

                                               

Nevanlinna Prize

The Rolf Nevanlinna Prize, known from 2022 as the IMU Abacus Medal, is awarded once every four years at the International Congress of Mathematicians, for outstanding contributions in Mathematical Aspects of Information Sciences including: Scienti ...

                                               

Avi Wigderson

Avi Wigderson is an Israeli mathematician and computer scientist. He is professor of mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. His research interests include complexity theory, parallel algorithms, graph theory, cryptography, ...

                                               

Leslie Valiant

Leslie Gabriel Valiant is a British computer scientist and computational theorist. He is currently the T. Jefferson Coolidge Professor of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics at Harvard University.

                                               

Constantinos Daskalakis

Constantinos Daskalakis is a Greek theoretical computer scientist. He is a professor at MITs Electrical Engineering and Computer Science department and a member of the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He was awarded th ...

                                               

Jon Kleinberg

Jon Michael Kleinberg is an American computer scientist and the Tisch University Professor of Computer Science at Cornell University known for his work in algorithms and networks. He is a recipient of the Nevanlinna Prize by the International Mat ...

                                               

International Congress of Mathematicians

The International Congress of Mathematicians is the largest conference for the topic of mathematics. It meets once every four years, hosted by the International Mathematical Union. The Fields Medals, the Nevanlinna Prize, the Gauss Prize, and the ...

                                               

Rolf Nevanlinna

Rolf Herman Nevanlinna was a Finnish mathematician who made significant contributions to complex analysis.

                                               

Daniel Spielman

Daniel Alan Spielman has been a professor of applied mathematics and computer science at Yale University since 2006. As of 2018, he is the Sterling Professor of Computer Science at Yale. He is also the Co-Director of the Yale Institute for Networ ...

                                               

Madhu Sudan

Madhu Sudan is an Indian-American computer scientist. He has been a Gordon McKay Professor of Computer Science at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences since 2015.

                                               

Robert Tarjan

Robert Endre Tarjan is an American computer scientist and mathematician. He is the discoverer of several graph algorithms, including Tarjans off-line lowest common ancestors algorithm, and co-inventor of both splay trees and Fibonacci heaps. Tarj ...

                                               

Subhash Khot

Subhash Khot FRS is an Indian-American mathematician and theoretical computer scientist who is the Julius Silver Professor of Computer Science in the Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences at New York University. Khots unexpected and original ...

                                               

Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize

The Carl Friedrich Gauss Prize for Applications of Mathematics is a mathematics award, granted jointly by the International Mathematical Union and the German Mathematical Society for "outstanding mathematical contributions that have found signifi ...

                                               

W. Wallace McDowell Award

The W. Wallace McDowell Award is awarded by the IEEE Computer Society for outstanding recent theoretical, design, educational, practical, or other similar innovative contributions that fall within the scope of Computer Society interest. This is t ...

                                               

Chern Medal

The Chern Medal is an international award recognizing outstanding lifelong achievement of the highest level in the field of mathematics. The prize is given at the International Congress of Mathematicians, which is held every four years.

                                               

Crafoord Prize

The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. The Prize is awarded in partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Crafoord Fo ...

                                               

Shaw Prize

The Shaw Prize is an annual award first presented by the Shaw Prize Foundation in 2004. Established in 2002 in Hong Kong, it honours "individuals who are currently active in their respective fields and who have recently achieved distinguished and ...

                                               

Turing Award

The ACM A.M. Turing Award is an annual prize given by the Association for Computing Machinery to an individual selected for contributions "of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field". The Turing Award is generally recognized ...

                                               

Descartes Prize

The Descartes Prize is an annual award in science given by the European Union, named in honour of the French mathematician and philosopher, Rene Descartes. The prizes recognizes Outstanding Scientific and Technological Achievements Resulting from ...

                                               

Lomonosov Gold Medal

The Lomonosov Gold Medal, named after Russian scientist and polymath Mikhail Lomonosov, is awarded each year since 1959 for outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities by the USSR Academy of Sciences and later the Russian ...

                                               

Walter Burkert

Walter Burkert was a German scholar of Greek mythology and cult. A professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, he taught in the UK and the US. He has influenced generations of students of religion since the 1960s, combining in ...

                                               

David Donoho

David Leigh Donoho is a professor of statistics at Stanford University, where he is also the Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor in the Humanities and Sciences. His work includes the development of effective methods for the construction of low-d ...

                                               

Kiyosi Ito

Ito pioneered the theory of stochastic integration and stochastic differential equations, now known as Ito calculus. Its basic concept is the Ito integral, and among the most important results is a change of variable formula known as Itos lemma. ...

                                               

Edmond Laguerre

Edmond Nicolas Laguerre was a French mathematician and a member of the Academie française. His main works were in the areas of geometry and complex analysis. He also investigated orthogonal polynomials. Laguerres method is a root-finding algorith ...

                                               

Yves Meyer

Yves F. Meyer is a French mathematician. He is among the progenitors of wavelet theory, having proposed the Meyer wavelet. Meyer was awarded the Abel Prize in 2017.

                                               

Stanley Osher

Stanley Osher is an American mathematician, known for his many contributions in shock capturing, level-set methods, and PDE-based methods in computer vision and image processing. Osher is a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles, ...

                                               

Laszlo Fejes Toth

Laszlo Fejes Toth was a Hungarian mathematician who specialized in geometry. He proved that a lattice pattern is the most efficient way to pack centrally symmetric convex sets on the Euclidean plane. He also investigated the sphere packing proble ...

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