Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 233

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 233

                                               

Robert B. Laughlin

Robert Betts Laughlin is the Anne T. and Robert M. Bass Professor of Physics and Applied Physics at Stanford University. Along with Horst L. Stormer of Columbia University and Daniel C. Tsui of Princeton University, he was awarded a share of the ...

                                               

Anthony James Leggett

Sir Anthony James Leggett, has been a professor of physics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign since 1983. Leggett is widely recognised as a world leader in the theory of low-temperature physics, and his pioneering work on superflui ...

                                               

Leon M. Lederman

Leon Max Lederman was an American experimental physicist who received the Wolf Prize in Physics in 1982, along with Martin Lewis Perl, for their research on quarks and leptons, and the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1988, along with Melvin Schwartz an ...

                                               

Luis Federico Leloir

Luis Federico Leloir was an Argentine physician and biochemist who received the 1970 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Although born in France, Leloir received the majority of his education at the University of Buenos Aires and was director of the privat ...

                                               

Jean-Marie Lehn

Jean-Marie Lehn is a French chemist. He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry together with Donald Cram and Charles Pedersen in 1987 for his synthesis of cryptands. Lehn was an early innovator in the field of supramolecular chemistry, i.e., the c ...

                                               

Robert Lefkowitz

Robert Joseph Lefkowitz is an American physician and biochemist. He is best known for his groundbreaking discoveries that reveal the inner workings of an important family G protein-coupled receptors, for which he was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize ...

                                               

Yuan T. Lee

Yuan Tseh Lee is a Taiwanese chemist and a Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley. He was the first Taiwanese Nobel Prize laureate who, along with the Hungarian-Canadian John C. Polanyi and American Dudley R. Herschbach, won ...

                                               

David Lee (physicist)

David Morris Lee is an American physicist who shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics with Robert C. Richardson and Douglas Osheroff "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3."

                                               

Feodor Lynen

Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen was a German biochemist. In 1964 he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine together with Konrad Bloch for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism while he ...

                                               

Paul Lauterbur

Paul Christian Lauterbur was an American chemist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2003 with Peter Mansfield for his work which made the development of magnetic resonance imaging possible. Lauterbur was a professor at Stony ...

                                               

Andre Michel Lwoff

Lwoff was born in Ainay-le-Chateau, Allier, in Auvergne, France, the son of Marie Siminovitch, an artist, and Solomon Lwoff, a psychiatrist. He joined the Institute Pasteur in Paris when he was 19 years old. In 1932, he finished his PhD and, with ...

                                               

Edward B. Lewis

Edward Butts Lewis was an American geneticist, a corecipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He helped to found the field of evolutionary developmental biology.

                                               

Willis Lamb

Willis Eugene Lamb Jr. was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum." The Nobel Committee that year awarded half the prize to Lamb and the other h ...

                                               

Liu Xiaobo

Liu Xiaobo was a Chinese writer, literary critic, human rights activist, philosopher and Nobel Peace Prize laureate who called for political reforms and was involved in campaigns to end communist one-party rule in China. Some referred to him as " ...

                                               

Otto Loewi

Otto Loewi was a German-born pharmacologist and psychobiologist who discovered the role of acetylcholine as an endogenous neurotransmitter. For his discovery he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, which he shared with S ...

                                               

Wangari Maathai

Wangarĩ Muta Maathai was a renowned Kenyan social, environmental and political activist and the first African woman to win the Nobel Prize. She was educated in the United States at Mount St. Scholastica and the University of Pittsburgh, as well a ...

                                               

John C. Mather

John Cromwell Mather is an American astrophysicist, cosmologist and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his work on the Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite with George Smoot. This work helped cement the big-bang theory of the universe. According ...

                                               

George Minot

George Richards Minot was an American medical researcher who shared the 1934 Nobel Prize with George Hoyt Whipple and William P. Murphy for their pioneering work on pernicious anemia.

                                               

Michel Mayor

Michel Gustave Edouard Mayor is a Swiss astrophysicist and professor emeritus at the University of Genevas Department of Astronomy. He formally retired in 2007, but remains active as a researcher at the Observatory of Geneva. He is co-laureate of ...

                                               

Alan MacDiarmid

Alan Graham MacDiarmid, ONZ FRS was a New Zealand-born American chemist, and one of three recipients of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2000.

                                               

Robert Mundell

Robert Alexander Mundell, CC is a Canadian economist. Currently, he is a professor of economics at Columbia University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1999 for his pioneering w ...

                                               

Alice Munro

Alice Ann Munro is a Canadian short story writer who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2013. Munros work has been described as having revolutionized the architecture of short stories, especially in its tendency to move forward and backward in ...

                                               

Rudolph A. Marcus

Rudolph Arthur Marcus is a Canadian-born chemist who received the 1992 Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems". Marcus theory, named after him, provides a thermodynamic and ...

                                               

Archer Martin

Archer John Porter Martin was a British chemist who shared the 1952 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the invention of partition chromatography with Richard Synge.

                                               

Harry Martinson

Harry Martinson was a Swedish author, poet and former sailor. In 1949 he was elected into the Swedish Academy. He was awarded a joint Nobel Prize in Literature in 1974 together with fellow Swede Eyvind Johnson "for writings that catch the dewdrop ...

                                               

Toshihide Maskawa

Toshihide Maskawa is a Japanese theoretical physicist known for his work on CP-violation who was awarded one quarter of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at lea ...

                                               

Copley Medal

The Copley Medal is an award given by the Royal Society, for "outstanding achievements in research in any branch of science." It alternates between the physical and the biological sciences. Given every year, the medal is the oldest Royal Society ...

                                               

Frederic Ives Medal

The Frederic Ives Medal is the highest award of the Optical Society, recognizing overall distinction in optics. The prize was established in 1928 by Herbert E. Ives in honor of his father, Frederic Ives. Initially awarded every two years, it has ...

                                               

Otto Fritz Meyerhof

Otto Fritz Meyerhof was a German physician and biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1922.

                                               

Craig Mello

Craig Cameron Mello is an American biologist and professor of molecular medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Massachusetts. He was awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, along with Andrew Z. F ...

                                               

Robert C. Merton

Robert Cox Merton is an American economist, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureate, and professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, known for his pioneering contributions to continuous-time finance, especially the first continuou ...

                                               

William P. Murphy

William Parry Murphy was an American physician who shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1934 with George Richards Minot and George Hoyt Whipple for their combined work in devising and treating macrocytic anemia. Murphy was born on ...

                                               

Merton Miller

Merton Howard Miller was an American economist, and the co-author of the Modigliani–Miller theorem, which proposed the irrelevance of debt-equity structure. He shared the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1990, along with Harry Markowi ...

                                               

Cesar Milstein

Cesar Milstein, CH, FRS was an Argentine biochemist in the field of antibody research. Milstein shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1984 with Niels Kaj Jerne and Georges J. F. Kohler.

                                               

James Mirrlees

Sir James Alexander Mirrlees was a Scottish economist and winner of the 1996 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He was knighted in the 1997 Birthday Honours.

                                               

Frederic Mistral

Frederic Mistral was an Occitan writer and lexicographer of the Occitan language. Mistral received the 1904 Nobel Prize in Literature "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflect ...

                                               

Hartmut Michel

Hartmut Michel is a German biochemist, who received the 1988 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determination of the first crystal structure of an integral membrane protein, a membrane-bound complex of proteins and co-factors that is essential to photo ...

                                               

Mario J. Molina

Mario Jose Molina-Pasquel Henriquez is a Mexican chemist known for his pivotal role in the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole. He was a co-recipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in elucidating the threat to the Earths ozon ...

                                               

Luc Montagnier

Luc Antoine Montagnier is a French virologist and joint recipient with Françoise Barre-Sinoussi and Harald zur Hausen of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus. A long-time researcher ...

                                               

Dale T. Mortensen

Mortensen was born in Enterprise, Oregon. He received his BA in economics from Willamette University and his PhD in Economics from Carnegie Mellon University.

                                               

Ben Roy Mottelson

Ben Roy Mottelson is a Danish nuclear physicist. He won the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the non-spherical geometry of atomic nuclei.

                                               

Kary Mullis

Kary Banks Mullis was an American biochemist. In recognition of his invention of the polymerase chain reaction technique, he shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Michael Smith and was awarded the Japan Prize in the same year. His inventi ...

                                               

Nadia Murad

Nadia Murad Basee Taha is an Iraqi Yazidi human rights activist who lives in Germany. In 2014, she was kidnapped from her hometown Kocho and held by the Islamic State for three months. Murad is the founder of Nadias Initiative, an organization de ...

                                               

Ferid Murad

Ferid Murad is an Albanian American physician and pharmacologist, and a co-winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

                                               

Peter Mansfield

Sir Peter Mansfield was an English physicist who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, shared with Paul Lauterbur, for discoveries concerning Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mansfield was a professor at the University of Nottingham.

                                               

K. Alex Muller

Karl Alexander Muller is a Swiss physicist and Nobel laureate. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1987 with Georg Bednorz for their work in superconductivity in ceramic materials.

                                               

Paul Hermann Muller

Paul Hermann Muller also known as Pauly Mueller was a Swiss chemist who received the 1948 Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for his 1939 discovery of insecticidal qualities and use of DDT in the control of vector diseases such as malaria and ...

                                               

Technical University of Munich

The Technical University of Munich is a research university with campuses in Munich, Garching, Freising-Weihenstephan and Dover, Singapore. It is a member of TU9, an incorporated society of the largest and most notable German institutes of techno ...

                                               

Gunnar Myrdal

Karl Gunnar Myrdal was a Swedish economist and sociologist. In 1974, he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Friedrich Hayek for "their pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations and for their penetrat ...

                                               

William E. Moerner

William Esco Moerner is an American physical chemist and chemical physicist with current work in the biophysics and imaging of single molecules. He is credited with achieving the first optical detection and spectroscopy of a single molecule in co ...

                                               

Daniel Nathans

Daniel Nathans was an American microbiologist. He shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application in restriction mapping.

                                               

List of Austrian scientists

Ludwig von Mises, free-market economist Ernst Fehr Martin Nowak Leopold Kohr, economist Friedrich von Wieser, economist regarded as follower of the Austrian School of economics Siegfried Becher, economist and government minister Oskar Morgenstern ...

                                               

National University of Tucuman

The National University of Tucuman is an Argentine national university located in Tucuman Province and the largest in Argentinas northwest region. Founded on 25 May 1914 in San Miguel de Tucuman, access to the university is unrestricted and free ...

                                               

Paul Nurse

Sir Paul Maxime Nurse, is an English geneticist, former President of the Royal Society and Chief Executive and Director of the Francis Crick Institute. He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Leland Hartwell and T ...

                                               

Erwin Neher

Erwin Neher is a German biophysicist, specializing in the field of cell physiology. For significant contribution in the field, in 1991 he was awarded, along with Bert Sakmann, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for "their discoveries conce ...

                                               

Charles Nicolle

Charles Jules Henry Nicolle was a French bacteriologist who received the Nobel Prize in Medicine for his identification of lice as the transmitter of epidemic typhus.

                                               

Nobel Committee

A Nobel Committee is a working body responsible for most of the work involved in selecting Nobel Prize laureates. There are five Nobel Committees, one for each Nobel Prize. Four of these committees are working bodies within their prize awarding i ...

                                               

William Nordhaus

William Dawbney Nordhaus is an American economist and Sterling Professor of Economics at Yale University, best known for his work in economic modeling and climate change. Together with Paul Romer he won the laureates of the 2018 Nobel Memorial Pr ...

                                               

Norra begravningsplatsen

Norra begravningsplatsen, literally "The Northern Cemetery" in Swedish, is a major cemetery of the Stockholm urban area, located in Solna Municipality. Inaugurated on 9 June 1827, it is the burial site for a number of Swedish notables.

                                               

Douglass North

Douglass Cecil North was an American economist known for his work in economic history. He was the co-recipient of the 1993 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. In the words of the Nobel Committee, North and Fogel "renewed research in econom ...

                                               

John Howard Northrop

John Howard Northrop was an American biochemist who, with James Batcheller Sumner and Wendell Meredith Stanley, won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The award was given for these scientists isolation, crystallization, and study of enzymes, prot ...

                                               

William Standish Knowles

William Standish Knowles was an American chemist. He was born in Taunton, Massachusetts. Knowles was one of the recipients of the 2001 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He split half the prize with Ryōji Noyori for their work in asymmetric synthesis, spe ...

                                               

Philip Noel-Baker

Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron Noel-Baker, born Philip John Baker, was a British politician, diplomat, academic, outstanding amateur athlete, and renowned campaigner for disarmament. He carried the British team flag and won a silver medal for the ...

                                               

Ryōji Noyori

Ryōji Noyori is a Japanese chemist. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2001, Noyori shared a third of the prize with William S. Knowles for the study of chirally catalyzed hydrogenations; the second third of the prize went to K. Barry Sharple ...

                                               

John Forbes Nash Jr.

John Forbes Nash Jr. was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations. Nashs work has provided insight into the factors that govern chance and ...

                                               

Christiane Nusslein-Volhard

Christiane Nusslein-Volhard is a German developmental biologist and 1995 Nobel Prize-winner. Nusslein-Volhard earned her PhD in 1974 from the University of Tubingen, where she studied protein-DNA interaction. She won the Albert Lasker Award for B ...

                                               

Order of Culture

The Order of Culture is a Japanese order, established on February 11, 1937. The order has one class only, and may be awarded to men and women for contributions to Japans art, literature, science, technology, or anything related to culture in gene ...

                                               

Douglas Osheroff

Douglas Dean Osheroff is a physicist known for his work in experimental condensed matter physics, in particular for his co-discovery of superfluidity in Helium-3. For his contributions he shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Physics along with David Le ...

                                               

Eugene O'Neill

Eugene Gladstone ONeill was an American playwright and Nobel laureate in Literature. His poetically titled plays were among the first to introduce into U.S. drama techniques of realism earlier associated with Russian playwright Anton Chekhov, Nor ...

                                               

Edward Mills Purcell

Edward Mills Purcell was an American physicist who shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics for his independent discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and in solids. Nuclear magnetic resonance has become widely used to study the molecu ...

                                               

Frederic Passy

Frederic Passy was a French economist and pacifist who was a founding member of several peace societies and the Inter-Parliamentary Union. He was also an author and politician, sitting in the Chamber of Deputies from 1881 until 1889. For his work ...

                                               

Wolfgang Paul

Wolfgang Paul was a German physicist, who co-developed the non-magnetic quadrupole mass filter which laid the foundation for what is now called an ion trap. He shared one-half of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1989 for this work with Hans Georg De ...

                                               

C. F. Powell

Cecil Frank Powell, FRS was an English physicist, and Nobel Prize in Physics laureate for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and for the resulting discovery of the pion, a subatomic particle.

                                               

Charles J. Pedersen

Charles John Pedersen was an American organic chemist best known for describing methods of synthesizing crown ethers during his entire 42-year career as a chemist for DuPont at DuPont Experimental Station in Wilmington, Delaware and at DuPonts Ja ...

                                               

Arno Allan Penzias

Arno Allan Penzias is an American physicist, radio astronomer and Nobel laureate in physics who is co-discoverer of the cosmic microwave background radiation along with Robert Woodrow Wilson, which helped establish the Big Bang theory of cosmology.

                                               

Adolfo Perez Esquivel

Adolfo Perez Esquivel is an Argentine activist, community organizer, art painter, writer and sculptor. He was the recipient of the 1980 Nobel Peace Prize for his opposition to Argentinas last civil-military dictatorship, during which he was detai ...

                                               

Martin Lewis Perl

Martin Lewis Perl was an American chemical engineer and physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1995 for his discovery of the tau lepton.

                                               

Peterhouse, Cambridge

Peterhouse is the oldest constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England, founded in 1284 by Hugo de Balsham, Bishop of Ely. Today, Peterhouse has 254 undergraduates, 116 full-time graduate students and 54 fellows. The official name ...

                                               

John Polanyi

John Charles Polanyi, is a Hungarian-Canadian chemist who won the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, for his research in chemical kinetics. Polanyi was born in Berlin, Germany prior to his family emigrating in 1933 to the United Kingdom where he was ...

                                               

George Porter

George Porter, Baron Porter of Luddenham, was a British chemist. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1967.

                                               

Rodney Robert Porter

He was born in Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire, England, the son of Joseph Lawrence Porter, chief clerk of the Railway Carriage and Wagon Works in Earlestown Newton-le-Willows, and his wife, Isabel May Reese. He was educated at Ashton-in-Makerfield ...

                                               

Heineken Prizes

The Heineken Prizes for Arts and Sciences consist of eleven awards biannually bestowed by Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. The prizes are named in honor of Henry Pierre Heineken, son of founder Gerard Adriaan Heineken, Alfred Heine ...

                                               

Stanley B. Prusiner

Stanley Benjamin Prusiner M.D is an American neurologist and biochemist. He is the director of the Institute for Neurodegenerative Diseases at University of California, San Francisco. Prusiner discovered prions, a class of infectious self-reprodu ...

                                               

Isidor Isaac Rabi

Isidor Isaac Rabi was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1944 for his discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance, which is used in magnetic resonance imaging. He was also one of the first scientists in the United States to w ...

                                               

Frederick Reines

Frederick Reines was an American physicist. He was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Physics for his co-detection of the neutrino with Clyde Cowan in the neutrino experiment. He may be the only scientist in history "so intimately associated with th ...

                                               

James Rainwater

Leo James Rainwater was an American physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1975 for his part in determining the asymmetrical shapes of certain atomic nuclei. During World War II, he worked on the Manhattan Project that developed the f ...

                                               

Louis Renault (jurist)

Louis Renault was a French jurist and educator, the co-winner in 1907 of the Nobel Prize for Peace. Renault was born at Autun. From 1868 to 1873 Renault was professor of Roman and commercial law at the University of Dijon. From 1873 until his dea ...

                                               

Robert Coleman Richardson

Robert Coleman Richardson was an American experimental physicist whose area of research included sub-millikelvin temperature studies of helium-3. Richardson, along with David Lee, as senior researchers, and then graduate student Douglas Osheroff, ...

                                               

Frederick Chapman Robbins

Frederick Chapman Robbins was an American pediatrician and virologist. He was born in Auburn, Alabama, and grew up in Columbia, Missouri, attending David H. Hickman High School. He received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1954 along ...

                                               

Robert Robinson (chemist)

Sir Robert Robinson was a British organic chemist and Nobel laureate recognised in 1947 for his research on plant dyestuffs and alkaloids. In 1947, he also received the Medal of Freedom with Silver Palm.

                                               

Paul Romer

Paul Michael Romer is an American economist who is a University Professor at New York University. He was a co-recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economics in 2018. A pioneer of endogenous growth theory, he received the prize "for integrating technol ...

                                               

Heinrich Rohrer

Heinrich Rohrer was a Swiss physicist who shared half of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physics with Gerd Binnig for the design of the scanning tunneling microscope. The other half of the Prize was awarded to Ernst Ruska. The Heinrich Rohrer Medal is pr ...

                                               

Michael Rosbash

Michael Morris Rosbash is an American geneticist and chronobiologist. Rosbash is a professor at Brandeis University and investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Rosbashs research group cloned the Drosophila period gene in 1984 and pro ...

                                               

Joseph Rotblat

Sir Joseph Rotblat was a Polish physicist, a self-described "Pole with a British passport". Rotblat worked on Tube Alloys and the Manhattan Project during World War II, but left the Los Alamos Laboratory after the war with Germany ended. His work ...

                                               

James Rothman

James Edward Rothman is an American biochemist. He is the Fergus F. Wallace Professor of Biomedical Sciences at Yale University, the Chairman of the Department of Cell Biology at Yale School of Medicine, and the Director of the Nanobiology Instit ...

                                               

Irwin Rose

Irwin Allan Rose was an American biologist. Along with Aaron Ciechanover and Avram Hershko, he was awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation.

                                               

F. Sherwood Rowland

Frank Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland was an American Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. His research was on atmospheric chemistry and chemical kinetics. His best-known work was the discovery that chlor ...

                                               

Francis Peyton Rous

Rous was involved in the discovery of the role of viruses in the transmission of certain types of cancer. On October 13, 1966 he was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work. In 1911, as a pathologist he made his seminal obser ...

                                               

University of Rochester

The University of Rochester is a private research university in Rochester, New York. The university grants undergraduate and graduate degrees, including doctoral and professional degrees. The University of Rochester enrolls approximately 6.800 un ...

                                               

Carlo Rubbia

Carlo Rubbia, is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

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