Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 190

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 190

                                               

Concatenative programming language

A concatenative programming language is a point-free computer programming language in which all expressions denote functions, and the juxtaposition of expressions denotes function composition. Concatenative programming replaces function applicati ...

                                               

High-level programming language

In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. In contrast to low-level programming languages, it may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or ...

                                               

Dynamic programming language

In computer science, a dynamic programming language is a class of high-level programming languages, which at runtime execute many common programming behaviours that static programming languages perform during compilation. These behaviors could in ...

                                               

Interpreted language

An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions. The interpreter executes the prog ...

                                               

History of Python

The programming language Python was conceived in the late 1980s, and its implementation was started in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to ABC capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba ...

                                               

Programming language theory

Programming language theory is a branch of computer science that deals with the design, implementation, analysis, characterization, and classification of programming languages and their individual features. It falls within the discipline of compu ...

                                               

List of educational programming languages

An educational programming language is a programming language that is designed mostly as an instrument for learning, and less as a tool for writing programs to perform work.

                                               

Non-English-based programming languages

The use of the English language in the inspiration for the choice of elements, in particular for keywords in computer programming languages and code libraries, represents a significant trend in the history of language design. According to the HOP ...

                                               

Esoteric programming language

An esoteric programming language is a programming language designed to test the boundaries of computer programming language design, as a proof of concept, as software art, as a hacking interface to another language, or as a joke. The use of esote ...

                                               

Purely functional programming

In computer science, purely functional programming usually designates a programming paradigm - a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs - that treats all computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions. Purely f ...

                                               

Timeline of programming languages

                                               

Comparison of programming languages (syntax)

Programming language expressions can be broadly classified into four syntax structures: prefix notation Lisp * + 2 3 expt 4 5) infix notation Fortran 2 + 3 * 4 ** 5 suffix, postfix, or Reverse Polish notation Forth 2 3 + 4 5 ** * math-like notati ...

                                               

Comparison of programming languages

Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine. Like natural languages, programming languages conform to rules for syntax and semantics. There are thousands of programming languages and new ones are created every year. F ...

                                               

List of programming languages by type

This is a list of notable programming languages, grouped by type. There is no overarching classification scheme for programming languages. Thus, in many cases, a language is listed under multiple headings.

                                               

Programming language specification

In computing, a programming language specification is a documentation artifact that defines a programming language so that users and implementors can agree on what programs in that language mean. Specifications are typically detailed and formal, ...

                                               

PHP

PHP is a popular general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to web development. It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994; the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for Per ...

                                               

PHP (disambiguation)

Percutaneous hepatic perfusion, a regionalized cancer treatment Partial hospitalization program, a program used to treat mental illness and substance abuse Pseudohypoparathyroidism, a condition associated primarily with resistance to the parathyr ...

                                               

PHP Development Tools

PHP Development Tools is a language IDE plugin for the Eclipse platform and the open-source project that develops it. The project intends to encompass all tools necessary to develop PHP based software. It uses the existing Eclipse Web Tools Proje ...

                                               

PHP License

The PHP License is the software license under which the PHP scripting language is released. The PHP License is designed to encourage widespread adoption of the source code. Redistribution is permitted in source or binary form with or without modi ...

                                               

PHP-Fusion

PHP-Fusion is a free and open-source web framework based on PHP and MySQL that has an integrated content management system among many other features. To function, PHP-Fusion has to be installed on a web server, this can be either locally hosted o ...

                                               

PHP-GTK

PHP-GTK is a set of language bindings for PHP which allow GTK+ GUI applications to be written in PHP. PHP-GTK provides an object-oriented interface to GTK+ classes and functions. While PHP-GTK partially supports GTK2, GTK3 is not supported at all.

                                               

PHP-Nuke

PHP-Nuke is a web-based automated news publishing and content management system based on PHP and MySQL originally written by Francisco Burzi. The system is controlled using a web-based user interface. PHP-Nuke was originally a fork of the Thatwar ...

                                               

File inclusion vulnerability

A file inclusion vulnerability is a type of web vulnerability that is most commonly found to affect web applications that rely on a scripting run time. This issue is caused when an application builds a path to executable code using an attacker-co ...

                                               

PHPDoc

PHPDoc is an adaptation of Javadoc for the PHP programming language. It is still an informal standard for commenting PHP code, but it is in the process of being formalized. It allows external document generators like phpDocumentor, which is the d ...

                                               

PhpBB

phpBB is an Internet forum package in the PHP scripting language. The name "phpBB" is an abbreviation of PHP Bulletin Board. Available under the GNU General Public License, phpBB is free and open-source. Features of phpBB include support for mult ...

                                               

PhpDocumentor

phpDocumentor is an open-source documentation generator written in PHP. It automatically parses PHP source code and produces readable API and source code documentation in a variety of formats. phpDocumentor generates documentation based on PHPDoc ...

                                               

PhpMyAdmin

phpMyAdmin is a free and open source administration tool for MySQL and MariaDB. As a portable web application written primarily in PHP, it has become one of the most popular MySQL administration tools, especially for web hosting services.

                                               

PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL, also known as Postgres, is a free and open-source relational database management system emphasizing extensibility and technical standards compliance. It is designed to handle a range of workloads, from single machines to data warehous ...

                                               

PhpStorm

PhpStorm is a commercial, cross-platform IDE for PHP, built by the Czech Republic-based company JetBrains. PhpStorm provides an editor for PHP, HTML and JavaScript with on-the-fly code analysis, error prevention and automated refactorings for PHP ...

                                               

PhpWiki

PhpWiki is a web-based wiki software application. It began as a clone of WikiWikiWeb and was the first wiki written in PHP. PhpWiki has been used to edit and format paper books for publication.

                                               

Software framework

In computer programming, a software framework is an abstraction in which software providing generic functionality can be selectively changed by additional user-written code, thus providing application-specific software. It provides a standard way ...

                                               

Laravel

Laravel is a free, open-source PHP web framework, created by Taylor Otwell and intended for the development of web applications following the model–view–controller architectural pattern and based on Symfony. Some of the features of Laravel are a ...

                                               

CMS

Color management system, a system for computers to control the representation of colors Contact management system, an integrated office solution to record relationships and interactions with customers and suppliers Concurrent mark sweep collector ...

                                               

WordPress

WordPress is a free and open-source content management system written in PHP and paired with a MySQL or MariaDB database. Features include a plugin architecture and a template system, referred to within WordPress as Themes. WordPress was original ...

                                               

Drupal

Drupal is a free and open-source web content management framework written in PHP and distributed under the GNU General Public License. Drupal provides a back-end framework for at least 2.3% of all websites worldwide – ranging from personal blogs ...

                                               

Joomla

Joomla is a free and open-source content management system for publishing web content, developed by Open Source Matters, Inc. It is built on a model–view–controller web application framework that can be used independently of the CMS. Joomla is wr ...

                                               

Lumen (software)

Lumen is a micro web framework written in PHP, created by Laravel. The source code of Lumen is hosted on GitHub and licensed under the terms of MIT License.

                                               

CodeIgniter

CodeIgniter is loosely based on the popular model–view–controller MVC development pattern. While controller classes are a necessary part of development under CodeIgniter, models and views are optional. CodeIgniter can be also modified to use Hier ...

                                               

Zend Framework

Zend Framework is an open source, object-oriented web application framework implemented in PHP 7 and licensed under the New BSD License. The framework is basically a collection of professional PHP-based packages. The framework uses various packag ...

                                               

Integrated development environment

An integrated development environment is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of at least a source code editor, build automation tools and a debug ...

                                               

Delphi (software)

Delphi is an event-driven programming language based on Object Pascal and an associated integrated development environment for rapid application development of desktop, mobile, web, and console software, currently developed and maintained by Emba ...

                                               

Eclipse (software)

Eclipse is an integrated development environment used in computer programming. It contains a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. Eclipse is written mostly in Java and its primary use is for developing ...

                                               

Operating system

An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include acco ...

                                               

Real-time operating system

A real-time operating system is an operating system intended to serve real-time applications that process data as it comes in, typically without buffer delays. Processing time requirements are measured in tenths of seconds or shorter increments o ...

                                               

List of operating systems

This is a list of operating systems. Computer operating systems can be categorized by technology, ownership, licensing, working state, usage, and by many other characteristics. In practice, many of these groupings may overlap. Criteria for inclus ...

                                               

List of Apple operating systems

PowerOpen Environment MkLinux A/ROSE Taligent – unreleased Star Trek – unreleased Macintosh Application Environment A/UX Copland – unreleased AIX for Apple Network Servers

                                               

Unix-like

A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. A Unix-like application is one that behaves like the co ...

                                               

Linux malware

Linux malware includes viruses, Trojans, worms and other types of malware that affect the Linux operating system. Linux, Unix and other Unix-like computer operating systems are generally regarded as very well-protected against, but not immune to, ...

                                               

Unix

Unix is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others. Initially intended ...

                                               

UNIX System Services

UNIX System Services is a required, included component of z/OS. USS is a certified UNIX operating system implementation optimized for mainframe architecture. It is the first UNIX 95 to not be derived from the AT&T source code. Through integra ...

                                               

Unix File System

The Unix file system is a file system supported by many Unix and Unix-like operating systems. It is a distant descendant of the original filesystem used by Version 7 Unix.

                                               

Unix International

Unix International was an association created in 1988 to promote open standards, especially the Unix operating system. Its most notable members were AT&T and Sun Microsystems, and in fact the commonly accepted reason for its existence was as ...

                                               

Unix System Laboratories

Unix System Laboratories, sometimes written UNIX System Laboratories to follow relevant trademark guidelines of the time, was an American software laboratory and product development company that existed from 1989 through 1993. At first wholly, an ...

                                               

Unix time

Unix time is a system for describing a point in time. It is the number of seconds that have elapsed since the Unix epoch, that is the time 00:00:00 UTC on 1 January 1970, minus leap seconds. Leap seconds are ignored, with a leap second having the ...

                                               

UnixWare

UnixWare is a Unix operating system. It was originally released by Univel, a jointly owned venture of AT&Ts Unix System Laboratories and Novell. It was then taken over by Novell. Via Santa Cruz Operation, it went on to Caldera Systems, Calder ...

                                               

Linux

Linux LIN -əks) is a family of open source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributio ...

                                               

Ontario Linux Fest

The Ontario Linux Fest was an annual grass roots conference organized by, and for, Linux and Open Source enthusiasts, held in Ontario, Canada from 2007 to 2009. The event debuted on October 13th, 2007. Each conference lasted one day. Topics inclu ...

                                               

Linux Format

Linux Format is the UKs first Linux-specific magazine, and as of 2013 was the best-selling Linux title in the UK. It is also exported to many countries worldwide. It is published by Future plc. Linux Format is commonly abbreviated to LXF, and iss ...

                                               

Linux From Scratch

Linux From Scratch is a type of a Linux installation and the name of a book written by Gerard Beekmans, and currently as of March 2020 mainly maintained by Bruce Dubbs. The book gives readers instructions on how to build a Linux system from sourc ...

                                               

Linux Game Publishing

Linux Game Publishing is a software company based in Nottingham in England. It ports, publishes and sells video games running on Linux operating systems. As well as porting games, LGP also sponsors the development of Grapple, a free software netw ...

                                               

Linux Journal

Linux Journal was a monthly technology magazine originally published by Specialized System Consultants, Inc. from Seattle since 1994. In December 2006 the publisher changed to Belltown Media, Inc. in Houston, Texas. Since 2017, the publisher was ...

                                               

Linux Libertine

Linux Libertine is a digital typeface created by the Libertine Open Fonts Project, which aims to create free and open alternatives to proprietary typefaces such as Times New Roman. It is developed with the free font editor FontForge and is licens ...

                                               

Linux Lite

Linux Lite is a Linux distribution, based on Debian and Ubuntu and created by a team led by Jerry Bezencon. The distribution offers a lightweight desktop experience with a customized Xfce desktop environment. It includes a set of Lite application ...

                                               

Linux Magazine

Linux Magazine is an international magazine for Linux software enthusiasts and professionals. It is published by the former Linux New Media division of the German media company Medialinx AG. The magazine was first published in German in 1994, and ...

                                               

Linux Mint

Linux Mint is a community-driven Linux distribution based on Ubuntu or Debian that strives to be a modern, elegant and comfortable operating system which is both powerful and easy to use. Linux Mint provides full out-of-the-box multimedia support ...

                                               

LMMS

LMMS is a digital audio workstation application program. When LMMS is executed on a computer with appropriate hardware, it allows music to be produced by arranging samples, synthesizing sounds, playing on a MIDI keyboard, and combining the featur ...

                                               

Linux Professional Institute

The Linux Professional Institute is a non-profit organization founded in Canada on October 25, 1999 and oriented towards certifications for Linux, BSD and open source software based technologies.

                                               

Linux Professional Institute Certification Programs

Linux Professional Institute offers three different certification tracks. The core certification program, Linux Professional, contains three different levels addressing distinct aspects of Linux system administration. The organization also offers ...

                                               

Linux Standard Base

The Linux Standard Base is a joint project by several Linux distributions under the organizational structure of the Linux Foundation to standardize the software system structure, including the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard used in the Linux kerne ...

                                               

Linux Vacation / Eastern Europe

Linux Vacation / Eastern Europe is an annual international conference of developers and users of free and open source software. It takes place in the end of June – beginning of July in Belarus, near the Hrodna city. The event is aimed at combinin ...

                                               

Linux Virtual Server

Linux Virtual Server is load balancing software for Linux kernel–based operating systems. LVS is a free and open-source project started by Wensong Zhang in May 1998, subject to the requirements of the GNU General Public License GPL, version 2. Th ...

                                               

Linux XP

Linux XP was a Fedora-based shareware Linux distribution designed to imitate Windows environment using GNOME desktop; it could run some Microsoft Windows programs using the Wine compatibility layer. Linux XP had to be registered within 99 boots a ...

                                               

Linux framebuffer

The Linux framebuffer is a graphic hardware-independent abstraction layer to show graphics on a computer monitor, typically on the system console. It allows direct access to the framebuffer using only the Linux kernels own basic facilities and it ...

                                               

Linux kernel oops

In computing, an oops is a deviation from correct behavior of the Linux kernel, one that produces a certain error log. The better-known kernel panic condition results from many kinds of oops, but other instances of an oops event may allow continu ...

                                               

Linux-libre

Linux-libre is an operating system kernel and a GNU package. The GNU Project attempts to keep Linux-libre in synchronization with upstream development of the Linux kernel while removing any software that does not include its source code, has its ...

                                               

Linux console

The Linux console is a system console internal to the Linux kernel. The Linux console provides a way for the kernel and other processes to send text output to the user, and to receive text input from the user. The user typically enters text with ...

                                               

List of free-software events

Asia Source, held in 2005, 2007 and 2009 Africa Source, held in 2004 and 2006 GOSCON, held annually in the United States from 2005 to 2011 LinuxTag, held in Germany every summer since 1996 LinuxWorld Conference and Expo, briefly also known as "Op ...

                                               

Linux.com

Linux.com is a website owned by the Linux Foundation. The site is currently a central source for Linux information, software, documentation and answers across the server, desktop/netbook, mobile, and embedded areas. Linux.com offers free Linux tu ...

                                               

DC++

DC++ is a free and open-source, peer-to-peer file-sharing client that can be used for connecting to the Direct Connect network or to the ADC protocol. It is developed primarily by Jacek Sieka, nicknamed arnetheduck. As of 2008, DC++ had around 90 ...

                                               

LinuxThreads

In the Linux operating system, LinuxThreads was a partial implementation of POSIX Threads introduced in 1996. The main developer of LinuxThreads was Xavier Leroy. It has been superseded by the Native POSIX Thread Library. LinuxThreads had a numbe ...

                                               

Passwd

passwd is a tool on most Unix and Unix-like operating systems used to change a users password. The password entered by the user is run through a key derivation function to create a hashed version of the new password, which is saved. Only the hash ...

                                               

Unix filesystem

In Unix and operating systems inspired by it, the file system is considered a central component of the operating system. It was also one of the first parts of the system to be designed and implemented by Ken Thompson in the first experimental ver ...

                                               

Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and marketed by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Act ...

                                               

Windows XP

Windows XP is an operating system produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 24, 2001, and broadly released for retail sale on October 25, 2001. Development of Windows X ...

                                               

Windows XP Professional x64 Edition

Microsoft Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, released on April 25, 2005, is an edition of Windows XP for x86-64 personal computers. It is designed to use the expanded 64-bit memory address space provided by the x86-64 architecture. The primary ...

                                               

Windows 10

Windows 10 is a series of operating systems produced by Microsoft as part of its Windows NT family of operating systems. It is the successor to Windows 8.1, and was released to manufacturing on July 15, 2015, and broadly released for retail sale ...

                                               

Windows 10 Mobile

Windows 10 Mobile is a discontinued mobile operating system developed by Microsoft. First released in 2015, it is a successor to Windows Phone 8.1, but was marketed by Microsoft as being an edition of its PC operating system Windows 10. Windows 1 ...

                                               

Windows Vista

Windows Vista is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs. Development was completed on November 8, 2006, and over the followi ...

                                               

Windows 2000

Windows 2000 is a business-oriented operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on December 15, 1999, and launched to retail on February 17, 2000. It is t ...

                                               

Windows 8

Windows 8 is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. The operating system was released to manufacturing on August 1, 2012, with general availability on October 26, 2012. Windows 8 ...

                                               

Windows 8.1

Windows 8.1 is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft and released as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 27, 2013, and reached general availability on October 17, 2013, about ...

                                               

Windows 7

Windows 7 is an operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009, and became generally available on October 22, that year, less than three yea ...

                                               

Windows 2.0

Windows 2.0 allowed application windows to overlap each other, unlike its predecessor Windows 1.0, which could display only tiled windows. Windows 2.0 also introduced more sophisticated keyboard-shortcuts and the terminology of "Minimize" and "Ma ...

                                               

Windows 2.1x

Windows 2.1x is a historic version of Windows graphical user interface-based operating systems. Windows/286 2.10 and Windows/386 2.10 were released on May 27, 1988, less than six months after the release of Windows 2.0, although there were versio ...

                                               

Windows 9x

Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subseq ...

                                               

Windows 95

Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of operating systems. The first operating system in the 9x family, it is the successor to Windows 3.1x, and was released to manufacturing o ...

                                               

Windows 98

Windows 98 is an operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of Microsoft Windows operating systems. It is the successor to Windows 95, and was released to retail on June 25, 1998. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid ...

                                               

Windows Embedded Compact

Windows Embedded Compact, formerly Windows Embedded CE and Windows CE, is an operating system subfamily developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows Embedded family of products. Unlike Windows Embedded Standard, which is based on Windows NT, Win ...

                                               

Windows CE 5.0

Windows CE 5.0 is a successor to Windows CE 4.2, the third release in the Windows CE.NET family. It was first released on July 9, 2004. Like its predecessors, Windows CE 5.0 is marketed towards the embedded device market and independent device ve ...

                                               

Windows Embedded CE 6.0

Windows Embedded CE 6.0 is the sixth major release of the Microsoft Windows embedded operating system targeted to enterprise-specific tools such as industrial controllers and consumer electronics devices like digital cameras. CE 6.0 features a ke ...

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