Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 143

ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 143

                                               

1894 in science

March 21 23:00 GMT – Syzygy: Mercury transits the Sun as seen from Venus, and Mercury and Venus both simultaneously transit the Sun as seen from Saturn.

                                               

1900 in science

c. October 3 – The Wright brothers begin their first manned glider experimental flights at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. July 2 – The first rigid airship flight is made by the LZ1 designed by Ferdinand von Zeppelin.

                                               

1902 in science

Auguste Verneuil develops the Verneuil process for making synthetic rubies. Hermann Emil Fischer and Joseph von Mering discover that barbitone barbital or Veronal is an effective hypnotic agent. It becomes the first commercially marketed barbitur ...

                                               

1903 in science

December 17 – First documented, successful, controlled, powered flight of a heavier-than-air aircraft with a petrol engine by Orville Wright in the Wright Flyer at Kill Devil Hills, North Carolina. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky begins a series of papers ...

                                               

1906 in science

Mikhail Tsvet first names the chromatography technique for organic compound separation, in the course of demonstrating that chlorophyll is not a single chemical compound. Charles Barkla discovers that each element has a characteristic X-ray and t ...

                                               

1911 in science

May 19 – Parks Canada, the worlds first national park service, is established as the Dominion Parks Branch under the Department of the Interior. July 7 – The United States, Russia, the United Kingdom and Japan, meeting in Washington, D.C., sign t ...

                                               

1912 in science

December 6 – The Nefertiti bust is found at Amarna in Egypt by the German Oriental Company Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft – DOG, led by German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt.

                                               

1917 in science

Nuclear fission: Ernest Rutherford at the Victoria University of Manchester achieves nuclear transmutation of nitrogen into oxygen, using alpha particles directed at nitrogen 14 N + α → 17 O + p, the first observation of a nuclear reaction, in wh ...

                                               

1918 in science

Harlow Shapley demonstrates that globular clusters are arranged in a spheroid or halo whose center is not the Earth, but the center of the galaxy. Kiyotsugu Hirayama identifies several groups of main belt asteroids, now known as Hirayama families ...

                                               

1931 in science

Harold Urey and associates at Columbia University demonstrate the existence of heavy water. Erich Huckel proposes Huckels rule, which explains when a planar ring molecule will have aromatic properties.

                                               

1945 in science

A team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory led by Charles Coryell discovers chemical element 61, the only one still missing between 1 and 96 on the periodic table, which they will name promethium. Found by analysis of fission products of irradiated ...

                                               

1992 in science

June – British anthropologist Robin Dunbar proposes Dunbars number approximately 150 as a cognitive limit to the number of people with whom an interpersonal relationship can be maintained in human communities.

                                               

2003 in science

The year 2003 was an exciting one for new scientific discoveries and technological breakthroughs progress in many scientific fields. Some of the highlights of 2003, which will be further discussed below, include: the anthropologic discovery of 35 ...

                                               

2008 in science

1 November – The Bitcoin is first proposed in a mailing posted to The Cryptography Mailing by a developer under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto. 20 November – The Conficker computer worm is first detected. 10 November – The Martin Jetpack flies for ...

                                               

2011 in science

The year 2011 involved many significant scientific events, including the first artificial organ transplant, the launch of Chinas first space station and the growth of the world population to seven billion. The year saw a total of 78 successful or ...

                                               

Television

Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program ...

                                               

Analog television

Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio. In an analog television broadcast, the brightness, colors and sound are represented by rapid variations of either ...

                                               

Streaming television

Streaming television is the digital distribution of television content, such as TV shows, as streaming video delivered over the Internet. Streaming TV stands in contrast to dedicated terrestrial television delivered by over-the-air aerial systems ...

                                               

Cable television

Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast telev ...

                                               

Mechanical television

Mechanical television or mechanical scan television is a television system that relies on a mechanical scanning device, such as a rotating disk with holes in it or a rotating mirror, to scan the scene and generate the video signal, and a similar ...

                                               

Mobile television

Mobile television is television watched on a small handheld or mobile device. It includes pay TV service delivered via mobile phone networks or received free-to-air via terrestrial television stations. Regular broadcast standards or special mobil ...

                                               

Free viewpoint television

Free viewpoint television is a system for viewing natural video, allowing the user to interactively control the viewpoint and generate new views of a dynamic scene from any 3D position. The equivalent system for computer-simulated video is known ...

                                               

Paranormal television

Paranormal television is a genre of reality television. Its scope comprises purportedly factual investigations of paranormal phenomena, rather than fictional representations found in such shows and films as The Ghosts of Motley Hall, Ghostbusters ...

                                               

High-definition television

High-definition television describes a television system providing an image resolution of substantially higher resolution than the previous generation of technology. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the generation ...

                                               

Color television

Color television is a television transmission technology that includes information on the color of the picture, so the video image can be displayed in color on the television set. It is considered an improvement on the earliest television technol ...

                                               

3D television

3D television is television that conveys depth perception to the viewer by employing techniques such as stereoscopic display, multi-view display, 2D-plus-depth, or any other form of 3D display. Most modern 3D television sets use an active shutter ...

                                               

Pay television

Pay television, also known as subscription television or premium television, are subscription-based television services, usually provided by multichannel television providers, but also increasingly via digital terrestrial, and streaming televisio ...

                                               

Corporate video

Corporate video refers to any type of non-advertisement based video content created for and commissioned by a business, company, corporation, or organization. Today, the vast majority of corporate video content is hosted online and is published o ...

                                               

Artsakh Public TV

Television in the Nagorno Karabakh Autonomous Region was established within the scope of foundation programs of local television companies in the former Soviet Union Autonomous republics and regions. The implementation of the program was delayed ...

                                               

Bulgarian National Television

The Bulgarian National Television or BNT is the public broadcaster of Bulgaria. The company was founded in 1959 and began broadcasting on December 26 of the same year. It began broadcasting in color in 1970. BNTs headquarters are located in Sofia ...

                                               

Magyar Televizio

Magyar Televizio or MTV is a nationwide public television broadcasting organization in Hungary. Headquartered in Budapest, it is the oldest television broadcaster in Hungary and today airs five channels: M1 HD, M2 HD, M3, M4 Sport and M5. MTV is ...

                                               

Vietnam Television

The first television broadcast in Vietnam was in 1966 when the United States set up 2-channels 1-Vietnamese and 1-English in Saigon for the Republic of Vietnam. Named Dài Truyền hình Viet Nam Vietnam Television, the network operated until the fal ...

                                               

Hromadske.TV

Hromadske.TV is an Internet television station in Ukraine that started to operate on 22 November 2013. The project was announced in June 2013 by 15 journalists. It is registered as an NGO.

                                               

Korean Central Television

Korean Central Television is a television service operated by the Korean Central Broadcasting Committee, a state-owned broadcaster in North Korea. It is the only official source of television news for North Koreans.

                                               

Latvijas Televīzija

Latvijas Televīzija is the state-owned public service television broadcaster in Latvia. The company is funded by grant-in-aid from the Latvian government around 60%, with the remainder coming from television commercials. Although moving LTV to li ...

                                               

Lithuanian National Radio and Television

Lithuanian National Radio and Television is the national public broadcaster of Lithuania. LRT is a public institution which according to the right of ownership, belongs to the State. Its operations are funded by taxpayers. LRTs mission is to serv ...

                                               

Macedonian Radio Television

Macedonian Radio Television is the public broadcasting organisation of North Macedonia. It was founded in 1993 by the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. Its legally defined service is the production and broadcasting of radio and television pr ...

                                               

Slow television

Slow television, or slow TV, is a term used for a genre of "marathon" television coverage of an ordinary event in its complete length. Its name is derived both from the long endurance of the broadcast as well as from the natural slow pace of the ...

                                               

Novgorod Oblast Television

Novgorod Oblast Television is a television channel in the area of Novgorod Oblast. The television channel set up in April 2004 and is registered as mass media since April 18, 2005.

                                               

Al Jadeed

Al Jadeed is a Lebanese secular pan-Arab TV station. Based in Beirut, it is one of the leading TV channels in Lebanon and the Levant. It was launched in 1992 and closed in 1997 due to Syrian intervention, and then relaunched in 2001 during a luxu ...

                                               

Telewizja Polska

Telewizja Polska S.A. is a Polish public service broadcaster. It is the largest Polish television network. About a third of TVPs income comes from a broadcast receiver licence, while the rest is covered by government subsidies, commercials and sp ...

                                               

Romanian Television

Televiziunea Romana, more commonly referred to as TVR, is the short name for Societatea Romanǎ de Televiziune, or SRTV - Romanian public television. It operates four channels: TVR1, TVR2, TVR3 and TVRi, along with six regional studios in Buchares ...

                                               

Radio and Television of Slovakia

Radio and Television of Slovakia or RTVS is a nationwide public broadcasting, state-funded organisation in Slovakia. It is headquartered in Bratislava and led by Jaroslav Reznik. The organization in its current form was created in 2011 following ...

                                               

Slovenska televizia

Slovenska televizia or STV was a state-owned public television organization in Slovakia. It was created in 1991 as the Slovak part of the former Czechoslovak Television and was headquartered in Bratislava. It was funded from a combination of tele ...

                                               

Central Television

Central Television may refer to: Central Digital Television, television stations in Australia Korean Central Television, state television station of the North Korea Soviet Central Television, state television of Soviet Union Central GTS/BKN, tele ...

                                               

Digital television

Digital television is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier analog television technology which used analog signals. At the time of its development it was considered an innovative adv ...

                                               

Czechoslovak Television

Czechoslovak Television was founded on 1 May 1953 in Czechoslovakia. It was known by three names over its lifetime: Czech: Československa televize, Slovak: Československa televizia, Česko-slovenska televizia.

                                               

Česka televize

Česka televize is a public television broadcaster in the Czech Republic, broadcasting six channels. It is the successor to Czechoslovak Television, founded in 1953.

                                               

Yugoslav Radio Television

Yugoslav Radio Television was the national public broadcasting system in the SFR Yugoslavia. It consisted of eight subnational radio and television broadcast centers with each one headquartered in one of the six constituent republics and two auto ...

                                               

Satellite television

Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewers location. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic antenna common ...

                                               

Ultra-high-definition television

Ultra-high-definition television today includes 4K UHD and 8K UHD, which are two digital video formats with an aspect ratio of 16:9. These were first proposed by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and later defined and approved by the ...

                                               

Standard-definition television

Standard-definition television is a television system which uses a resolution that is not considered to be either high or enhanced definition. SDTV and high-definition television are the two categories of display formats for digital television tr ...

                                               

Slow-scan television

Slow Scan television is a picture transmission method used mainly by amateur radio operators, to transmit and receive static pictures via radio in monochrome or color. A literal term for SSTV is narrowband television. Analog broadcast television ...

                                               

Enhanced-definition television

Enhanced-definition television, or extended-definition television is a Consumer Electronics Association marketing shorthand term for certain digital television formats and devices. Specifically, this term defines formats that deliver a picture su ...

                                               

Blanking (video)

In raster scan equipment, an image is built up by scanning an electron beam from left to right across a screen to produce a visible trace of one scan line, reducing the brightness of the beam to zero, moving it back as fast as possible to the lef ...

                                               

Multiplex (television)

A multiplex or mux is a grouping of program services as interleaved data packets for broadcast over a network or modulated multiplexed medium. The program services are split out at the receiving end. In the United Kingdom, a terrestrial multiplex ...

                                               

National Indigenous Television

National Indigenous Television is an Australian free-to-air television channel that broadcasts programming produced largely by Indigenous Australians. NITV was initially only carried by cable and satellite providers, along with some limited over- ...

                                               

Television Nacional de Chile

Television Nacional de Chile is a Chilean public service broadcaster. It was founded by order of President Eduardo Frei Montalva and it was launched nationwide on 18 September 1969. Since then, the company has been reorganized on several occasion ...

                                               

Ictimai Television

Ictimai Television or ITV is a public television channel in Azerbaijan. It began broadcasting on 29 August 2005 after being created by law in 2004, as the first independent public broadcaster in Azerbaijan. The channel is based in Baku. ITV is pr ...

                                               

Public Television Company of Armenia

Public Television of Armenia, Hayastani Hanrayin Herrustaynkerut’yun ; ARMTV or APMTV, is Armenias public television station that began transmissions in 1956.

                                               

Public Television of Russia

On 17 April 2012, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev signed decree №455 on establishing of the station. According to Medvedevs decree, the interests of the public will be represented by the Public Television Council PTC, which will be appointed on ...

                                               

RTV BN

RTV BN is a Bosnian radio-television company based in Bijeljina. The company was founded on 5 May 1998. RTV BN is currently the highest rated TV channel in Republika Srpska entity of BiH. RTV BN has over 120 employees with news correspondents in ...

                                               

Radio and Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina

BHRT / Босанскохерцеговачка радиотелевизија), formerly known as PBSBiH, is an umbrella broadcasting organization and the only member of the European Broadcasting Union from Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was known as RTVBiH Radio Television of Bosnia ...

                                               

Radio Television Brunei

Radio Television Brunei is the state broadcaster of Brunei. Radio Brunei made its first broadcast on 2 May 1957, with a television service starting on 1 March 1975. Radio Television Brunei also monopolies the free-to-air television in the country ...

                                               

Radio Television of Vojvodina

Radio Television of Vojvodina is the regional public broadcaster in the Serbian province of Vojvodina. Its headquarters is in Novi Sad.

                                               

RTV IS

RTV IS or RTV Istocno Sarajevo is a local Bosnian public cable television channel based in Istocno Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The program is mainly produced in Serbian language. TV station was established in 2008. Local radio station Radio ...

                                               

Radio Television of Kosovo

Radio Television of Kosovo is the public service broadcaster in Kosovo RTK operates five channels and two radio stations broadcasting a diverse programming of news, entertainment and four 24-hour television services broadcasting qon terrestrial a ...

                                               

Radio e Televisão de Portugal

Radio e Televisão de Portugal is the public service broadcasting organisation of Portugal. It operates four national television channels and three national radio channels, as well as several satellite and cable offerings. The current company date ...

                                               

Radio Televizija Republike Srpske

Radio Television of Republika Srpska is the-entity level public broadcaster which operates radio and television services in Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Founded in 1992. RTRS broadcasts a 24-hour television programme known as Televiz ...

                                               

Radio Television of Serbia

Radio Television of Serbia is the public broadcaster in Serbia. It broadcasts and produces news, drama, and sports programming through radio, television and the Internet. RTS is a member of the European Broadcasting Union. Radio Television of Ser ...

                                               

Hrvatska Radiotelevizija

Hrvatska radiotelevizija or simply HRT is a Croatian public broadcasting company. It operates several radio and television channels, over a domestic transmitter network as well as satellite. In 2014, more than 85% of HRTs revenue came from broadc ...

                                               

RTCG

Radio and Television of Montenegro is the public service broadcaster of Montenegro. A state-owned company with its headquarters in Podgorica, it is made up of Radio Montenegro and Montenegro Television. In July 2001, RTCG became a joint member of ...

                                               

Television lines

Television lines is a specification of an analog cameras or monitorss horizontal resolution power. The TVL is one of the most important resolution measures in a video system. The TVL can be measured with the standard EIA-1956 resolution chart.

                                               

Radio Television Libre des Mille Collines

Radio Television Libre des Mille Collines was a Rwandan radio station which broadcast from July 8, 1993 to July 31, 1994. It played a significant role during the April–July 1994 Genocide against the Tutsi. The stations name is French for "Thousan ...

                                               

Television in Albania

Television in Albania was first introduced in 1960. RTSH dominated the Albanian broadcasting field up to the mid-1990s, a period when privately owned radio and TV stations started to occupy the vast empty Albanian frequencies. After several years ...

                                               

Television in Brazil

Television in Brazil has grown significantly since the first broadcasts in 1950, becoming one of largest and most productive commercial television systems in the world. Its biggest network, Rede Globo, is the second largest commercial network in ...

                                               

Television in the United Kingdom

Television in the United Kingdom started in 1936 as a public service which was free of advertising. Currently, the United Kingdom has a collection of free-to-air, free-to-view and subscription services over a variety of distribution media, throug ...

                                               

Television in Israel

Television in Israel refers to television broadcasting services in the State of Israel, inaugurated on March 24, 1966. Initially, there was one state-owned channel, operated jointly by the Israel Broadcasting Authority and the Israeli Educational ...

                                               

Television in Indonesia

State-run station TVRI held a television monopoly in Indonesia until 1989, when the first commercial station, RCTI began as a local station and was subsequently granted a national license a year later. Each of the networks have a wide variety of ...

                                               

Television in Spain

Television in Spain was launched in October 1956, when the state broadcaster Television Española started regular broadcasts. The first private channels started in 1990. Colour transmissions started in 1972 after two years of test transmissions, w ...

                                               

Television in Italy

Television in Italy was introduced in 1939, when the first experimental broadcasts began. However, this lasted for a very short time: when fascist Italy entered World War II in 1940 all transmissions were interrupted, and were resumed in earnest ...

                                               

Television in North Korea

Television in North Korea is subject to the Korean Central Broadcasting Committee and controlled by the Propaganda and Agitation Department of the Workers Party of Korea. A study in 2017 found that 98% of households had a television set.

                                               

Television in Latvia

Television in Latvia was first tested in 1937 and introduced in 1954. Latvia was the first country in the Baltic States which started broadcasting. First regular broadcasting on Latvian Television was started on 6 November 1954. Since 1991, first ...

                                               

Television in Moldova

Gagauz Radyo Televiziyonu retransmits programmes of TRT Avaz Turkey. Transnistria 1 is the only channel in Transnistria transmitting programmes in Russian, Ukrainian and Romanian using Cyrillic script. Moldova 1 state owned – 1st national network ...

                                               

Television in Poland

Television was introduced in Poland in 1937. It was state owned, and was interrupted by the Second World War in 1939. Television returned to Poland in 1952 and for several decades was controlled by the communist government. Colour television was ...

                                               

Telecommunications in Transnistria

Despite many economic and social difficulties, Communications in Transnistria is well developed, including a CDMA2000 1xRTT network for mobile phones.

                                               

Television in Russia

Television is the most popular medium in Russia, with 74% of the population watching national television channels routinely and 59% routinely watching regional channels. There are 3300 television channels in total. 3 channels have a nationwide ou ...

                                               

Television in the Soviet Union

Television in the Soviet Union was owned, controlled and censored by the state. The body governing television in the era of the Soviet Union was the Gosteleradio committee, which was responsible for both the Soviet Central Television and the All- ...

                                               

Television in the United States

Television is one of the major mass media of the United States. As of 2011, household ownership of television sets in the country is 96.7%, with approximately 114.200.000 American households owning at least one television set as of August 2013. T ...

                                               

Television in Serbia

Television in Serbia was introduced in 1956. It remains the most popular of the media in Serbia - according to 2009 survey, Serbian people watch on average 6 hours of television per day, making it the highest average in Europe.

                                               

Television in Sudan

Television in Sudan has a low penetration of around 17%, as many households cannot afford the cost of a satellite dish, and terrestrial television is the dominant platform. There are no private terrestrial television stations, and the government ...

                                               

Television in Thailand

Thailand television broadcasting started broadcasting on June 24, 1955. Color telecasts were started in 1967. Full-time color transmissions were launched in 1975. There are currently 26 and 1 on Analog television stations in Thailand.

                                               

Television in Turkmenistan

This article describes Television in Turkmenistan. In Turkmenistan, TV has been operating for over 50 years and is the most popular form of media. In total there are 7 public access channels under the jurisdiction of the State Committee of Turkme ...

                                               

Television in Croatia

Television in Croatia was first introduced in 1956. As of 2012 there are 10 nationwide and 21 regional DVB-T television channels, and more than 30 other channels either produced in the Republic of Croatia or produced for the Croatian market and b ...

                                               

Television in Sweden

Television in Sweden began in Sweden in 1954 with the first test transmissions, prior to the opening of the first station, Radiotjanst, two years later. A second channel was launched in 1969. Commercial television arrived in the 1980s through cab ...

                                               

Television in France

Television in France was introduced in 1931, when the first experimental broadcasts began. Colour television was introduced in October 1967 on La Deuxieme Chaine.

                                               

Television in Ukraine

Television has a long history in Ukraine, with regular television broadcasting started during the former USSR years in 1951. However the first ever TV broadcast took place on 1 February 1939 in Kyiv. Since then TV broadcasting has expanded, parti ...

                                               

China Central Television

China Central Television is the predominant state-owned television network in Mainland China. CCTV has a network of 50 channels broadcasting different programmes and is accessible to more than one billion viewers. As of present, there are 50 tele ...

                                               

Soviet Central Television

The Central Television of the USSR was the state television broadcaster of the Soviet Union. Soviet TV programming was highly diverse and somewhat similar to that of the BBC or Japanese NHK. Like much of the Soviet media, CT USSR regularly promot ...

                                               

1976 in television

The Olympics, broadcast from Montreal, Quebec, Canada, draw an estimated one billion viewers worldwide. Matsushita introduces the VHS home video cassette recorder to compete with Sonys Betamax system.

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