Топ-100 ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 142

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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1895 in science

April 26 – The New York Zoological Society, the modern-day Wildlife Conservation Society, is chartered. David Bruce discovers the Trypanosoma parasite carried by the tsetse fly which causes the fatal cattle disease nagana.

                                               

1888 in science

January 3 – The 91 cm refracting telescope at Lick Observatory is first used. The James Lick telescope is the largest refractor in the world at this time, and the observatory is the first established at the top of a mountain. The 76 cm refracting ...

                                               

1947 in science

August 7 – Thor Heyerdahls balsa-wood raft, the Kon-Tiki, smashes into the reef at Raroia in the Tuamotu Islands after a 101-day, 4300-mile 6900-km journey across the Pacific Ocean, demonstrating that prehistoric peoples could have traveled from ...

                                               

1981 in science

September – Pantanal Matogrossense National Park designated in Brazil. Publication of Stephen Jay Goulds critique of biological determinism, The Mismeasure of Man, in the United States.

                                               

2012 in science

The year 2012 involved many significant scientific events and discoveries, including the first orbital rendezvous by a commercial spacecraft, the discovery of a particle highly similar to the long-sought Higgs boson, and the near-eradication of g ...

                                               

1765 in science

May – James Watt makes a breakthrough in the development of the steam engine by constructing a model with a separate condenser. Timișoara Fortress construction completed by the Habsburg Empire. October 15 – Gribeauval system for manufacture of ca ...

                                               

1787 in science

Caroline Herschel is granted an annual salary of £50 by King George III of Great Britain for acting as assistant to her brother William in astronomy. January 11 – William Herschel discovers Titania and Oberon, the first moons of Uranus found. Feb ...

                                               

1830 in science

Johann Heinrich Madler and Wilhelm Beer produce the first map of the surface of Mars. March 16 – Great Comet of 1830 C/1830 F1, 1830 I first observed in Mauritius.

                                               

1833 in science

probable date – Paul Gerwien proves the Bolyai–Gerwien theorem formulated by Farkas Bolyai: that any two simple polygons of equal area are equidecomposable.

                                               

1839 in science

January – The first parallax measurement of the distance to Alpha Centauri is published by Thomas Henderson. January 2 – The first photograph of the Moon is taken by Louis Daguerre.

                                               

1863 in science

Teerfarbenfabrik Meister, Lucius & Co. of Hochst Frankfurt in Germany produce a green dye from coal tar. August 1 – Friedrich Bayer founds the chemical manufacturing company of Bayer at Barmen in Germany.

                                               

1877 in science

June 19 – Eadweard Muybridge successfully produces a fast-motion sequence of photographs showing a horse in movement, Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, using multiple cameras at Palo Alto, California, demonstrating that a running horse has all four leg ...

                                               

1898 in science

Annie Scott Dill Maunder photographs the suns outer corona during a solar eclipse in India. George Darwin proposes that the Earth and Moon had once been one body. 433 Eros, the first near-Earth object, is discovered.

                                               

1910 in science

May 18 – Earth passes through the tail of Halleys Comet. Approximate date – The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram is developed by Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell.

                                               

1972 in science

March 2 – Launch of Pioneer 10 spacecraft. February 4 – Mariner 9 sends pictures from Mars. April 16 – Apollo 16 launched. July 23 – The United States launches Landsat 1, the first Earth-resources satellite. January 5 – President of the United St ...

                                               

1976 in science

September 3 – Viking program: The Viking 2 spacecraft lands at Utopia Planitia on Mars and takes the first close-up color photographs of the planets surface. June 18 – Gravity Probe A, a satellite-based experiment to test Albert Einsteins theory ...

                                               

1901 in science

Okapi, a relative of the Giraffe found in the rainforests around the Congo River in north east Zaire, is discovered previously known only to local natives. Edmund Selous publishes the book Bird Watching in the U.K., giving rise to the term birdwa ...

                                               

1904 in science

Johannes Franz Hartmann discovers the interstellar medium. December 3 – The sixth moon of Jupiter, later called Himalia, is discovered at Lick Observatory. Notable asteroid 522 Helga is discovered by Max Wolf in Heidelberg. Edward Walter Maunder ...

                                               

1905 in science

The Umov effect is noted by Nikolay Umov. The Dominion Observatory opens in Ottawa. Various astronomers discover the minor planets 554 Peraga through 583 Klotilde see List of minor planets/501–600. January 2 – Charles Dillon Perrine at Lick Obser ...

                                               

1908 in science

June 30 – Tunguska event in Siberia, an explosion believed to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment at an altitude of 5–10 kilometres 3–6 mi above the Earths surface. If its start and end are defined using mean ...

                                               

1914 in science

A 76 cm refracting telescope is built at Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It is the fifth largest refractor in the world. Robert Goddard begins building rockets. Sinope, the outermost known moon of Jupiter, is discovered by Seth ...

                                               

1938 in science

December 22 – Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer discovers a Coelacanth, formerly seen only in fossils millions of years old, in a fishermans catch in South Africa. Last known captive specimen of Schomburgks deer is killed. Bawden and Pirie publish the f ...

                                               

1948 in science

November 20 – The Takahē, a flightless bird generally thought to have been extinct for fifty years, is rediscovered by Geoffrey Orbell near Lake Te Anau in the South Island of New Zealand. August 7 – Teaching and research in Mendelian genetics is ...

                                               

1949 in science

June 14 – Albert II, a rhesus monkey, becomes the first mammal in space, in a U.S launched V-2 rocket, reaching an altitude of 83 miles 134 km but dying on impact after a parachute failure.

                                               

1951 in science

October 15 – The progestin norethisterone, significant in creation of the combined oral contraceptive pill, is synthesized by Carl Djerassi, Luis E. Miramontes and George Rosenkranz at Syntex in Mexico City. May 28 – Oliver H. Lowry submits his L ...

                                               

1957 in science

Wilhelm Gliese publishes the first Gliese Catalogue of Nearby Stars. December 6 – The United States attempts launch of Vanguard TV3 which fails after just two seconds in the air. November 3 – Launch of Sputnik 2, with a dog called Laika on board, ...

                                               

1958 in science

During International Geophysical Year The 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition discovers the subglacial Gamburtsev Mountain Range in Antarctica; also becoming the first to reach the Southern Pole of Inaccessibility December 14. The Commonwealth Trans- ...

                                               

1959 in science

September 19 – Giuseppe Cocconi and Philip Morrison establish the scientific rationale for SETI with the publishing of their seminal paper "Searching for Interstellar Communications" in Nature. December 4 – Little Joe 2, a mission in the Mercury ...

                                               

1960 in science

September – A Soviet SS-2 Sibling missile is successfully launched in a suborbital test from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center, the first Chinese spaceflight. August 11 – The return capsule of the U.S. Discoverer 13 Corona mission is successfully r ...

                                               

1961 in science

May 19 – Venera program: Venera 1 becomes the first manmade object to fly-by another planet by passing Venus however the probe had lost contact with earth a month earlier and does not send back any data. The Drake equation is written by Frank Dra ...

                                               

1962 in science

July 31 – Annular solar eclipse. Olin Eggen, Donald Lynden-Bell, and Allan Sandage theorize galaxy formation by a single relatively rapid monolithic collapse, with the halo forming first, followed by the disk. April 26 – The Ranger 4 spacecraft c ...

                                               

1966 in science

March 16 – NASA spacecraft Gemini 8 David Scott, Neil Armstrong conducts the first docking in space, with an Agena target vehicle. December 18 – Epimetheus, another of the moons of Saturn, is discovered, but mistaken for Janus which shares its or ...

                                               

1971 in science

May 30 – Mariner program: Mariner 9 is launched toward Mars. February 5 – Apollo 14 lands on the Moon. June 30 – The crew of the Soyuz 11 spacecraft are killed when their air supply leaks out through a faulty valve during re-entry preparations, t ...

                                               

1974 in science

February 13–15 – Sagittarius A*, thought to be the location of a supermassive black hole, is identified by Bruce Balick and Robert Brown using the baseline interferometer of the United States National Radio Astronomy Observatory. November 16 – Ar ...

                                               

1975 in science

August 20 – Viking program: NASA launches the Viking 1 planetary probe toward Mars. April 19 – Aryabhata, Indias first satellite, is launched using Soviet boosters. July 17 – Apollo-Soyuz Test Project: An American Apollo and a Soviet Soyuz spacec ...

                                               

1978 in science

October – It is first proposed that Janus and Epimetheus are two separate moons of Saturn sharing the same orbit. June 22 – James W. Christy at the United States Naval Observatory discovers Charon, the first moon of Pluto identified. March 2 – Vl ...

                                               

1979 in science

September 1 – The American Pioneer 11 becomes the first spacecraft to visit Saturn when it passes the planet at a distance of 21.000 km. Amateur Achievement Award of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific given for the first time. July 11 – Amer ...

                                               

1980 in science

October 3 – The main-belt asteroid 2404 Antarctica is discovered by Czech astronomer Antonin Mrkos. November 12 – Voyager program: The NASA space probe Voyager I makes its closest approach to Saturn when it flies within 77.000 miles 124.000 km of ...

                                               

1983 in science

New Zealand anthropologist Derek Freeman publishes Margaret Mead and Samoa: The Making and Unmaking of an Anthropological Myth, critical of Coming of Age in Samoa 1928 by Margaret Mead d. 1978.

                                               

2004 in science

October 27 – Remains of a previously unknown species of human is discovered in Indonesia. Named Homo floresiensis, the hominin is a dwarfed version that lived 18.000 years ago on the island of Flores.

                                               

2005 in science

March 31 – Dwarf planet Makemake is discovered in the Kuiper belt discovery announced July 29. March 23 – Two independent teams report the observation of light from planets circling two different stars, using the Spitzer infrared space telescope. ...

                                               

2006 in science

March 9 – NASAs Cassini-Huygens spacecraft discovers geysers of a liquid substance shooting from Saturns moon Enceladus, signaling a possible presence of water. February 13 – The recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi erupts. The last outburst occurred in 19 ...

                                               

2009 in science

The year 2009 involved numerous significant scientific events and discoveries, some of which are listed below. 2009 was designated the International Year of Astronomy by the United Nations.

                                               

2010 in science

The year 2010 involved numerous significant scientific events and discoveries, some of which are listed below. The United Nations declared 2010 the International Year of Biodiversity.

                                               

2013 in science

A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2013, including the discovery of numerous Earthlike exoplanets, the development of viable lab-grown ears, teeth, livers and blood vessels, and the atmospheric entry of the most destructive met ...

                                               

2014 in science

A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2014, including the first robotic landing on a comet and the first complete stem-cell-assisted recovery from paraplegia. The year also saw a significant expansion in the worldwide use and soph ...

                                               

2015 in science

A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2015. Gene editing based on CRISPR got significantly improved. A new human-like species, Homo naledi, was first described. Gravitational waves were observed for the first time, and dwarf plane ...

                                               

2016 in science

6 December Researchers at UC Berkeley design a wall-jumping robot known as Salto, which is described as the most vertically agile robot ever built. The National Snow and Ice Data Center announces record low sea ice extents for both the Arctic and ...

                                               

1907 in science

Georges Urbain discovers Lutetium from Lutetia, the ancient name of Paris. Emil Fischer artificially synthesizes peptide amino acid chains and thereby shows that amino acids in proteins are connected by amino group-acid group bonds. Hermann Staud ...

                                               

1984 in science

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the United States converts the 36-foot radio telescope on Kitt Peak originally built in 1967 to the ARO 12m Radio Telescope. February 7 – Astronauts Bruce McCandless II and Robert L. Stewart make the fi ...

                                               

1591 in science

François Viete publishes In Artem Analyticien Isagoge, introducing the new algebra with innovative use of letters as parameters in equations. Giordano Bruno publishes De triplici minimo et mensura, De monade numero et figura and De innumerabilibu ...

                                               

1619 in science

Publication of Johannes Keplers third law of planetary motion in his Harmonices Mundi. He also recognises the duality of convex polyhedra. Publication of the Jesuit Giuseppe Biancanis Sphaera mundi, seu cosmographia demonstrativa, ac facili metho ...

                                               

1636 in science

Muhammad Baqir Yazdi and Rene Descartes independently discover the pair of amicable numbers 9.363.584 and 9.437.056. Pierre de Fermat begins to circulate his work in analytic geometry in manuscript.

                                               

1702 in science

April 20 – Comet of 1702 C/1702 H1: The 10th-closest comet approach in history, it missed Earth by a distance of 0.0437 AU 6.537.000 km. David Gregory publishes the first textbook, Astronomiae physicae et geometricae elementa, the first astronomy ...

                                               

1726 in science

October 27 – Caleb Threlkeld publishes Synopsis Stirpium Hibernicarum.Dispositarum sive Commentatio de Plantis Indigenis praesertim Dublinensibus instituta in Dublin, the first flora of Ireland.

                                               

1814 in science

J. Jacob Berzelius publishes Forsok att genom anvandandet af den electrokemiska theorien och de kemiska proportionerna grundlagga ett rent vettenskapligt system for mineralogien "An attempt to establish a pure scientific system of mineralogy, by ...

                                               

1946 in science

January 10 – The United States Army Signal Corps Project Diana bounces radar waves off the Moon. Reginald Aldworth Daly of Harvard University first proposes a giant impact hypothesis to account for formation of the moon.

                                               

1991 in science

October 29 – The Galileo probe becomes the first spacecraft to visit an asteroid 951 Gaspra. There are four lunar eclipses: three penumbral on January 30, July 26, and June 27, and one minor partial lunar eclipse on December 21. 11514 Tsunenaga i ...

                                               

2017 in science

A number of significant scientific events occurred in 2017. The United Nations declared 2017 the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development.

                                               

2018 in science

3 December – NASA reports the arrival of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft to the carbonaceous asteroid Bennu after a two-year journey, and has determined that the asteroid interacted with water early in its history. 2–14 December – COP24 United Nations ...

                                               

2019 in science

Microsoft confirms a potentially wormable BlueKeep security vulnerability attack, and urges users to immediately patch their Microsoft Windows computer systems. 6 November – Scientists at the University of Rochester demonstrate a new technique fo ...

                                               

1862 in science

January 31 – Alvan Graham Clark makes the first observation of Sirius B, a white dwarf star, through an eighteen-inch telescope at Northwestern University.

                                               

1913 in science

February 9 – Meteor procession of February 9, 1913 visible along a great circle arc 6.040 miles 9.720 km across the Americas. Astronomer Clarence Chant concludes that the source was a small, short-lived natural satellite of the Earth. Berlin Obse ...

                                               

1826 in science

Michael Faraday determines the chemical formula of naphthalene. Antoine Jerome Balard isolates bromine. Pierre Jean Robiquet isolates the dye alizarin.

                                               

1601 in science

January 1 – Retrospectively the epoch reference date from which ANSI dates are counted in COBOL and other computer languages, and the base of file and Active Directory Logon dates in Microsoft Windows.

                                               

1603 in science

Johann Bayer publishes the star atlas Uranometria, the first to cover the entire celestial sphere, and introducing a new system of star designation which becomes known as the Bayer designation. Dutch explorer Frederick de Houtman publishes his ob ...

                                               

1630 in science

Francesco Stellutis Persio tradotto in verso schiolto e dichiarato, published in Rome, is the first book to contain images of organisms viewed through the microscope.

                                               

1642 in science

December 13 – Tasman is the first European known to sight New Zealand. November 24 – Abel Tasman, Dutch explorer, is the first European known to sight Tasmania, which he names Anthoonij van Diemenslandt.

                                               

1733 in science

Rev. Stephen Hales publishes Hæmastaticks, the second volume of his Statical Essays, in London, containing the results of his experiments in measuring blood pressure.

                                               

1796 in science

Pierre-Simon Laplace publishes Exposition du systeme du monde, his work on astronomy mainly celestial mechanics following Newton and Lagrange. He develops an analytical theory of tides, deduces the mass of the moon, improves calculation of cosmic ...

                                               

1800 in science

The central star of the Ring Nebula is discovered by Friedrich von Hahn: the central star is a white dwarf star with a temperature of between 100000 and 120000 K.

                                               

1827 in science

Zeises salt is the first platinum/olefin complex, an early example of organometallic chemistry. Aluminium isolated by Friedrich Wohler. John Walker first offers friction matches for sale. William Prout classifies the components of food into the t ...

                                               

1842 in science

March 30 – American physician and pharmacist Crawford Long administers an inhaled anesthetic diethyl ether to facilitate a surgical procedure removal of a neck tumor. Edwin Chadwicks critical Report on an inquiry into the Sanitary Condition of th ...

                                               

1867 in science

April – First clear recorded use of the word science in English with todays usage as restricted to the natural and physical sciences by Catholic theologian and mathematician W. G. Ward writing in the London-published Dublin Review.

                                               

1868 in science

Jules-Emile Planchon and colleagues propose Phylloxera as the cause of the Great French Wine Blight. T. H. Huxley discovers what he thinks is primordial matter and names it Bathybius haeckelii. He admits his mistake in 1871. Roland Trimen reads a ...

                                               

1872 in science

Robert Chesebrough patents Vaseline in the United States Eugen Baumann rediscovers polyvinyl chloride Charles-Adolphe Wurtz discovers the aldol reaction

                                               

1874 in science

Per Teodor Cleve discovers that didymium is in fact two elements, now known as neodymium and praseodymium Othmar Zeidler synthesises DDT Jacobus van t Hoff and Achille Le Bel independently propose that organic molecular models can be three-dimens ...

                                               

1876 in science

December 7 – First recorded observation of the Great White Spot on Saturn, made by American astronomer Asaph Hall, who uses it to calculate the planets rotation period.

                                               

1880 in science

September 30 – American doctor Henry Draper takes the first photograph of the Orion Nebula, from Hastings-on-Hudson, New York; this year he also photographs the spectrum of Jupiter.

                                               

1882 in science

March 24 – Robert Koch announces his discovery of the bacterium responsible for tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Elie Metchnikoff discovers phagocytosis.

                                               

1883 in science

Svante Arrhenius develops ion theory to explain conductivity in electrolytes. The Schotten–Baumann reaction is first described by chemists Carl Schotten and Eugen Baumann. The Claus process is first patented by German chemist Carl Friedrich Claus.

                                               

1890 in science

Henry Luke Bolley at the new North Dakota Agricultural College isolates the organism responsible for potato scab and develops an effective treatment. Walter Heape successfully breeds rabbits from fertilised ova transferred from the biological mot ...

                                               

1915 in science

Einsteins new theory of general relativity is used to explain Mercurys strange motions that baffled Urbain Le Verrier. March 19 – Pluto is photographed for the first time but is not classified as a planet. Robert Innes discovers Proxima Centauri, ...

                                               

1916 in science

Harlow Shapley finds that the spectrum of S Sagittae and other Cepheid variables varies with brightness, recording it as spectral type F0 leading to maximum, F4 at maximum, and G3 just before minimum brightness. Barnards Star is discovered by Edw ...

                                               

1995 in science

The "Big Ear" at the Ohio State University Radio Observatory ends its full-time search for extraterrestrial intelligence radio survey, having run continuously for 22 years, beginning in 1973. The first brown dwarf – Teide 1 – is discovered. July ...

                                               

2001 in science

August 8 – NASAs Genesis spacecraft is launched. June 21 – Solar eclipse of June 21, 2001, a total eclipse. November 27 – The Hubble Space Telescope detects sodium in the atmosphere of HD 209458 b, the first exoplanet atmosphere to be measured. D ...

                                               

1950 in science

Enrico Fermi discusses the Fermi paradox. Dutch astronomer Jan Oort postulates the existence of an orbiting cloud of planets the Oort cloud at the outermost edge of the Solar System.

                                               

1964 in science

July 31 – Ranger program: Ranger 7 sends back the first close-up photographs of the Moon; images are 1.000 times clearer than anything ever seen from Earth-bound telescopes. March 20 – The precursor of the European Space Agency, ESRO European Spa ...

                                               

2007 in science

Change 1, the first satellite in the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, is launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center; on 5 November it enters lunar orbit. 27 September – NASAs Dawn spacecraft is launched, beginning its journey to the asteroid ...

                                               

1657 in science

Peter Heylin publishes his Cosmographie, one of the earliest attempts to describe the entire world in English and the first known description of Australia.

                                               

1697 in science

William Dampier publishes A New Voyage Round the World in London. First known publication of English physician Richard Boulton, A Treatise of the Reason of Muscular Motion.

                                               

1736 in science

June 19 – French Academy of Sciences expedition led by Pierre Louis Maupertuis, with Anders Celsius, begins work on measuring a meridian arc in the Torne Valley of Finland.

                                               

1801 in science

January 1 – Italian astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi makes the first discovery of an asteroid, Ceres, which is briefly considered to be the eighth planet. July 11 – French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons makes the first of his 37 comet discoveries. Jerome L ...

                                               

1812 in science

John Davy first describes the synthesis of phosgene. Friedrich Mohs introduces his system of classifying minerals and his scale of mineral hardness. Humphry Davy publishes Elements of Chemical Philosophy in London. Heinrich Vogel 1778-1867 recogn ...

                                               

1869 in science

June 15 – John Wesley Hyatt patents celluloid, in Albany, New York. Publication of Adolphe Wurtzs Dictionnaire de chimie pure et appliquee begins in Paris. March 6 – Dmitri Mendeleev makes a formal presentation of his periodic table to the Russia ...

                                               

1870 in science

Charles Valentine Riley confirms Phylloxera as the cause of the Great French Wine Blight. January 18 – Gerhardt Krefft first describes the Queensland lungfish, in The Sydney Morning Herald.

                                               

1875 in science

Gallium is discovered spectroscopically by French chemist Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran. Later in this year he obtains the free metal by electrolysis of its hydroxide and names it. This is the first of Dmitri Mendeleevs predicted elements to be ...

                                               

1881 in science

L. S. Poliakov describes the wild horse discovered by Nikolai Przhevalsky in Mongolia in 1879 as a new species, Przewalskis Horse Equus przewalski poliakov. The first systematic study in forensic entomology is conducted by physician and entomolog ...

                                               

1884 in science

J. H. van t Hoff proposes the Arrhenius equation for the temperature dependence of the reaction rate constant, and therefore, rate of a chemical reaction. Hermann Emil Fischer proposes the structure of purine, a key component in many biomolecules ...

                                               

1892 in science

September 9 – At Lick Observatory, Edward Emerson Barnard discovers Amalthea, the third moon of Jupiter and the last natural satellite found by direct visual observation.

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