Топ-100 ★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 11

★ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 11

                                               

Volkswagen Schwimmwagen

The VW type 128 and 166 Schwimmwagen were amphibious four-wheel drive SUVs, widely used by German ground forces during the Second world war. The type 166 is the most numerous mass-amphibious car in history.

                                               

Volkswagen New Beetle

The Volkswagen New Beetle is a compact car introduced by Volkswagen in 1997, drawing heavy inspiration from the exterior design of the original Beetle. The producers tried to submit the bug as through the thoughtful design of the car. This is par ...

                                               

Volkswagen Touareg

VW Touareg midsize luxury SUV produced by German automaker Volkswagen since 2002 at the Volkswagen Bratislava plant. The car was named after the nomadic tribes of the Tuareg, inhabitants of the interior of the Sahara in North Africa.

                                               

Volkswagen Phaeton

The Volkswagen Phaeton Fay -tən is a full-size luxury sedans produced by German automaker Volkswagen, described by Volkswagen as their "premium car". Presented at the 2002 Geneva motor show, Phaeton was sold around the world. Sales in North Ameri ...

                                               

Volkswagen Amarok

The Volkswagen Amarok is a pickup truck produced by the company Volkswagen Commercial vehicles from 2010. It is a traditional body-on-frame truck with double wishbone suspension in front and leaf spring rear. The Amarok range consists of single c ...

                                               

Volkswagen Lupo

The Lupo was introduced in October 1998 to fill a gap in the bottom of the VW model range caused by the increasing size and weight of the Polo. Right hand drive version for the United Kingdom was launched in the spring of 1999. In 1998 Lupo was a ...

                                               

Volkswagen Sharan

The Volkswagen Sharan is a versatile car produced by the German Volkswagen group and built at the AutoEuropa plant in Palmela, Portugal, since 1995. Using badge engineering, the Volkswagen Sharan shares the same platform with the seat Alhambra, t ...

                                               

Volkswagen Corrado

The Volkswagen Corrado is a compact four-passenger, three-door, front-engine, front-wheel drive Hatchback Coupe manufacturer or the permission of the owner Volkswagen from 1988 to 1995, and made by Karmann in Osnabruck, Germany. Designed by Herbe ...

                                               

Volkswagen Touran

VW Touran is a compact MPV first launched in February 2003, sold in Europe and other countries. It fills a gap in the line of Volkswagens models on related VW Golf and Sharan below. In some regions, such as Japan, the car is called Golf Touran. T ...

                                               

Volkswagen Arteon

In Arteon Volkswagen is a four-door fastback based on the platform of Volkswagen MQB, V. In Arteon was opened on March 6, 2017, at the Geneva motor show and Chicago auto show for the North American market. In Arteon is the direct successor of CC. ...

                                               

Volkswagen Eos

The Volkswagen EOS is a sport compact coupe convertible produced by the German automaker Volkswagen from 2006 to 2015. Assembled at the AutoEuropa in Portugal, it was the only compact convertible coupe presented as the successor to the Volkswagen ...

                                               

Volkswagen Caddy

The Volkswagen Caddy is a means of leisure produced by the Volkswagen group since 1980. It is sold in Europe and other markets worldwide. The Volkswagen Caddy was first introduced in North America in 1980 and in Europe in 1982. The first and seco ...

                                               

Volkswagen 1-litre car

The Volkswagen XL1 is a two-person limited production diesel hybrid produced by Volkswagen. The XL1 car was designed to be able to travel 100 km on 1 liter of diesel fuel, while remaining a serviceable and practical. To achieve such savings have ...

                                               

Volkswagen Kubelwagen

The Volkswagen Kubelwagen was a light military vehicle designed by Ferdinand Porsche and built by Volkswagen during world war II for the German military. Based heavily on the "Volkswagen beetle", it was a prototype, as the Type 62 but eventually ...

                                               

Volkswagen LT

The Volkswagen LT was the largest light commercial vans produced by Volkswagen from 1975 to 2006. It was released two generations.

                                               

Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles

Volkswagen Commercial vehicles is a German brand of light commercial vehicles owned by the Volkswagen group. It is headquartered in Hannover, lower Saxony, Germany. Originally part of Volkswagen passenger cars, it works as a separate Marque since ...

                                               

Volkswagen Microbus/Bulli concept vehicles

Concept Volkswagen microbus car was in the early 2000-ies the concept car Recalling the original Volkswagen microbus and first presented in 2001 at the North American international auto show.

                                               

Volkswagen 181

The Volkswagen type 181 is a two-wheel, four-door convertible, manufactured and marketed by Volkswagen from 1968 to 1983. Originally developed for the West German army, the type 181 and went on the civilian market, as the Kurierwagen in West Germ ...

                                               

Volkswagen Iltis

The Volkswagen type 183, more commonly known as the Iltis is a military vehicle built by Volkswagen for use by the German military. The Iltis was built under licence in Canada by Bombardier for 2.500 vehicles for the canadian armed forces and 2.6 ...

                                               

Volkswagen CrossBlue

The Volkswagen CrossBlue concept is a plug-in diesel hybrid mid-size crossover SUV, intended to sit in a line of SUVs from Volkswagen, the VW Touareg. The concept version of the car has six seats, but the production version, which will be based o ...

                                               

Volvo Cars

Volvo cars, stylized as Volvo is a luxury car brand and subsidiary of Chinese auto company Geely. The headquarters is located in Torslanda in Gothenburg, Sweden. The company produces and sells sports cars, SUVs, station wagons, and sedans to comp ...

                                               

Charleston Open

The Charleston Open is a WTA tour affiliated professional tennis tournament for women, held every year since 1973. It is the oldest professional tournament women s 0.000 wallet. The tournament is played on clay in the green color Family tennis ce ...

                                               

2019 Volvo Car Open

By 2019, Volvo car open was a womens tennis tournament of WTA tour in 2019. It was held from April 1 to April 7, 2019 and the 47th edition of the open tournament in Charleston and Premier level tournament. The event was held in the tennis center ...

                                               

2018 Volvo Car Open

In 2018, Volvo and unlock the car was the womens tennis tour WTA tournament in 2018. It was held from 2 to 8 April 2018 and was the 46th edition of the open tournament in Charleston and Premier level tournament. The event was held in the tennis c ...

                                               

Volvo Open

Volvo opened a Golf tournament played in Sweden in 1970 and 1971. It was the first major international Golf tournament played in Sweden. The events of the 1970s played on two fields, the first 36 holes near Gothenburg on Wednesday and Thursday, a ...

                                               

Volvo Open 70

Volvo open 70 is the former class of racing yachts designed for the Volvo ocean race. It was first used in the 2005-06 race and use a beveled Keel, which is capable of misalignment in the transverse direction to an angle of 40 degrees. According ...

                                               

Volvo

The Volvo group is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg. While its main activity is the manufacture, distribution and sale of trucks, buses and Volvo construction equipment and supplies marine and industrial d ...

                                               

Volvo Construction Equipment

Volvo construction equipment - Volvo CE is a major international company that develops, manufactures and markets equipment for construction and related industries. It is a subsidiary and business area of the Volvo group.

                                               

Volvo 200 Series

The Volvo 200 series is a line of mid-size cars manufactured by Swedish company Volvo cars from 1974 to 1993, with more than 2.8 million units sold worldwide. Like the series for Volvo 140, from which it was developed, it was designed by Jan Wils ...

                                               

Volvo 700 Series

The Volvo 700 series is a range of Executive cars produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo cars from 1982 to 1992. The 700 series was introduced in 1982 with the luxurious 760, and two years later with a lower cost 740 which capitalized on the ...

                                               

Volvo V60

The Volvo V60 is a five-door hatchback produced by Volvo cars related S60. The car was first released in the fall of 2010, updated in 2014, and in its second generation, starting in 2018. The second generation of the V60 was launched in 2018, bas ...

                                               

Volvo Buses

Volvo buses is a subsidiary and a business centre for Swedish car manufacturer Volvo, which became an independent division in 1968. She is based in Gothenburg. The worlds largest bus manufacturer, with a complete range of heavy buses for passenge ...

                                               

Volvo S90

The Volvo S90 is a mid-size luxury sedan, full-size luxury sedan manufactured and marketed by the Swedish automaker Volvo from 2016. His estate variant called Volvo V90 V.

                                               

Volvo 140 Series

Volvo 140 series is a range of mid-size car manufactured and marketed by Volvo between 1966 and 1974 in two - and four-door sedan and five-door wagon body - with multiple intermediate braces. It was built more than a million Volvo 140s. Started m ...

                                               

Volvo 440/460

The Volvo 440 and 460 versions of a small family car produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo cars between 1987 and 1996. The 440 was introduced in 1987, while the 460 followed in 1989. They were built at the NedCar factory in born, Netherlands ...

                                               

Volvo 900 Series

The Volvo 900 series is a range of Executive cars produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo cars from 1990 to 1998. The 900 series was introduced in 1990 to replace the 700 series from which it is derived. To the end of its production, the 960 w ...

                                               

Volvo XC40

Volvo XC40 compact luxury crossover produced by Volvo. This was revealed on 21 September 2017. Orders began in September 2017, and production began in November 2017. In XC40 has been named Car of the year by the magazine what car? in January 2018 ...

                                               

Volvo PV444/544

Volvo pv is a two-door, four-passenger car models - the PV444 and the PV544 model from Volvo from 1947 to 1966. During the First world war the early stages of IMS, Volvo decided that a new, smaller car that could deliver good fuel economy will en ...

                                               

Volvo OV 4

Volvo OV 4 was the first car built by Volvo. 4 the symbol S stands for "open Vagn 4 cylindrar" in Swedish, which means open carriage 4 cylinder. Model OV 4 often referred to as "Jakob" but that was just the name of one of 10 pre-series S 4, which ...

                                               

Volvo V50

For option sedan car Volvo S40. Volvo Cars introduced the Volvo V50 at Bologna motor show 2003 as the station wagon version Volvo S40 small family car manufacturing both models at its plant in Ghent, Belgium. Sharing the Ford C1 platform with the ...

                                               

Volvo S40

The Volvo S40 is a series of cars sold and produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo cars from 1995 to 2012 through two generations, such as compact Executive cars in the first generation and from 2004 to 2012 as Executive subcompact car in its ...

                                               

Volvo V70

Volvo V70 is an Executive car manufactured and marketed by Volvo from 1996 to 2016 in three generations. The name V70 combines the letter V, standing for versatility, and 70, denoting relative platform size. The first generation 1996-2000 debuted ...

                                               

Volvo Amazon

The Volvo Amazon was the car of medium size, manufactured and marketed by Volvo from 1956 to 1970 and introduced in the United States as the 122S at the 1959 new York international auto show. The Amazon shared the wheelbase, tall posture and high ...

                                               

Volvo V40 (2012–2019)

The Volvo V40 is a small family car manufactured and marketed by Volvo from 2012 to 2019. He was presented to the public at the Geneva motor show 2012 and has been on sale in Europe since may 2012 – 2019, and the United Kingdom in the period Augu ...

                                               

Volvo Trucks

Volvo trucks, Volvo stylized as, is a global truck manufacturer based in Gothenburg, Sweden, owned by Volvo. In 2016, it was the second-largest manufacturer of heavy trucks. Volvo Group was reorganised on 1 January 2012 and as part of the process ...

                                               

Volvo 300 Series

The Volvo 300 series is a rear-wheel drive small family car sold from 1976 to 1991, as a hatchback and as a regular "sedan" sedan. It was launched in the Netherlands shortly after Volvo acquired a major stake in the passenger car division of DAF ...

                                               

Volvo S60

The Volvo S60 is a compact luxury sedan manufactured and marketed by Volvo starting in the year 2000 and now in its third generation. The first generation of 2000-2009 was launched in the fall of 2000 years, to replace the S70 was based on the pl ...

                                               

Volvo T6

Volvo T6 was a concept car from Volvo presented in 2005 at SEMA. There was only one hand-built copy, although there was some discussion about a limited production run. It is powered by a twin turbocharged 2.9-liter inline six-cylinder engine from ...

                                               

Volvo 850

The Volvo 850 is a compact Executive car which was produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo cars from 1991 to 1996. Designed by Jan Wilsgaard, the car was presented in saloon body style estate was introduced in 1993. The Volvo 850 was shown for ...

                                               

Volvo C30

The Volvo C30 is a three-door, front-engine, front-wheel drive compact hatchback manufactured and marketed by Volvo from 2006 to 2013, in a single generation. Powered by inline-four and five engines, the C30 variant Volvo S40 / V50 with a / C70 r ...

                                               

Volvo 66

The Volvo 66 sprang directly from the DAF 66, which was originally in the style of Giovanni Michelotti. The compact car was presented in August 1975, almost exactly a year after Volvo bought DAF, and before production of the Volvo 300 series bega ...

                                               

Volvo XC60

Volvo XC60 is a compact luxury crossover manufactured and marketed by the Swedish automaker Volvo cars since 2008. Now in its second generation. The XC60 is part of the series 60 Volvo cars, together with S60 cross country, V60 and V60 cross coun ...

                                               

Volvo XC90

Volvo XC90 is a mid-size luxury crossover manufactured and marketed by Volvo since 2002 and now in its second generation. The first generation was introduced at the 2002 North American international auto show and used the platform Volvo P2 in com ...

                                               

Volvo 480

The Volvo 480 is a compact sports car that was produced in born, Netherlands, Volvo from 1986 to 1995. It was the first front wheel drive car made by automaker. The 480 was available in only one body style on a automobile platform related to the ...

                                               

Volvo S80

The Volvo S80 is an Executive car produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo cars from 1998 to 2016 in two generations. He took the place of rear-wheel drive S90 as Volvos flagship sedan. The first generation 1998-2006 became available for model ...

                                               

Volvo C70

The Volvo C70 is a two-door, four-passenger sport compact manufactured and marketed by Volvo cars from 1996 to 2013 using the example of two generations. The first generation 1996-2005 was available as a coupe and softtop convertible 1996-2002 19 ...

                                               

Volvo S70

The Volvo C70 was a compact Executive car produced by Volvo since 1996 and 2000. In the C70, is essentially a restyled 850 sedan. In S70 was replaced by the Volvo S60.

                                               

Volvo Penta

Volvo Penta was founded in 1907 in connection with the production of the first marine engine, B1. Penta company soon became an established internal combustion engine manufacturer, which in 1927 delivered the engine for Volvos first passenger car. ...

                                               

Volvo P1800

The Volvo P1800 is a 2 front-engine, rear-drive sports car manufactured and marketed by Volvo from 1961 to 1973. Initially the coupe, it was altered in the shooting-stop during the whole period of its production. The styling was Pelle Petterson u ...

                                               

Volvo P1900

Volvo sport is a Swedish body fiberglass Roadster of which sixty-eight units were built between 1956 and 1957 by Volvo. Assar Gabrielsson, Volvos President and founder, got the idea for the car when he saw a Chevrolet Corvette in the US and wante ...

                                               

Volvo YCC

The Volvo I was a concept car from Volvo Cars introduced at the 2004 Geneva motor show, to meet the special needs of female drivers. In order to do so, Volvo assembled a design team entirely composed of women, around October 2001. It was a major ...

                                               

Volvo L3314

Volvo Laplander L3314 a number of military vehicles produced by Volvo. In the early 1950-ies, Volvo received an order to develop a new SUV for the Swedish army. Pre-run series of 90 vehicles, named L2304 was delivered between 1959 and 1961. It wa ...

                                               

Opel

Opel automobile GmbH is a German car manufacturer, a subsidiary of French carmaker group PSA from August 2017. From 1929 until 2017, Opel was owned by American automaker General motors. Opel cars are sold in the UK under the brand Vauxhall. Some ...

                                               

Opel Corsa

The Opel Corsa is a supermini car engineered and produced by the German automaker Opel in the period since 1982. It was sold under many other brands, and also spawned various other derivatives.

                                               

Opel Rekord

The Opel Rekord was an Executive car which was built in eight generations by the German car manufacturer Opel. Between 1953 and 1986, it sold about ten million. In 1986, the record was replaced by the Opel omega.

                                               

Opel Omega

The Opel omega is an Executive car engineered and manufactured by the German automaker Opel between 1986 and 2003. The first generation omega, superseded the Opel Rekord, was voted European car of the year in 1987, and was available as a sedan or ...

                                               

Opel GT

The Opel GT is a front-engine, rear-wheel drive two-seater sports car manufactured and marketed by Opel in two generations, separated by 34 years. The first generation Opel GT in 1968 -1973 he made his debut as a simulation exercise in 1965 at th ...

                                               

Opel Kadett

The Opel Kadett is a small family car produced by the German automaker Opel from 1936 to 1940, then from 1962 until 1991, when it was replaced by the Opel Astra.

                                               

Opel Ascona

The Opel Ascona was a large family car produced by the German automaker Opel from 1970 to 1988. It was released in three separate generations, starting with rear wheel drive and ending with front-wheel drive J-car derivative. In Ascona took its n ...

                                               

Opel Senator

The Opel Senator is a Executive car produced by the German automaker Opel, two generations of which were sold in Europe from 1978 until 1993. A saloon, its first version was also available with a fastback coupé body as the Opel Monza and Vauxhall ...

                                               

Opel Kapitan

The captain was the last new Opel model to appear before the outbreak of the Second world war, developed in 1938 and spring of 1939 at the Geneva motor show. The first captain was available in different body styles, the most popular being a 4-doo ...

                                               

Opel Blitz

Opel blitz was the name given to various light and medium-weight truck series built by the German automaker Opel between 1930 and 1975. The original logo for this truck, two strips placed loosely like a lightning symbol in the form of a horizonta ...

                                               

Opel Combo

Opel Combo van and leisure vehicle from the German automaker Opel. The combo first appeared in 1993 second generation model was introduced in 2001, and the third has been manufactured from December 2011 to December 2017, based on the Fiat Doblo. ...

                                               

Opel Zafira

The Opel Zafira, also known as Zafira Tourer since 2011, is a multi-purpose car produced by the German car manufacturer Opel since early 1999. It is also sold under the Vauxhall brand in the United Kingdom until June 2018 the brand Holden in Aust ...

                                               

Opel Insignia

Opel Insignia is a medium size / large family car engineered and manufactured by the German car manufacturer Opel. Manufacturing of the signs began in August 2008, as a replacement for the Vectra and Signum. The car sold under the Vauxhall brand ...

                                               

Opel Adam

The Opel Adam is city car engineered and produced by the German car manufacturer Opel and named after the company founder Adam Opel. It is sold under Vauxhall brand in the United Kingdom. It was launched in France at the Paris motor show 2012, sa ...

                                               

Opel Vectra

The Opel Vectra is a large family car that was engineered and produced by the German automaker Opel. In the UK the car was sold under the Vauxhall Marque as the Vauxhall Cavalier and later as the Vauxhall Vectra, from 1995 onwards. It is also sol ...

                                               

Opel 1.2 litre

The Opel 1.2-litre is a small car manufactured by Opel company between 1931 and 1935. On the 1.2-litre was replaced in 1935 by the Opel P4 which was broadly similar, but has a new engine and continued in production until December 1937. In just on ...

                                               

Opel Mokka

The Opel Mokka is a crossover designed and built by the German automotive brand Opel since 2012. The sale began with model year 2013, at the end of 2012. In the Mokka is now built in Incheon, South Korea and Zaragoza, Spain. In 2016, the Opel Mok ...

                                               

Opel Karl

Opel Karl is a city car assigned to the German manufacturer Opel as their entry model for the line up. This is a version of the rebadged GM Korea Chevrolet Spark, itself a rebadging of the former Daewoo Matiz. Carl replaced the Aguila in December ...

                                               

Opel Admiral

Production ended in October 1939, more dramatically than for smaller Opel passenger cars, since the war began. The military insisted that every engine 3.626 CC engine that Opel could produce should be fitted in the 3.5 ton Opel blitz truck for mi ...

                                               

Opel Diplomat

The Opel diplomat is a luxury car manufactured by Opel from 1964 to 1977. Opels top model, starting traditionally the Admiral and the captain, introduced in 1938 and 1937 respectively. In 1964, these models were combined in the so-called "ring ro ...

                                               

Opel Commodore

The Opel Commodore was an Executive car produced by Opel from 1967 to 1982. This six-cylinder variant of the Rekord with styling differences. The Commodore nameplate was used by Opel from 1967 to 1982. However, his passport / origin continues wit ...

                                               

Opel Agila

The Opel Agila is a city car produced under the German brand Opel from 2000 to 2014, rebadged as a variant of the Suzuki Wagon R and Suzuki Splash. It was sold under the Vauxhall brand in the United Kingdom. Its first generation was classified as ...

                                               

Opel Vivaro

Opel Vivaro, light commercial vehicle is also sold in the UK as the Vauxhall Vivaro, may refer to: Opel Vivaro, which is now based on the third generation of Citroen Jumpy, and is currently produced from 2019. Opel Vivaro B, based on the third-ge ...

                                               

Opel Olympia

The Opel Olympia is a compact car produced by the German automaker Opel from 1935 to 1940, from 1947 to 1953 and from 1967 to 1970. In 1935 Olympia was Germanys first production car with all-steel monocoque body. This revolutionary technology red ...

                                               

Opel Cascada

The Opel Cascada is a subcompact convertible engineered and manufactured by the German company Opel from April 2013. It is also marketed as Opel Cabrio in Spain, the Opel Cascada in the United Kingdom, the Holden Cascada in Australia and New Zeal ...

                                               

Opel Tigra

Opel Tiger the name is applied to two different cars engineered and produced by the German automaker Opel, based on different iterations of the Corsa car, built in Spain, second in France. The first Tiger was a little 2 coupe produced from 1994 t ...

                                               

Opel Signum

Opel Signum is a large family car that was engineered and manufactured by the German company Opel from 2003 to 2008. It was almost exclusively sold in Europe. In the United Kingdom it was rebadged and sold under the name Vauxhall Signum. The Opel ...

                                               

Opel Speedster

The Opel Speedster also known as the Vauxhall VX220 is mid-engined, Targa-topped, two-seat sports car sold by German automaker Opel introduced in July 2000. It was built in both RHD and left hand drive at Lotus cars in code, Norfolk, England. It ...

                                               

Opel Meriva

The Opel meriva is a front-engine, front-wheel drive five door five passenger minivan manufactured and marketed by the German automaker Opel Corsa platform, from may 2003 until June 2017, through two generations - like a mini-MPV in the first gen ...

                                               

Opel Manta

There are two different special models made of the manta A. the primary objective was to increase the capacity of the car. Both projects started approximately at the same time, around 1972 or 1973. There was Turbomanta and the TE2800. In Turboman ...

                                               

Opel Calibra

Opel Caliber is a coupé designed and produced by the German automaker Opel between 1989 and 1997. In the United Kingdom where he remained in sales until 1999, it was sold under the brand Vauxhall as Vauxhall caliber. It is also sold as a Chevrole ...

                                               

Opel Antara

Opel Antara compact crossover, which is designed and made by Opel in the period from 2006 to 2015. Antara based on the theta platform, shared his framework and powertrain with the Chevrolet Captiva. However, it is only offered five seats instead ...

                                               

Acura

Acura is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Honda. The brand was launched in the US and Canada on 27 March 1986, marketing luxury, performance and high performance cars. It was introduced in Hong Kong in 1991, Mexico in 2004 and Ch ...

                                               

Acura RLX

In the Acura RLX is a mid-size luxury car / Executive car class manufactured by Honda and sold under their Acura division, released in 2013. Succeeding the Acura RL RLX can offers two versions, front-wheel drive base model equipped with high-prec ...

                                               

Acura TL

On the Acura TL is a compact Executive / entry-level luxury car that was manufactured by Acura. It was introduced in 1995 to replace the Acura vigor and was brand for the Japanese market from 1996 to 2000 as the Honda Inspire and from 1996 to 200 ...

                                               

Acura Legend

The Acura legend is a mid-size luxury / Executive car manufactured by Honda. It was sold in the United States, Canada and some parts of China under the luxury brand of Honda, Acura, from 1985 to 1995 as a sedan, which was classified as a full-siz ...

                                               

Acura RL

In the Acura RL is a medium size luxury Executive car which was produced by the Acura division of Honda for the 1996-2012 model years over two generations. The RL was the flagship of the brand, who succeeded to the Acura legend and was replaced i ...

                                               

Acura CL

From the Acura CL is a midsize coupe production of Honda Acura from 19 Feb 1996 to 1999 and from 2000 to 2003. The CL is often thought to be the replacement for the Acura legend coupé, but with the advent of the TL in 1996, which directly replace ...

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